- List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty sovereign states are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, six states with limited or no recognition and eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.
Definition of Europe
The division between Asia and Europe is debated but under the commonly used definition, the border stretches along the Ural Mountains, Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east, the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles, in the south. Based on that division, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.
The island of Cyprus in Southwest Asia is approximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) and is on the Anatolian Plate  but is often considered part of Europe as a current member of the European Union (EU). Armenia is entirely in Southwest Asia but is a member of certain European organisations.
Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Sicily and Malta are located on the African continental plate. The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.
Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has sociopolitical connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but is grouped with the continent of North America.
Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments, the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa, and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.
A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest. According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
Recognised sovereign states
There are 50 internationally recognised sovereign states with territory located in common definitions Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, of which 44 have their capital city within Europe. All except the Vatican City are members of the United Nations (UN), and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe. Since 2007, 27 of these countries are also member states of the EU, which means they are highly integrated with each other and share their sovereignty with EU institutions.
Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.
* = Member of the EU Flag Map English short and formal names
Domestic short and formal names
Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana
2,994,667 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) Andorra
Principality of Andorra
Catalan: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella
Catalan: Andora la Vella
84,825 468 km2 (181 sq mi) Armenia[b]
Republic of Armenia
Armenian: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետությու (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan
Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,967,975 29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) Austria*
Republic of Austria
German: Österreich — Republik Österreich Vienna
8,217,280 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi) Azerbaijan[b]
Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku
8,372,373 86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi) Belarus
Republic of Belarus
Belarusian: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь
Russian: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Bielarus' — Respublika Belaruś)
Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
9,577,552 207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi) Belgium*
Kingdom of Belgium
German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien
French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België
10,431,477 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo
Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево
4,622,163 51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi) Bulgaria*
Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia
Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
7,093,635 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi) Croatia
Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb
4,483,804 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) Cyprus*[c]
Republic of Cyprus
Greek: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratí)
Turkish: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)
1,120,489 9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) Czech Republic* Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague
10,190,213 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi) Denmark*[f]
Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen
5,529,888 43,094 km2 (16,639 sq mi) Estonia*
Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn
1,282,963 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi) Finland*
Republic of Finland
Finnish: Suomi — Suomen tasavalta
Swedish: Finland — Republiken Finland
5,259,250 338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi) France*
French: France — République française Paris
65,312,249 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi) Georgia[b] Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi
Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
4,585,874 69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi) Germany*
Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin
81,471,834 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi) Greece*
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Elliniki Dimokratia) Athens
Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,760,136 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) Hungary*
Republic of Hungary
Hungarian: Magyarország — Magyar Köztársaság Budapest
9,976,062 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi) Iceland
Republic of Iceland
Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík
311,058 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi) Ireland*[d] English: Ireland
Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,670,976 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) Italy*
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome
61,016,804 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi) Kazakhstan[e]
Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakh: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)
Russian: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)
Russian: Астана (Astana)
15,522,373 2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi) Latvia*
Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga
2,204,708 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) Liechtenstein
Principality of Liechtenstein
German: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz
35,236 160 km2 (62 sq mi) Lithuania*
Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius
3,535,547 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi) Luxembourg*
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg
French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
503,302 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi) Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonian: Македонија — Република Македонија (Makedonija — Republika Makedonija) Skopje
Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,077,328 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) Malta*
Republic of Malta
English: Malta — Republic of Malta
Maltese: Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta
408,333 316 km2 (122 sq mi) Moldova
Republic of Moldova
Romanian: Moldova — Republica Moldova Chişinău
4,314,377 33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi) Monaco
Principality of Monaco
French: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco Monaco
30,539 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) Montenegro Serbian: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica
Serbian: Подгорица (Podgorica)
661,807 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) Netherlands*[f][g]
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Amsterdam (capital)
The Hague (seat of government)
Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
16,847,007 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) Norway
Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge
Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg
4,691,849 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi) Poland*
Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw
38,441,588 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi) Portugal*
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon
10,760,305 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi) Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest
21,904,551 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) Russia[e]
Russian: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow
Russian: Москва (Moskva)
138,739,892 17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi) San Marino
Republic of San Marino
Italian: San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino San Marino
Italian: San Marino
31,817 61 km2 (24 sq mi) Serbia
Republic of Serbia
Serbian: Србија — Република Србија (Srbija — Republika Srbija) Belgrade
Serbian: Београд (Beograd)
7,310,555 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) Slovakia*
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava
5,477,038 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) Slovenia*
Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana
2,000,092 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) Spain*
Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: España — Reino de España Madrid
46,754,784 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi) Sweden*
Kingdom of Sweden
Swedish: Sverige — Konungariket Sverige Stockholm
9,088,728 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) Switzerland
German: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
French: Suisse — Confédération Suisse
Italian: Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera
Romansh: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne
7,639,961 41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi) Turkey[e]
Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara
78,785,548 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) Ukraine Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina) Kiev
Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
45,134,707 603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi) United Kingdom (UK)*[h]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London
62,698,362 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi) Vatican City
State of the Vatican City
Italian: Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano
Latin: Santa Sede — Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
Italian: Città del Vaticano
832 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)
Partially recognised sovereign states
The following four entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states, and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.
Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a] Abkhazia[b]
Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states. Abkhaz: Аҧсны (Apsny)
Russian: Абха́зия (Abhazia)
Abkhaz: Аҟəа (Akwa)
250,000  8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi) Kosovo
Republic of Kosovo
Claimed as an autonomous province of Serbia. Recognised by 84 UN states. Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës
Serbian: Косово — Република Косово (Kosovo — Republika Kosovo)
Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë
Serbian: Приштина (Priština)
1,825,632 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi) Northern Cyprus[c]
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey. Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Nicosia
285,356 3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi) South Ossetia[b]
Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN states. Ossetic: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)
Russian: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Ossetic: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
70,000 3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)
Unrecognised sovereign states
The following two geo-political entities in Europe have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member states but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood. Neither is a member of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.
Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a] Nagorno-Karabakh[b]
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. Recognised only by 3 non-UN states. Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi — Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun) Stepanakert
Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
141,400 7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi) Transnistria / Trans-Dniester
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. Recognised only by 3 non-UN states. Moldovan: Нистрянэ — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Transnistria — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)
Russian: Приднестрóвье — Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)
Ukrainian: Придністрóв'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)
530,000 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)
* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements Flag Map English short and formal names Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area Akrotiri and Dhekelia [c]
Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British overseas territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment
English: Episkopi Cantonment
15,700 254 km2 (98 sq mi) Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar
49,267 1,393 km2 (538 sq mi) Gibraltar* British overseas territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar
28,956 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi) Guernsey[h]
Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey
French: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Guernésiais: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Saint Peter Port
English: Saint Peter Port
French: Saint Pierre Port
Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,068 78 km2 (30 sq mi) Isle of Man[h] Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Isle of Man
Manx: Mannin — Ellan Vannin
84,655 572 km2 (221 sq mi) Jersey[h]
Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom English: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey
French: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
English: Saint Helier
Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
94,161 116 km2 (45 sq mi)
Special areas of internal sovereignty
The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.
* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements Flag Map English short and formal names Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area Åland*
Self-governing area of Finland, determined by the result of the Åland crisis Swedish: Åland — Landskapet Åland Mariehamn
27,500 6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi) Svalbard Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty Bokmål: Svalbard Longyearbyen
2,019 62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)
- ^ a b c d e f Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
- ^ a b c d e f Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
- ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Asian Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
- ^ The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are not official long names and are used only as a legal description meant to differentiate the state from the island.
- ^ a b c Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
- ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and Netherlands are often used as short forms of their respective kingdoms as a whole.
- ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this is the improper name of the whole country as it refers only to a small region inside the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
- ^ a b c d The United Kingdom (UK) consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. The mainlands of England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
- Lists of European countries:
- by date of achieving sovereignty
- by GDP
- by GDP per capita
- by GDP PPP
- by geographic area
- International organisations in Europe
- List of former sovereign states in Europe
- Predecessors of sovereign states in Europe
- Timeline of European nations
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