Visa policy in the European Union


Visa policy in the European Union
A specimen Schengen visa. A Schengen visa entitles the holders to travel throughout the 25 member Schengen Area

All European Union member states, with the exception of Ireland and the United Kingdom, have a unified visa system as part of the Schengen Area. Three non-member states—Iceland, Norway and Switzerland—are also part of the Schengen area and also implement the unified system. Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania are not yet part of the Schengen area, but maintain the same immigration policies as required by Schengen. Liechtenstein has signed up to Schengen but has yet to implement it. Ireland and the United Kingdom maintain independent immigration policies.

The United Kingdom and Ireland operate a passport-free zone called the Common Travel Area, with limited passport controls between them. While the land border is open with no fixed checkpoints, Ireland does, however, perform routine passport controls at airports, selective controls at ferry ports and spot checks on cross-border road and rail transport. An Irish visa will not allow a traveller entry to the UK. As of July 2011, Ireland has established a limited visa waiver programme in which visitors in the UK from certain countries who hold UK tourist visas and who have cleared UK immigration will not need an Irish visa to enter the Republic. For other nationalities and for different kinds of UK visas, an Irish visa is still required.

Nationals of European Union member states, and of Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries, following the requirement of the EU's freedom of movement provisions, the European Economic Area Agreement and bilateral accords with Switzerland.

These lists cover only the visa requirements for regular passport holders. Most often, countries allow some holders of official (service or diplomatic) passport holders visa-free access while they require visas from regular passport holders. In rare cases, however, a country may also allow visa-free access for regular passport holders but require visas from official passport holders. These rules have not been unified even within those EU countries that have fully implemented the Schengen acquis.

Contents

Visa requirements for the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Liechtenstein and Romania

Schengen area visa lists
  Schengen member states
  other EU member and special territories of EU and Schengen members
  Visa-free access to the Schengen states for 90 days in any half year period, except for New Zealand citizens (EC 539/2001 Annex II)
  Visa required to enter the Schengen states (EC 539/2001 Annex I)
  Visa required for transit via the Schengen states (EC 810/2009 Annex IV)
  Passport not accepted
  Visa status unknown

As of 2001 the European Union issues two lists regarding visas: a white list of countries whose nationals do not require visas[1] and a black list of countries whose nationals do require visas.[2]

Individuals from the following countries can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria,[3] Cyprus,[4] Liechtenstein[5] and Romania[6] without a visa:

As of right, using a passport or a national identity card
Visa-exempt countries and territories ('Annex II' countries and territories)
  • Holders of British National (Overseas) passports (those with connection to former British Hong Kong)[Note 1]
  • Citizens of the following countries and territories holding ordinary passports:[7]

These Annex II nationals (except for New Zealand citizens) can enter the Schengen area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period. New Zealand citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states,[10][11][12][13] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in a 180 day period time limit applies.

Although all Annex II nationals can enter Schengen countries and Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania visa-free for pleasure or for business, individual Schengen countries can decide to impose a visa requirement on those who wish to enter to work (i.e. to carry out a 'paid activity'). The table at the end of the article indicates which Schengen countries permit Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay.

Passport holders who need a visa to enter the Schengen area
Passport types not accepted at all

Passport types to which a visa may not be attached:[18]

In addition, the following entities are not recognised as sovereign states by any EU member state. As such passports issued by them are not recognised as valid travel documents by any EU member state, visas will not be attached to such passports and holders will not gain entry into the Schengen Area.[19]

  • Abkhazia Abkhazian passport
  • Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh passport
  • Somaliland Somaliland passport
  • South Ossetia South Ossetian passport
  • Transnistria Transnistrian passport

Transit visas

As of 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for the airport transit were introduced by the European Union.[20] From that date, citizens of certain countries need transit visas unless they:

  • hold a Schengen visa, a national long-stay visa or a residence permit issued by an EU member state,
  • hold certain residence permits issued by Andorra, Canada, Japan, San Marino or the United States guaranteeing the holder's unconditional readmission to that country,
  • hold a valid visa for an EU member state or for a member of the European Economic Area Agreement, Canada, Japan or the United States of America, or when they return from those countries after having used the visa,
  • are family members of an EU citizen,
  • hold a diplomatic passport, or
  • are flight crew members whose state of nationality is a party to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation.

The list of countries which nationals require Airport Transit visa consists of 12 countries:

Additionally, countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants.[20] Ten countries (Denmark,[21] Finland,[22] Iceland, Latvia,[23] Norway, Poland,[24] Malta, Romania,[6] Slovenia,[25] and Sweden)[26] currently do not use this provision and have no additional requirements.[27] As Liechtenstein has indicated not to accept flights originating outside the Schengen Area,[28] airport transit visa requirements are not relevant there. The other Schengen countries require airport transit visas for nationals from up to 23 (in the case of France) additional countries (See Table below).[27] The third countries for which most countries require airport transit visa are India (8), Sudan (8), Sierra Leone (7) and Syria (7).

Countries for which an airport transit visa is required in some countries

Local border traffic at external borders

Schengen States are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to have bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries regarding local border traffic permit.[38] This is a kind of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the name and a picture of the holder, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. This routine is implemented in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia for Ukrainian citizens, and is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and the Kaliningrad area, and also negotiated between Norway and Russia. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.

Non-ordinary passports

Unlike the common Schengen rules for ordinary passports there are no common black,[Note 13] white[Note 14] and transit[Note 15] lists for holders of diplomatic, service and other official passports and each state has different policy on these.[18][39]

Obtaining a Schengen visa

To obtain a Schengen visa, a traveller must take the following steps:

  • He or she must first identify which Schengen country is the main destination. This determines the State responsible for deciding on the Schengen visa application and therefore the embassy or the consulate where the traveller will have to lodge the application.[40] If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should file the visa application at the embassy or consulate of the Schengen country of first entry.[40][41] If the Schengen State of the main destination or first entry does not have a diplomatic mission or consular post in his country, the traveller must contact the embassy or the consulate of another Schengen country, normally located in the traveller's country, which represents, for the purpose of issuing Schengen visas, the country of the principal destination or first entry.
  • The traveller must then present the Schengen visa application to the responsible embassy or consulate. A harmonised form is to be submitted, together with a valid passport and, if necessary, the documents supporting the purpose and conditions of the stay in the Schengen Area (aim of the visit, duration of the stay, lodging). The traveller will also have to prove his or her means of subsistence, i.e., the funds available to cover, on the one hand, the expenses of the stay, taking into account its duration and the destination, and, on the other hand, the cost of the return to the home country. Certain embassies or consulates sometimes call the applicant to appear in person in order to explain verbally the reasons for the visa application.
  • Finally, the traveller must have travel insurance that covers, for a minimum of €30,000, any expenses incurred as a result of emergency medical treatment or repatriation for health reasons. The proof of the travel insurance must in principle be provided at the end of the procedure, i.e. when the decision to grant the Schengen visa has already been made.

Recent Changes (2009-2011)

Changes to the entries on annex I (visa required) and annex II (visa-free) are regularly considered by the Council of the European Union based on advice from the individual member states. The Council then proposes draft legislation which has to be approved by the European Parliament.

The Balkan countries Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia joined annex II of countries with visa-free entrance on 19 December 2009 when traveling with biometric passports.[42]

On November 8, 2010 the Council of the European Union decided to introduce visa-free travel for citizens of Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina holding biometric passports. The decision entered into force on 15 December 2010.[43]

On November 25, 2010 the Council of the European Union decided to approve visa-free travel for holders of Taiwan passports that contain an identity card number (indicating the right of abode in Taiwan).[Note 7][Note 8][44] Visa requirements were dropped on 11 January 2011.[9] The same legislation removed the entry of the Northern Mariana Islands from the visa list as there is no Northern Mariana Islands citizenship and those with a citizenship connection to the island have United States citizenship.

Future changes

On November 22, 2010 the European Council and Ukraine announced "an action plan for Ukraine toward the establishment of a visa-free regime for short-stay travel".[45] On January 24, 2011 Moldova officially received a similar "action plan" from the EU's Internal Affairs Commissioner.[46]

According to the Soysal decision[47] from 19 February 2009, the European Court of Justice decided that Turkish workers may enter to render services within the European Union without a visa. In its judgement, the Court ruled that Article 41(1) of the Additional Protocol signed between Turkey and the EU on 23th November, 1970 obliges EU member states to refrain from introducing further restrictions on the freedom of establishment and the freedom to provide services. On the other hand, the Court emphasized that since the Schengen visa requires additional charges and costs, it constitutes a new restriction.

As of September 29, 2011, EU Commissioner of Interior Affairs Cecilia Malmstrom, has indicated that visa requirement will eventually be discontinued. Visa liberalization will be ushered in several phases. Initial changes are expected in the fall which will include the reduction of visa paperwork, more multi-entry visas, and extended stay periods.

Reciprocity

Council of Europe Albania Armenia Azerbaijan Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Georgia Moldova Montenegro Macedonia Russia Serbia Ukraine European Free Trade Association Switzerland Liechtenstein Iceland Norway European Union Customs Union Andorra Turkey San Marino Monaco European Union Bulgaria Romania United Kingdom Czech Republic Denmark Hungary Latvia Lithuania Poland Sweden Eurozone Cyprus Republic of Ireland Austria Belgium Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain European Economic Area Schengen Area International status and usage of the euro#States with issuing rights Vatican City
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations.vde

It is a political goal of the European Union to achieve freedom from visa requirements for citizens of the European Union at least in such countries the citizens of which may enter the Schengen Area without visa. To this end, the European Commission negotiates with third-countries, the citizens of which do not require visas to enter the Schengen Area for short-term stays, about the abolishment of visa requirements which exist for at least some EU member states. The European Commission involves the member state concerned into the negotiations, and has to frequently report on the mutuality situation to the European Parliament and the Council.[48] The Commission may recommend the temporary restoration of the visa requirement for nationals of the third country in question.

The European Commission has dealt with the question of mutuality of the abolishment of visa requirements towards third countries on the highest political level. With regard to Mexico, Costa Rica and New Zealand, it already has achieved complete mutuality. With respect to Canada, the Commission has achieved visa-free status for all members except Bulgaria, Romania and more recently the Czech Republic due to the influx of Czech nationals seeking refugee status in Canada.[49] With respect to the U.S., it is optimistic about new legislation modifying the Visa Waiver Program but "reserves the right to propose retaliatory measures if expected progress towards full visa reciprocity fails to materialise in good time."[50]

Reciprocity is sought for all countries of the visa-free list. That means that the EU expects that these countries offer visa-free access for 90 days to all EU citizens and to the citizens of Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. When this is not the case, the affected Schengen member state is expected to notify the European Commission, so that the EC takes an appropriate action - negotiate with the annex II state or remove it from the annex II list. All of the states that implement the Schengen visa rules (including Norway, Iceland, Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus) with the exception of Switzerland have notified the European Commission about non-compliant third states. Switzerland has so far made no notifications, possibly because there are no reciprocity issues for Swiss citizens.

Since adoption of this policy full reciprocity has been achieved with the following countries (listed in order of achieving reciprocity):[51] Nicaragua,[52] Venezuela,[52] Uruguay,[53] Costa Rica,[53][54] Mexico,[54] New Zealand,[54] Israel,[Note 16][55] Malaysia,[55] Paraguay,[55] Panama,[52][56] Singapore,[56] and Taiwan.[57][58][59]

According to the sixth report on visa reciprocity issued on 5 November 2010[60] the following countries are still not implementing it fully:

  • Australia (the European Commission has yet to evaluate for compliance the eVisitor system of Australia which covers all member states, but for which certain application provisions will be assessed);
  • Brunei (which restricts the visa waiver to 30 days (which is extendable twice) in contrast to the 90 days granted by the EU);
  • Brazil currently still requires visas of Cypriots, Maltese, Estonians and Latvians. A bilateral treaty abolishing visa requirements has been adopted by the EU on 24 February 2011 and is pending ratification by Brazil;[61]
  • Canada (which requires visas of Bulgarians and Romanians as well as of Czechs. This was an important setback to the visa reciprocity policy because Canada reintroduced a visa requirement for Czechs on 13 July 2009):[62]
  • Japan currently allows visa-free access to all citizens of the European Union. For Romanian citizens a temporary waiver is in effect until December 31, 2011 [60] at which point it may be extended indefinitely;
  • United States (which maintains visa requirements for Bulgarians, Cypriots, Poles and Romanians; furthermore certain provisions of the US ESTA system — such as the application fee — will be assessed).

Stays exceeding three months

For stays in the Schengen Area as a whole which exceed three months, a third-country national will need to hold either a long-stay visa for a period of no longer than a year or a residence permit for longer periods. A long-stay visa is a national visa but is issued in accordance with a uniform format. It entitles the holder to enter the Schengen Area and remain in the issuing state for a period longer than three months but no more than one year. If a Schengen state wishes to allow the holder of a long-stay visa remain there for longer than a year, the state must issue him or her with a residence permit.

The holder of a long-stay visa or a residence permit is entitled to move freely within the other state which comprise the Schengen Area for a period of up to three months in any half year.[63] Third-country nationals who are long-term residents in a Schengen state may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another Schengen state without losing their legal status and social benefits.[64]

However, some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than three months without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. Article 20(2) of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement allows for this 'in exceptional circumstances' and for bilateral agreements concluded by individual signatory states with other countries before the Convention entered into force to remain applicable. As a result, for example, New Zealand citizens are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already concluded bilateral visa exemption agreements with the New Zealand Government prior to the Convention entering into force without the need to apply for long-stay visas,[65][66] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in a 180 day period time limit applies.

United Kingdom visa requirements

UK visa lists
  EU member states
  Special visa-free provisions (EEA, OCT or other)
  Visa-free access to the UK for 6 months
  Visa required to enter the UK, transit without visa
  Visa required to enter the UK and for transit through the UK
  Visa-status unknown

In July 2008, the UK announced the results of its first global review of those needing a visa to come to the UK[67] against a set of strict criteria to determine the level of risk they pose to the UK in terms of illegal immigration, crime and security. The review would determine whether the nationals of 11 countries would require visas by the end of 2008, unless the countries in question take measures to reduce the perceived risk they pose to the UK. The new visa rules announced on 9 January 2009 require that the nationals of South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho and Bolivia obtain a visa; only Venezuelan nationals travelling on biometric passports with an electronic chip issued since 2007 may enter the UK without a visa;[68] and the existing visa-free status for the nationals of Botswana, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia and Trinidad and Tobago is maintained.[69]

The following individuals can enter the United Kingdom without a visa:

As of right
Non-visa nationals

Citizens of the following countries and territories are visa-exempt for stays in the UK of up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) as long as they fulfil all of the following criteria:[70][71]

  • they do not work during their stay in the UK
  • they must not register a marriage or register a civil partnership during their stay in the UK
  • they can present evidence of sufficient money to fund their stay in the UK (if requested by the border inspection officer)
  • they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit and can meet the cost of the return/onward journey
  • they have completed a landing card and submitted it at passport control unless in direct transit to a destination outside the Common Travel Area
  • if under the age of 18, they can demonstrate evidence of suitable care arrangements and parental (or guardian's) consent for their stay in the UK[72]

Transit visas

Citizens of the following countries need transit visas:[71]

Ireland visa requirements

IE visa lists
  EU member states
  Special visa-free provisions (EEA, OCT or other)
  Visa-free access to Ireland for 90 days
  Visa required to enter Ireland, transit without visa
  Visa required to enter Ireland and for transit through Ireland

Citizens of the following countries can enter Ireland without a visa:[77]

As of right
Visa-exempt
  • The Holder of a refugee travel document issued by one of the following countries:

Visa Waiver Programme

Under a Visa Waiver Programme introduced in July 2011, citizens of the following countries who hold a valid UK visa (limited to the following kinds: general visitor, child visitor, business visitor, sports visitor or academic visitor) and who have cleared immigration in the United Kingdom. The programme is being run on a pilot basis and is due to expire on 31 October 2012.

Transit visas

Citizens of the following countries need transit visas:

Visa policy of candidate and applicant states

Although the visa lists drawn up by the European Union only apply legally to Schengen signatories, in practice the visa policies of other European countries which aspire to join the European Union largely mirror those of Schengen countries, with the exception of Iceland, an EU candidate country which has fully implemented the Schengen acquis.

Croatia grants 90 day visa-free entry to exactly the same nationalities which appear in Annex II of the Schengen acquis.

Macedonia grants 90 day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities (except Taiwan), as well as others, such as Botswana, Kazakhstan and Peru.

Montenegro grants 90 day visa-free entry to exactly the same nationalities which appear in Annex II of the Schengen acquis and 30 day visa-free entry to a few other nationalities (such as Cuba, Russia and Ukraine, which are Schengen Annex I countries).

Serbia grants 90 day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Brunei, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.[78] In addition, visas are required for Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR passport holders (who have their application fee waived)[79] and Taiwan passport holders (which is not recognized by Serbia and instead of which a 'certificate for entry' is issued to facilitate entry).

Turkey, however, has more complicated arrangements, granting visa-free entry only to some Annex II nationalities (such as Brazil, Hong Kong SAR and New Zealand) whilst requiring other Annex II nationalities to obtain a visa on arrival at a fee (such as Australia, Canada and the United States).

Schengen countries grant visa-free access to their territory by citizens of all European Union candidate and applicant states (with the exception of Turkey).

Summary of visa-free travel to the European Union

Note that the visa requirements for the French Overseas departments are different, even though they are part of the EU.[80]

Country Schengen area, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Romania [7] Ireland[77] United Kingdom[71]
 Albania Yes
(biometric passports only)
No No
 Andorra Yes Yes Yes
 Antigua and Barbuda Yes Yes Yes
 Argentina Yes Yes Yes
 Australia Yes Yes Yes
 Bahamas Yes Yes Yes
 Barbados Yes Yes Yes
 Belize No Yes Yes
 Bolivia No Yes No
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes
(biometric passports only)
No No
 Botswana No Yes Yes
 Brazil Yes Yes Yes
 Brunei Yes Yes Yes
 Canada Yes Yes Yes
 Chile Yes Yes Yes
 Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes
 Croatia Yes Yes Yes
 Dominica No Yes Yes
 Timor-Leste No No Yes
 El Salvador Yes Yes Yes
 Fiji No Yes No
 Grenada No Yes Yes
 Guatemala Yes Yes Yes
 Guyana No Yes No
 Honduras Yes Yes Yes
 Hong Kong[Note 3] Yes Yes Yes
 Israel Yes Yes Yes
 Japan Yes Yes Yes
 Kiribati No Yes Yes
 Lesotho No Yes No
 Macau[Note 4] Yes Yes Yes
 Macedonia Yes
(biometric passports only)
No No
 Malawi No Yes No
 Malaysia Yes Yes Yes
 Maldives No Yes Yes
 Marshall Islands No No Yes
 Mauritius Yes No Yes
 Mexico Yes Yes Yes
 Federated States of Micronesia No No Yes
 Monaco Yes Yes Yes
 Montenegro Yes
(biometric passports only)
No (Visa Waiver
available with UK visa)
No
 Namibia No No Yes
 Nauru No Yes Yes
 New Zealand Yes Yes Yes
 Nicaragua Yes Yes Yes
 Palau No No Yes
 Panama Yes Yes Yes
 Papua New Guinea No No Yes
 Paraguay Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Lucia No Yes Yes
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Yes Yes
 Samoa No Yes Yes
 San Marino Yes Yes Yes
 Serbia Yes
(biometric passports only, excludes Kosovo residents)
No (Visa Waiver
available with UK visa)
No
 Seychelles Yes Yes Yes
 Singapore Yes Yes Yes
 Solomon Islands No Yes Yes
 South Africa No Yes No
 South Korea Yes Yes Yes
 Swaziland No Yes No
 Taiwan[Note 7] Yes[9][44][Note 8] Yes Yes[Note 8]
 Tonga No Yes Yes
 Trinidad and Tobago No Yes Yes
 Tuvalu No Yes Yes
 United States Yes [Note 19] Yes Yes
 Uruguay Yes Yes Yes
 Vanuatu No Yes Yes
 Vatican City Yes Yes Yes[Note 17]
 Venezuela Yes Yes Yes
(biometric passports only)
United Kingdom British National (Overseas) Yes Yes Yes
United Kingdom British Overseas Territories citizens (other than Gibraltarians[Note 10]) without the right of abode in the UK[Note 11] No Yes Yes
United Kingdom British Overseas citizens No Yes Yes
United Kingdom British subjects without the right of abode in the UK[Note 11] No No Yes
United Kingdom British protected persons No No Yes

Summary of visa-free stays involving paid activity in the Schengen Area

Below is a table of Schengen countries which permit nationals of Annex II countries and territories to work during their 90 day visa-free period of stay without authorization.[81][82] It includes Romania which applies implements the Schengen Areas's visa list, but excludes states which do not allow any visa-free nationals to work during their stay, namely: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland and Portugal.

Nationality Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Italy Romania Slovenia Slovakia Sweden Iceland Norway Switzerland
 Albania[Note 2] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 Andorra Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Antigua and Barbuda Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Argentina Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bahamas Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Barbados Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[Note 2] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 Brazil Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Brunei Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Croatia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 El Salvador Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Guatemala Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Honduras Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Hong Kong[Note 3] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Macau[Note 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Macedonia[Note 2] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 Malaysia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Mauritius Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Mexico Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Monaco Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Montenegro[Note 2] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 New Zealand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Nicaragua Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Panama Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Paraguay Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 San Marino Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Serbia[Note 2][Note 6] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 Seychelles Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
 Singapore Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 South Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Taiwan[Note 7][9][44][Note 8] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No
 United States[Note 19] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Uruguay Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Vatican City Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Venezuela Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Residual citizenship category that will become extinct with the passage of time, as such citizenship can only be passed down to the national's children in exceptional circumstances, e.g., if the child would otherwise be stateless.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Holders of biometric passports only.
  3. ^ a b c d e Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  4. ^ a b c d e Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  5. ^ Citizens of the associated states, Cook Islanders and Niueans also use New Zealand passports.
  6. ^ a b Visas are required from Serbian citizens holding passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate where Serbian citizens who reside in Kosovo have to apply for their Serbian passport.
  7. ^ a b c d e f The visa waivers granted by the European Union, the United Kingdom and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, Taiwan is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state", by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei" (mfa.bg) and by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China"(mae.ro).
  8. ^ a b c d e f Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports.
  9. ^ Current annex I countries that were formerly included in annex II are Ecuador (1998)[14] - 2003[15] and Bolivia (1998)[14] - 2006[16]
  10. ^ a b Gibraltarians are United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes, making them entitled to the EU's freedom of movement provisions as of right, see parliament.uk
  11. ^ a b c d British Overseas Territories citizens and British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom are United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes (page 12, 14), making them EU citizens. After 2002 all BOT citizens (apart from these solely connected to a SBA) became full British citizens. Currently the category of British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the UK consists only of SBA citizens, but most of them have also Cyprus or British citizenships,[citation needed] both of which are entitled to free movement inside the European Union.
  12. ^ Fantasy passports are either "Passports" issued by minorities, sects and population groups; or identity documents, etc., issued by private organisations and individuals. Camouflage passports are passports issued in the name of former States no longer in existence.[18]
  13. ^ Black list of passport types where a visa is required for entry, corresponding to Annex I of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001.[17]
  14. ^ White list of passport types whose bearers can enter the Schengen area without a visa, corresponding to Annex II of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001.[17]
  15. ^ Transit list of passport types where a visa is required not only for entry, but also for airport transit, corresponding to Annex IV of Council regulation No. 810/2009.[20]
  16. ^ Strictly speaking, full reciprocity has not been achieved with Israel as German citizens born before 1 January 1928 need a visa for Israel. The German government, however, has apparently avoided to report this fact to the European Commission.
  17. ^ a b Holy See Service & Emergency passport holders only.[71]
  18. ^ Non-biometric passports only
  19. ^ a b The entry Mariana Islands has been removed from the "visa required" list on 11 Jan 2011. As there is no Northern Mariana Islands citizenship in contrast to the United States citizenship, this entry produced no effects.

References

  1. ^ As listed in annex II of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  2. ^ As listed in annex I of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  3. ^ "Visa requirements for Bulgaria". The Republic of Bulgaria Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.bg/content/2010/6/2/VIZOV_CH_NEW.pdf. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  4. ^ "Visa requirements for Cyprus". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the republic of Cyprus. http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/BCD9E71A8FBBA8DCC225720B001D9AFE?OpenDocument. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "Schengen Visa information". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/nameri/vusa/ref_visinf/visusa.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b The list of the countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when enter Romania Romania, Ministry of foreign Affairs (Accessed 12 Aug 2010)
  7. ^ a b Consolidated version of Council regulation No. 539/2001, as of 19 December 2009
  8. ^ a b c d e f g European Union visa waiver agreement concluded with the state (as opposed to bilateral agreements between some member state and third countries). Ratification is completed for Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Mauritius and the Seychelles as per the EU treaty database. Provisional application pending ratification is carried out with St Kitts and Nevis with ratification of this country still outstanding. Brazil ratification pending.
  9. ^ a b c d "Regulation (EU) No 1211/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2010 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement". Council of the European Union. 22 December 2010. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:339:0006:0007:EN:PDF. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  10. ^ Delegation of the European Union to New Zealand: Frequently Asked Questions
  11. ^ NZ government travel advisory - travel tips to Europe
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ a b Decision of the Executive Committee of December 16, 1998 and bibliography eur-lex.europa.eu
  15. ^ Council regulation No. 453/2003 of March 6, 2003 and bibliography
  16. ^ Council regulation No. 1932/2006 of December 21, 2006 and bibliography
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Consolidated version of regulation 539/2001 as of 2011-01-01
  18. ^ a b c d e "Table of travel documents entitling the holder to cross the external borders and which may be endorsed with a visa". Council of the European Union. 17 June 2010. http://www.udiregelverk.no/~/media/Images/Rettskilder/Visa%20Code/Visa%20Code%20vedlegg%2010%20a.ashx. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  19. ^ Article 14 of the Schengen Convention.
  20. ^ a b c Council regulation No. 810/2009 of 13 July 2009, Annex IV Council of the European Union
  21. ^ General Visa Regulations To Denmark
  22. ^ Formin.finland.fi
  23. ^ Ocma.gov.lv
  24. ^ Washington.polemb.net
  25. ^ Mzz.gov.si
  26. ^ Swedenabroad.com
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s ATV national lists (English) (accessed 21 May 2011 via the European Commission website on visa policy
  28. ^ "Pragmatic interim solution before joining Schengen". Liechtenstein Government Spokesperson's Office. 18 November 2008. http://www.liechtenstein.li/en/fl-portal-aktuell?newsid=16565. Retrieved 11 August 2010. [dead link]
  29. ^ Do I Need an Airport Transit Visa? The Austrian Foreign Ministry
  30. ^ Eesti.at, Estland Holiday Navigator
  31. ^ when transiting through Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Ukraine, Egypt, Turkey or Moldova
  32. ^ What visa do I need to transit through an airport in France? France diplomatie (French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs)
  33. ^ Transit Visa Country List [Welcome to germany.info]
  34. ^ General information for entering Hungary, a member of the Schengen Area Consulate-general of the republic of Hungary in New Zealand
  35. ^ Consular Service Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Accessed 11 Aug 2010)
  36. ^ Issuance of visas Migracijos Departamentas (Latvian Republic)
  37. ^ Liste 2: Ausweis- und Visumvorschriften – Besondere Bestimmungen, unab-hängig von der Staatsangehörigkeit (Version vom 15. Juli 2010) Bundesamt für Migration (Swiss confederation)
  38. ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006". 30 December 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R1931R(01):EN:NOT. Retrieved 2 March 2008. 
  39. ^ Information pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement
  40. ^ a b Article 12(2) of the Schengen Convention.
  41. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Embassy of Denmark, New Delhi. "Visa requirements for Indians travelling to Denmark". http://www.ambnewdelhi.um.dk/en/menu/ConsularServices/visadk/. Retrieved 25 December 2007. [dead link]
  42. ^ "EU lifts visa restrictions for Serbia" (in English). 30 November 2009. http://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics-article.php?yyyy=2009&mm=11&dd=30&nav_id=63395. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  43. ^ Regulation (EU) no. 1091/2010 in the Official Journal
  44. ^ a b c Consilium.europa.eu
  45. ^ EU, Ukraine Agree On 'Road Map' For Visa-Free Travel , Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (November 22, 2010)
  46. ^ EU Gives Moldovans 'Action Plan' For Visa-Free Travel, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (January 24, 2010)
  47. ^ USAK.org.tr International Strategic Research Organisation (March 27, 2009)
  48. ^ The details of the procedure are set out in Articles 1(4) and (5) of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (OJ L 81, 21 March 2001, p. 1).
  49. ^ "News Release — Canada imposes a visa on the Czech Republic". Cic.gc.ca. 13 July 2009. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/releases/2009/2009-07-13a.asp. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  50. ^ Cf. Commission of the European Communities: Third report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on certain third countries' maintenance of visa requirements in breach of the principle of reciprocity, doc. COM(2007) 533 final dated 13 September 2007; cf. p. 10: Involvement of the Canadian Prime Minister; p. 10 to 11: Involvement of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and of the President of the United States; p. 11 to 12: Conclusions.
  51. ^ EU Visa policy reports
  52. ^ a b c First reciprocity report, January 2006
  53. ^ a b Second reciprocity report, October 2006
  54. ^ a b c Third reciprocity report, September 2007
  55. ^ a b c Fourth reciprocity report, September 2008
  56. ^ a b Fifth reciprocity report, October 2009
  57. ^ Parliament has approved a proposal to grant Taiwanese nationals visa-free entry to Schengen countries: Currently, nationals of most EU member states do not need visas to enter Taiwan, with the exception of Cyprus, Romania and Bulgaria. In reciprocity, however, Taiwanese authorities are working to exempt them completely by the end of 2010.
  58. ^ Eliminarea obligativităţii deţinerii vizei de intrare pe teritoriul statelor membre ale Uniunii Europene pentru resortisanţii taiwanezi: "Intrarea în vigoare a acestui Regulament asigură extinderea la 90 de zile de la data intrării a dreptului de şedere fără viză în Taiwan pentru cetăţenii statelor membre Schengen precum şi pentru cetăţenii din România, Bulgaria şi Cipru ca urmare a unei decizii unilaterale adoptată la Taipei."
  59. ^ Visa-Exempt Entry, BOCA.gov.tw
  60. ^ a b "Sixth report on certain third countries' maintenance of visa requirements in breach of the principle of reciprocity". European Commission. 5 November 2010. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0620:FIN:EN:PDF. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  61. ^ Consilium.europa.eu, Council of the European Union.
  62. ^ "In These Times" report on the reintroduction of the visa requirement for Czech citizens
  63. ^ Regulation (EU) No 265/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 March 2010 amending the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement and Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 as regards movement of persons with a long-stay visa (OJ L 85, 31 March 2010, p. 1)
  64. ^ Council Directive 2003/109/EC concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents (OJ L 16, 23 January 2004, p.44).
  65. ^ Delegation of the European Union to New Zealand: Frequently Asked Questions
  66. ^ NZ government travel advisory - travel tips to Europe
  67. ^ "Results of Britain's first global visa review". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 14 July 2008. http://ukinchina.fco.gov.uk/en/news/?view=PressR&id=4110279. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  68. ^ "Important change for Venezuelan visitors to the UK". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2011 [last update]. http://ukinvenezuela.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/press-release/13386000/visa-reqs-090209. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  69. ^ BBC News (9 February 2009). "Countries face new UK visa rules". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7879850.stm. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  70. ^ UK Border Agency: Arriving at the UK border (If you are not a citizen of the EU, EEA or Switzerland)
  71. ^ a b c d UK Border Agency. "Visa and Direct Airside Transit Visa (DATV) nationals". http://www.ukvisas.gov.uk/en/doineedvisa/visadatvnationals. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  72. ^ UK Border Agency: Child visitors
  73. ^ UK Visa Waiver for East Caribbean countries UK Visa and Immigration
  74. ^ Do I need a visa? Hong Kong. UK Border Agency (accessed 17 August 2010)
  75. ^ Do I need a visa? Macao. UK Border Agency (accessed 17 August 2010)
  76. ^ UK Visa Waiver for East Caribbean countries UK Visa and Immigration
  77. ^ a b "Visa requirements for entering Ireland". Citizens' Information Board. http://www.citizensinformation.ie/categories/moving-country/moving-to-ireland/coming-to-live-in-ireland/visa-requirements-for-entering-ireland. Retrieved 25 August 2011.  "Do I need a Visa to come to Ireland?". Irish Department for Foreign Affairs. http://www.dfa.ie/home/index.aspx?id=8777#SAR. Retrieved 12 August 2011.  Immigration Act 2004 (Visas) (No. 2) Order 2011.
  78. ^ MFA.gov.rs
  79. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Serbia, Beijing: How to obtain the visa for the Republic of Serbia?
  80. ^ Consulfrance-miami.org
  81. ^ Schweizerpass.admin.ch
  82. ^ Diplomatie.gouv.fr

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