- Northern Europe
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. Northern Europe typically refers to the seven countries in the northern part of the European subcontinent which includes Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Finland and Sweden. However, the United Nations report published in 2011 defines Northern Europe as including the following 10 countries and dependent regions.
- United Kingdom
A subset of the countries and territories listed above, all of whom are members of the Nordic Council, are also known as the Nordic countries. Before the establishment of the Nordic Council in 1952, the term 'Nordic', or 'Northern', was commonly used to also refer to the Lutheran Baltic countries Estonia and Latvia, as well as the northern sections of European Russia.
Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Mediterranean region (i.e. the Roman Empire), everything not near this sea was termed Northern Europe, including Germany, the Low Countries, and Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, such as in discussions of the Northern Renaissance. In medieval times, the term (Ultima) Thule was used to mean a mythical place in the extreme northern reaches of the continent.
Northern Europe: Country Area
Capital GDP (PPP) $M USD GDP per capita (PPP) $ USD Åland (Finland) 1,527 28,007 18.1 Mariehamn (Finland) Denmark 43,098 5,564,219 129 Copenhagen $204,060 $36,810 Faroe Islands (Denmark) 1,399 48,917 35.0 Tórshavn (Denmark) Estonia 45,227 1,340,021 29 Tallinn $27,207 $20,303 Finland 336,897 5,374,781 16 Helsinki $190,862 $35,745 Guernseyd[›] 78 65,573 836.3 St Peter Port $2,742 $41,815 Iceland 103,001 318,452 3.1 Reykjavík $12,664 $39,823 Ireland 70,273 4,581,269 65.2 Dublin $188,112 $42,076 Isle of Mand[›] 572 80,085 140 Douglas $2,719 $33,951 Jerseyd[›] 116 92,500 797 Saint Helier $5,100 $55,661 Latvia 64,589 2,245,357 34.3 Riga $38,764 $17,477 Lithuania 65,200 3,221,216 50.3 Vilnius $63,625 $19,391 Norway 324,230 4,905,200 15.1 Oslo $256,523 $52,229 Svalbard and Jan
Mayen Islands (Norway)
61,395 2,572 0.042 Longyearbyen (Norway) Sweden 449,964 9,354,462 20.6 Stockholm $341,868 $36,459 United Kingdom 243,610 62,008,048 254.7 London $2,256,830 $38,376 Total 1,811,176 99,230,679 54.8 $3,591,077 $36,226
Northern Europe consists of the Scandinavian peninsula, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland northern Europe, Greenland and the main European continent. The area is defined by the volcanic islands of the far northwest, notably Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard, extending from the mountainous sections of Great Britain & Ireland to the Scandinavian mountains, the central north mountains and hills of Sweden (which are the foothills of the Scandinavian mountains) and the large eastern plain, which contains, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland.
The region has a south west extreme of just under 50 degrees north and a northern extreme of 81 degrees north. The entire region's climate is affected by the Gulf Stream which has a mild influence on the climate. From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental. As the climate and relief varies vegetation is also extremely variable, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests (formerly of which a majority was in the Scottish highlands and south west Norway) and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south, west and temperate east.
- ^ a b c United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)
- ^ "Western Europe". National Geographic Society. NationalGeographic.com. 2009. http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/regions/region_westeurope.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
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