San Jose, California

San Jose, California
San Jose
—  City  —
El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
Images, from top down, left to right:
Downtown San Jose, De Anza Hotel, South San Jose suburbs, Lick Observatory, Plaza de César Chávez

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): S.J.
Motto: The Capital of Silicon Valley
Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California
San Jose is located in United States
San Jose
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 37°20′7″N 121°53′31″W / 37.33528°N 121.89194°W / 37.33528; -121.89194Coordinates: 37°20′7″N 121°53′31″W / 37.33528°N 121.89194°W / 37.33528; -121.89194
Country United States
State California
County Santa Clara
Pueblo founded November 29, 1777
Incorporated March 27, 1850
Government
 - Type Charter city, Council-manager
 - Mayor Chuck Reed
 - Vice Mayor Madison Nguyen
 - City Manager Debra Figone
 - Senate
 - Assembly
Area[1]
 - City 179.965 sq mi (466.109 km2)
 - Land 176.526 sq mi (457.201 km2)
 - Water 3.439 sq mi (8.908 km2)  auto%
 - Urban 447.82 sq mi (720.69 km2)
 - Metro 8,818 sq mi (22,681 km2)
Elevation[2] 85 ft (26 m)
Population (2010)
 - City 945,942
 - Rank 1st in Santa Clara County
3rd in California
10th in the United States
 - Density 5,256.3/sq mi (2,029.5/km2)
 Urban 7,468,390
 Metro 1,975,342
 - Demonym San Josean
Time zone PST (UTC−8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP code 95101–95103, 95106, 95108–95139, 95118, 95141, 95142, 95148, 95150–95161, 95164, 95170–95173, 95190–95194, 95196
Area code(s) 408, 669
FIPS code 06-68000
GNIS feature ID 1654952
Website www.sanjoseca.gov

San Jose (play /ˌsæn hˈz/; Spanish: St. Joseph) is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S.,[3] and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay. The San Jose/Silicon Valley area is a major component of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.5 million people and the sixth largest metropolitan area (CSA) in the United States.[4]

San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first town in the Spanish colony of Nueva California, which later became Alta California.[5] The city served as a farming community to support Spanish military installations at San Francisco and Monterey. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose served as its first capital.[6]

After more than 150 years as a small farming city, San Jose and the surrounding Santa Clara Valley became the last (and largest) contiguous area of undeveloped land surrounding the San Francisco Bay. San Jose experienced increased demand for housing from soldiers and veterans returning from World War II. San Jose then continued its aggressive expansion during the 1950s and 1960s by annexing more land area. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center, to an urbanized metropolitan area.

By the 1990s, San Jose's location within the booming local technology industry earned the city its nickname, Capital of Silicon Valley. San Jose now maintains global city status and is the largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area in terms of population, land area, and industrial development.[7] The U.S. Census Bureau reported the population of the city to be 945,942 as of the 2010 Census.

Contents

History

Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans.[8] The first lasting European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Father Junípero Serra.[9] On orders from Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Spanish Viceroy of New Spain, San Jose was founded by Lieutenant José Joaquín Moraga as Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe (in honor of Saint Joseph) on November 29, 1777, to establish a farming community. The town was the first civil settlement in Alta California.[10]

In 1797, the pueblo was moved from its original location, near the present-day intersection of Guadalupe Parkway and Taylor Street, to a location in what is now Downtown San Jose. San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown. It then became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846 and California was annexed.[8] Soon afterwards, on March 27, 1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state (after Sacramento), with Josiah Belden its first mayor. The town was the state's first capital, as well as host of the first and second sessions (1850–1851) of the California Legislature. Today the Circle of Palms Plaza in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital.

Though not impacted as severely as San Francisco, San Jose suffered damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Over 100 people died at the Agnews Asylum (later Agnews State Hospital) after its walls and roof collapsed,[11] and the San Jose High School's three-story stone-and-brick building was also destroyed. The period during World War II was a tumultuous time. Japanese Americans primarily from Japantown were sent to internment camps,[citation needed] including the future mayor, Norman Mineta. Following the Los Angeles zoot suit riots, anti-Mexican violence took place during the summer of 1943.[citation needed] The entire region prepared for the beginning of the war.

As World War II started, the city's economy shifted from agriculture (the Del Monte cannery was the largest employer) to industrial manufacturing with the contracting of the Food Machinery Corporation (later known as FMC Corporation) by the United States War Department to build 1000 Landing Vehicle Tracked.[12] After World War II, FMC (later United Defense, and currently BAE Systems) continued as a defense contractor, with the San Jose facilities designing and manufacturing military platforms such as the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and various subsystems of the M1 Abrams.[13] IBM established its West Coast headquarters in San Jose in 1943 and opened a downtown research and development facility in 1952. Both would prove to be harbingers for the economy of San Jose, as Reynold Johnson and his team would later invent RAMAC, as well as the Hard disk drive, and the technological side of San Jose's economy grew.[14]

During the 1950s and 1960s, city manager A. P. "Dutch" Hamann led the city in a major growth campaign. The city annexed adjacent areas, such as Alviso and Cambrian Park, providing large areas for suburbs. An anti-growth reaction to the effects of rapid development emerged in the 1970s championed by mayors Norman Mineta and Janet Gray Hayes. Despite establishing an urban growth boundary, development fees, and incorporations of Campbell and Cupertino, development was not slowed, but rather directed into already incorporated areas.[12] San Jose's position in Silicon Valley triggered more economic and population growth, which led to the highest housing costs increase in the nation, 936% between 1976 and 2001.[15] Efforts to increase density continued into 1990s when an update of the 1974 urban plan kept the urban growth boundaries intact and voters rejected a ballot measure to ease development restrictions in the foothills. Sixty percent of the housing built in San Jose since 1980 and over three-quarters of the housing built since 2000 have been multifamily structures, reflecting a political propensity toward Smart Growth planning principles.[16]

Name

On April 3, 1979, the San Jose City Council adopted San José, with the diacritical mark on the "e", as the spelling of the city name on the city seal, official stationery, office titles and department names. Also, by city council convention, this spelling of San José is used when the name is stated in both upper- and lower-case letters, but not when the name is stated only in upper-case letters. The accent reflects the Spanish version of the name, and the dropping of accents in all-capital writing is typical in Spanish. The name is still more commonly spelled without the diacritical mark as San Jose. The official name of the city remains City of San Jose with no diacritical mark, according to the City Charter.[17] However, the City's website uses San José.[18]

Geography

Downtown San Jose, looking over the Tech Museum and Plaza de César Chávez park.
Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon Valley. See an up-to-the-minute view of San Jose from the Mount Hamilton web camera

San Jose is located at 37°20′07″N 121°53′31″W / 37.335278°N 121.891944°W / 37.335278; -121.891944.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 180.0 square miles (466 km2), of which 3.4 square miles (8.9 km²; 1.91%) is water.

San Jose lies between the San Andreas Fault, the source of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the Calaveras Fault. San Jose is shaken by moderate earthquakes, above four on the Richter Scale, on average of one to two times a year. These quakes originate just east of the city on the creeping section of the Calaveras Fault, which is a major source of earthquake activity in Northern California. On April 14, 1984, at 1:15 pm, local time a 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck the Calaveras Fault near San Jose's Mount Hamilton.[19] The most serious earthquake, in 1906, damaged many buildings in San Jose as described earlier. Earlier significant quakes rocked the city in 1839, 1851, 1858, 1864, 1865, 1868, and 1891.[citation needed] The Daly City Earthquake of 1957 caused some damage. The Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 also did some damage to parts of the city. The other faults near San Jose are the Monte Vista Fault and the Hayward Fault Zone.

The Guadalupe River runs from the Santa Cruz Mountains (which separate the South Bay from the Pacific Coast) flowing north through San Jose, ending in the San Francisco Bay at Alviso. Along the southern part of the river is the neighborhood of Almaden Valley, originally named for the mercury mines which produced mercury needed for gold extraction from quartz during the California Gold Rush as well as mercury fulminate blasting caps and detonators for the U.S. military from 1870 to 1945.[citation needed]

The lowest point in San Jose is 13 feet (4 m) below sea level at the San Francisco Bay in Alviso;[20] the highest is 4,372 feet (1,333 m) at Copernicus Peak, Mount Hamilton, which is technically outside the city limit. Due to the proximity to Lick Observatory atop Mount Hamilton, San Jose has taken several steps to reduce light pollution, including replacing all street lamps and outdoor lighting in private developments with low pressure sodium lamps.[21] To recognize the city's efforts, the asteroid 6216 San Jose was named after the city.[22]

San Jose lies close to the Pacific Ocean and close to San Francisco Bay (a small portion of its northern border touches the bay). Santa Clara Valley is the population center of the Bay Area, and like the hub and spokes of a wheel, surrounding communities emanate outwards from the valley. This growth in part, has shaped the greater Bay Area as it is today in terms of geographic population distribution and the trend of suburbanization away from the valley.

There are four distinct valleys in the city of San Jose: Almaden Valley, situated on the south-west fringe of the city; Evergreen Valley to the south-east, which is hilly all through-out its interior; Santa Clara Valley, which includes the flat, main urban expanse of the South Bay; and the rural Coyote Valley, to the city's extreme southern fringe.

Climate

A San Jose city street lined with palms.

San Jose, like most of the Bay Area, has a Subtropical Mediterranean climate.[23] San Jose has 300+ days of sunshine and an average daily high temperature of 73 °F (23 °C) annually. Although San Jose lies inland and does not front the Pacific Ocean like San Francisco, it is surrounded on three sides by mountains. Because of this, the city is somewhat more sheltered from rain, giving it a semiarid feel with a mean annual rainfall of 14.4 inches (366 mm), compared to some other parts of the Bay Area, which can get about three times that amount.

January's average high is 60 °F (16 °C) and average low is 42 °F (6 °C). July's average high is 84 °F (29 °C) and average low is 57 °F (14 °C).[24] The highest temperature ever recorded in San Jose was 112 °F (44 °C) on July 19–23, 2006; the lowest was 20 °F (−7 °C) in December 1990. Temperature fluctuations between night and day can vary as little as 10 °F to 12 °F (a fluctuation range of 5.5 °C to 6.6 °C), meaning that its climate does not experience huge temperature drops or rises like some other parts of California.

With the light rainfall, San Jose and its suburbs experience about 300 full or partly sunny days a year. Rain occurs primarily in the months from November through April or May. During the winter and spring, hillsides and fields turn green with grasses and vegetation, although deciduous trees are few. With the coming of the annual hot summer dry period, the vegetation dies and dries, giving the hills a golden cover, which unfortunately also provides fuel for frequent grass fires.

Measurable precipitation falls in downtown San Jose on an average of 50 days a year. Annual precipitation has ranged from 6.12 inches (155 mm) in 1953 to 32.57 inches (827 mm) in 1983. The most precipitation in one month was 10.23 inches (260 mm) in February 1998. The maximum 24-hour rainfall was 3.60 inches (91 mm) on January 30, 1968. Although summer is normally quite dry in San Jose, a very heavy thunderstorm on August 21, 1968, brought 1.92-inch (49 mm) of rain, causing some flooding.[25]

The snow level drops as low as 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level, or lower, occasionally coating nearby Mount Hamilton, and less frequently the Santa Cruz Mountains, with snow that normally lasts a few days. This sometimes snarls traffic traveling on State Route 17 towards Santa Cruz. Snow rarely falls in San Jose; the most recent snow to remain on the ground was on February 5, 1976, when many residents around the city saw as much as 3 inches (7.6 cm) on car and roof tops. The official observation station measured only 0.5-inch (13 mm) of snow.

Like most of the Bay Area, San Jose is made up of dozens of microclimates. Downtown San Jose experiences the lightest rainfall in the city, while South San Jose, only 10 miles (16 km) distant, experiences more rainfall and somewhat more extreme temperatures.

Climate data for San Jose, California
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 79
(26)
80
(27)
88
(31)
96
(36)
101
(38)
114
(46)
113
(45)
107
(42)
109
(43)
101
(38)
87
(31)
83
(28)
114
(46)
Average high °F (°C) 59.3
(15.2)
63.4
(17.4)
67.0
(19.4)
72.1
(22.3)
76.7
(24.8)
80.5
(26.9)
84.3
(29.1)
86.6
(30.3)
80.5
(26.9)
75.9
(24.4)
68.5
(20.3)
59.4
(15.2)
72.85
(22.69)
Average low °F (°C) 41.9
(5.5)
44.6
(7.0)
46.4
(8.0)
48.3
(9.1)
55.5
(13.1)
59.4
(15.2)
62.5
(16.9)
61.6
(16.4)
57.3
(14.1)
52.5
(11.4)
49.5
(9.7)
41.9
(5.5)
51.78
(10.99)
Record low °F (°C) 24
(−4)
26
(−3)
30
(−1)
35
(2)
37
(3)
42
(6)
47
(8)
47
(8)
42
(6)
36
(2)
21
(−6)
19
(−7)
19
(−7)
Rainfall inches (mm) 3.03
(77)
2.84
(72.1)
2.69
(68.3)
1.02
(25.9)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.05
(1.3)
1.73
(43.9)
2.00
(50.8)
15.08
(383)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.2 9.7 10.3 5.4 3.0 0 0 0 0 1.05 7.4 8.9 55.95
Source: NOAA[26] Weather.com (extremes) [27]

Cityscape

Overhead panorama of downtown San Jose.

The city is divided into several geographical regions. Many of these regions were originally unincorporated communities or separate municipalities that were later annexed by the city. The city is generally divided into the following areas: Downtown San Jose, Central, West San Jose, North San Jose, East San Jose, and South San Jose.

Some well-known communities within San Jose include Downtown San Jose, Japantown, Rose Garden, Sunol-Midtown, Willow Glen, Naglee Park, Burbank, West San Jose, Winchester, Alviso, East Foothills, Alum Rock, Little Portugal, Blossom Valley, Cambrian, Almaden Valley, Silver Creek Valley, Evergreen Valley, Edenvale, Santa Teresa, Seven Trees, Coyote Valley.

Landmarks

Important landmarks in San Jose include Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, History Park at Kelley Park, Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph, Plaza de César Chávez, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library, Mexican Heritage Plaza, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, Lick Observatory, Hayes Mansion, HP Pavilion at San Jose, De Anza Hotel, San Jose Improv, San Jose Municipal Stadium, Spartan Stadium, Japantown San Jose, Winchester Mystery House, Raging Waters, Circle of Palms Plaza, San Jose City Hall, San Jose Flea Market, and The Tech Museum of Innovation.

Demographics

San Jose at night looking across the Santa Clara Valley.
Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 3,500
1860 4,579 30.8%
1870 9,089 98.5%
1880 12,567 38.3%
1890 18,060 43.7%
1900 21,500 19.0%
1910 28,946 34.6%
1920 39,642 37.0%
1930 57,651 45.4%
1940 68,457 18.7%
1950 95,280 39.2%
1960 204,196 114.3%
1970 459,913 125.2%
1980 629,442 36.9%
1990 782,248 24.3%
2000 894,943 14.4%
2010 945,942 5.7%
sources:[28][29][30]
A view of Downtown San Jose as seen from East Foothills

2010

The 2010 United States Census[31] reported that San Jose had a population of 945,942. The population density was 5,256.2 people per square mile (2,029.4/km²). The racial makeup of San Jose was 404,437 (42.8%) White, 303,138 (32.0%) Asian (10.6% Vietnamese, 6.7% Chinese, 5.6% Filipino, 4.6% Indian, 1.2% Korean, 1.2% Japanese, 0.4% Cambodian, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.1% Laotian), 30,242 (3.2%) African American, 8,297 (0.9%) Native American, 4,017 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 148,749 (15.7%) from other races, and 47,062 (5.0%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 313,636 persons (33.2%). Among the Hispanic population, 28.2% are Mexican, 0.7% Salvadoran, 0.5% Puerto Rican, and 0.3% Nicaraguan.

The Census reported that 932,620 people (98.6% of the population) lived in households, 9,542 (1.0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 3,780 (0.4%) were institutionalized.

There were 301,366 households, out of which 122,958 (40.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 162,819 (54.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 37,988 (12.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 18,702 (6.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 16,900 (5.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,458 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 59,385 households (19.7%) were made up of individuals and 18,305 (6.1%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09. There were 219,509 families (72.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.54.

The population was spread out with 234,678 people (24.8%) under the age of 18, 89,457 people (9.5%) aged 18 to 24, 294,399 people (31.1%) aged 25 to 44, 232,166 people (24.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 95,242 people (10.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males.

There were 314,038 housing units at an average density of 1,745.0 per square mile (673.7/km²), of which 176,216 (58.5%) were owner-occupied, and 125,150 (41.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.3%. 553,436 people (58.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 379,184 people (40.1%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[32] of 2000, there were 894,943 people, 276,598 households, and 203,576 families residing in the city.

The population density was 5,117.9 people per square mile (1,976.1/km²). There were 281,841 housing units at an average density of 1,611.8 per square mile (622.3/km²). Of the 276,598 households, 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.20 and the average family size was 3.62.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was the highest in the U.S. for any city with more than a quarter million residents with $76,963 annually. The median income for a family was $86,822.[33] Males had a median income of $49,347 versus $36,936 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,697. About 6.0% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

San Jose and the rest of the Bay Area is home to many Christian congregations, including large Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses, alongside centers of Jewish, Hindu, Islamic, Buddhist and Sikh faiths, among numerous other religious communities.

A high percentage of foreign-born residents (39.0% of the population) live in the city. These include many high-tech workers from East and South Asia, Eastern European immigrants, as well as poorer immigrants from Latin America, many of whom can be found in the large, multi-generational barrio Alum Rock district. San Jose has the largest Vietnamese population of any city in the world outside of Vietnam.[34] The people from these countries have settled in the city and across the Santa Clara Valley primarily during the last three or four decades.

Economy

Adobe Systems headquarters in downtown San Jose

The large concentration of high-technology engineering, computer, and microprocessor companies around San Jose has led the area to be known as Silicon Valley. As the largest city in the valley, San Jose has billed itself "the capital of Silicon Valley." Area schools such as the University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Santa Cruz, San Jose State University, San Francisco State University, California State University, East Bay, Santa Clara University, and Stanford University pump thousands of engineering and computer science graduates into the local economy every year.

High economic growth during the tech bubble caused employment, housing prices, and traffic congestion to peak in the late 1990s. As the economy slowed in the early 2000s, employment and traffic congestion diminished somewhat. In the mid-2000s, traffic along major highways again began to worsen as the economy improved. San Jose had 405,000 jobs within its city limits in 2006, and an unemployment rate of 4.6%. In 2000, San Jose residents had the highest median household income of any city in the United States with a population over 300,000, and currently has the highest median income of any U.S. city with over 280,000 people.

San Jose lists many companies with 1,000 employees or more, including the headquarters of Adobe, Altera, Brocade Communications Systems, Cadence Design Systems, Cisco Systems, eBay, Sanmina-SCI, and Xilinx, as well as major facilities for Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, IBM, Kaiser Permanente and KLA Tencor. Other large companies based in San Jose include Altera, Atmel, CEVA, Cypress Semiconductor, Echelon, Integrated Device Technology, Micrel, Netgear, Novellus Systems, Oclaro, Quantum, SunPower, Supermicro, Tessera Technologies, TiVo, Ultratech, and VeriFone. Sizable government employers include the city government, Santa Clara County, and San Jose State University.[35] Acer's United States division has its offices in San Jose.[36] Prior to its closing, Netcom had its headquarters in San Jose.[37][38]

The cost of living in San Jose and the surrounding areas is among the highest in California and the nation.[39] Housing costs are the primary reason for the high cost of living, although the costs in all areas tracked by the ACCRA Cost of Living Index are above the national average. Despite the high cost of living in San Jose, households in city limits have the highest disposable income of any city in the U.S. with over 500,000 residents.[40][41]

San Jose residents produce more U.S. patents than any other city.[42] Thirty-five percent of all venture capital funds in the U.S. are invested in San Jose and Silicon Valley companies.[42]

Top employers

According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[43] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 County of Santa Clara 15,360
2 Cisco Systems 11,600
3 IBM 7,460
4 City of San Jose 6,620
5 San Jose State University 3,100
6 eBay 3,000
7 Hitachi 2,900
8 San Jose Unified School District 2,690
9 Xilinx 2,340
10 Sanmina-SCI 2,170
11 Kaiser Permanente 2,120
12 Adobe Systems 2,000
13 Good Samaritan Hospital 1,850
14 KLA Tencor 1,770
15 Cadence Design Systems 1,560

Law and government

Local

San Jose is a charter city under California law, giving it the power to enact local ordinances that may conflict with state law, within the limits provided by the charter.[44] The city has a council-manager government with a city manager nominated by the mayor and elected by the city council.

The San Jose City Council is made up of ten council members elected by districts, and a mayor elected by the entire city. During city council meetings, the mayor presides, and all eleven members can vote on any issue. The mayor has no veto powers. Council members and the mayor are elected to four-year terms; the even-numbered district council members beginning in 1994; the mayor and the odd-numbered district council members beginning in 1996. Council members and the mayor are limited to two successive terms in office, although a council member that has reached the term limit can be elected mayor, and vice versa. The council elects a vice-mayor from the members of the council at the second meeting of the year following a council election. This council member acts as mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor, but does not succeed to the mayor's office upon a vacancy.[45]

The City Manager is the chief administrative officer of the city, and must present an annual budget for approval by the city council. When the office is vacant, the Mayor proposes a candidate for City Manager, subject to council approval. The council appoints the Manager for an indefinite term, and may at any time remove the manager, or the electorate may remove the manager through a recall election. Other city officers appointed by the council are the City Attorney, City Auditor, City Clerk, and Independent Police Auditor.[45]

Santa Clara County Government Center

In the state legislature

Like all California cities except San Francisco, both the levels and the boundaries of what the city government controls are determined by the local county Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO).[46] The goal of a LAFCO is to try to avoid uncontrolled urban sprawl. The Santa Clara County LAFCO has set boundaries of San Jose's "Sphere of Influence" (indicated by the blue line in the map near the top of the page) as a superset of the actual city limits (the yellow area in the map), plus parts of the surrounding unincorporated county land, where San Jose can, for example, prevent development of fringe areas to concentrate city growth closer to the city's core. The LAFCO also defines a subset of the Sphere as an 'Urban Service Area' (indicated by the red line in the map), effectively limiting development to areas where urban infrastructure (sewers, electrical service, etc.) already exists.

San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County.[47] Accordingly, many county government facilities are located in the city, including the office of the County Executive, the Board of Supervisors, the District Attorney's Office, eight courthouses of the Superior Court, the Sheriff's Office, and the County Clerk.[48]

State and federal

San Jose is located in the 10th, 11th, 13th, and 15th Senate Districts, represented by Democrats Ellen Corbett, Joe Simitian, and Elaine Alquist, and Republican Abel Maldonado respectively, and in the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 27th, and 28th Assembly districts, represented by Democrats Bob Wieckowski, Rich Gordon, Paul Fong, Nora Campos, Jim Beall, Bill Monning, and Anna M. Caballero respectively. Federally, San Jose is located in California's 14th, 15th, and 16th congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs of D +18, D +14, and D +16 respectively,[49] and are represented by Democrats Anna Eshoo, Mike Honda, and Zoe Lofgren respectively.

Several state and federal agencies maintain offices in San Jose. The city is the location of the Sixth District of the California Courts of Appeal.[50] It is also home to one of three courthouses of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, the other two being in Oakland and San Francisco.[51]

Crime

Crime in San Jose has been, and continues to be lower than in other large American cities.[52] Like most large cities crime levels have fallen significantly after rising in the 1980s.[52] Today it is ranked as one of the safest cities in the country with a population over 500,000 people.[53][54][55] The designation is based on crime statistics reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in six categories: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, and auto theft. As of 2009, the city had the second lowest violent crime rate of any city with 500,000 or more residents, second only to Honolulu.[52] However in 2011, homicides have surged surpassing 2010's number of homicides which was 20 and in 2011 is currently 28 as of August 2011.[56]

Current mayor Chuck Reed is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition,[57] an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and Boston mayor Thomas Menino.

Sister cities

The Office of Economic Development coordinates the San Jose Sister City Program which is part of Sister Cities International. As of 2008, there are seven sister cities:[58]

Arts and architecture

The San Jose Center for the Performing Arts is a general purpose venue for several performing arts organizations in San Jose

Because the downtown area is in the flight path to nearby Mineta San Jose International Airport (also evidenced in the above panoramic), there is a height limit for buildings in the downtown area, which is under the final approach corridor to the airport. The height limit is dictated by local ordinances, driven by the distance from the runway and a slope defined by Federal Aviation Administration regulations. Core downtown buildings are limited to approximately 300 feet (91 m) but can get taller farther from the airport.[59] There has been broad criticism over the past few decades of the city's architecture.[60] Citizens have complained that San Jose is lacking in aesthetically pleasing architectural styles. Blame for this lack of architectural "beauty" can be assigned to the re-development of the downtown area from the 1950s onward, in which whole blocks of historic commercial and residential structures were demolished.[61] Exceptions to this include the Downtown Historic District, the De Anza Hotel, and the Hotel Sainte Claire, both of which are listed in the National Register of Historic Places for their architectural and historical significance.

Municipal building projects have experimented more with architectural styles than have most private enterprises.[62] The Children's Discovery Museum, Tech Museum of Innovation, and the San Jose Repertory Theater building have experimented with bold colors and unusual exteriors. The new City Hall, designed by Richard Meier & Partners opened in 2005 and is a notable addition to the growing collection of municipal building projects.[63]

Public art is an evolving attraction in the city. The city was one of the first to adopt a public art ordinance at 2% of capital improvement building project budgets,[64] and the results of this commitment are beginning to have an impact on the visual landscape of the city. There are a considerable number of public art projects throughout the downtown area, and a growing collection in the newer civic locations in neighborhoods including libraries, parks, and fire stations. Of particular note, the Mineta Airport expansion is incorporating a program of Art & Technology into its development.

Within the early efforts at public art, there are notable controversies. Two examples include the statue of Quetzalcoatl (the plumed serpent) in downtown which was controversial in its planning because some religious groups felt that it was pagan, and controversial in its implementation because many felt that the final statue by Robert Graham did not closely resemble a winged serpent, and was more noted for its expense than its aesthetics. This has resulted in locals joking that the statue resembles a pile of feces.[65]

The statue of Thomas Fallon also met strong resistance from those who felt that people like him were largely responsible for the decimation of early native populations and Chicano/Latino activists protested he captured San Jose by violent force in the Mexican-American war (1846) as well "repressed" historic documents of Fallon ordered the expulsion of most of the city's Californio (early Spanish or Mexican) residents. In October 1991 after protests in part of Columbus Day and Dia de la Raza celebrations, the Fallon statue plan was scrapped and the statue was stored in a warehouse in Oakland for more than a decade. The statue was returned to public display in 2002, albeit in a less conspicuous location: Pellier Park, a small triangular patch formed by the merge of West Julian and West St. James streets.[66]

In 2001, the city sponsored SharkByte, an exhibit of decorated sharks, based on the mascot of the hockey team, the San Jose Sharks, and modeled after Chicago's display of decorated cows.[67] Large models of sharks were decorated in a variety of clever, colorful, or creative ways by local artists and were then displayed for months at dozens of locations around the city. Many displays were removed early because of vandalism. After the exhibition, the sharks were auctioned off and the proceeds donated to charity. The sharks can still be found in their new owners' homes and businesses.

In 2006, Adobe Systems commissioned an art installation titled San Jose Semaphore by Ben Rubin,[68] which is located at the top of its headquarters building. Semaphore is composed of four LED discs which "rotate" to transmit a message. The content of the San Jose Semaphore’s message remained a mystery until it was deciphered in August 2007.[69] The visual art installation is supplemented with an audio track, transmitted from the building on a low-power AM station. The audio track provides clues to decode the message being transmitted.

The city is home to many performing arts companies, including Opera San Jose, Symphony Silicon Valley, Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley, Children's Musical Theater of San Jose (recognized as the largest and most talented youth theatre company in the nation), the San Jose Youth Symphony, the San Jose Repertory Theatre, City Lights Theatre Company, The Tabard Theatre Company, San Jose Stage Company, and the now-defunct American Musical Theatre of San Jose which was replaced by Broadway San Jose in partnership with Team San Jose. San Jose also is home to the San Jose Museum of Art,[70] one of the nation's premiere Modern Art museums. The annual Cinequest Film Festival in downtown has grown to over 60,000 attendees per year, becoming an important festival for independent films. The San Francisco Asian American Film Festival is an annual event, which is hosted in San Francisco, Berkeley, and Downtown San Jose. Approximately 30 to 40 films are screened in San Jose each year at the Camera 12 Downtown Cinemas. The San Jose Jazz Festival is another of many great events hosted throughout the year.

The HP Pavilion at San Jose is one of the most active venues for events in the world. According to Billboard Magazine and Pollstar, the arena sold the most tickets to non-sporting events of any venue in the United States, and third in the world after the Manchester Evening News Arena in Manchester, England, and the Bell Centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, for the period from January 1 – September 30, 2004. Including sporting events, the HP Pavilion averages 184 events a year, or roughly one event for every two days, which is significantly higher than the average for NHL arenas.

Sports

Club Sport Founded League Venue
San Jose Sharks Hockey 1991 National Hockey League: Western Conference HP Pavilion at San Jose
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer 1995 Major League Soccer: Western Conference Buck Shaw Stadium
San Jose SaberCats Arena football 1995 Arena Football League (West Division) HP Pavilion at San Jose
San Jose Giants Baseball 1988 California League San Jose Municipal Stadium
Real San Jose Soccer 2007 National Premier Soccer League Yerba Buena High School
San Jose Sharks versus the Vancouver Canucks in the HP Pavilion at San Jose
HP Pavilion at San Jose
Inside view of HP Pavilion at San Jose

In 2004, the San Jose Sports Authority hosted the U.S. Olympic team trials for judo, taekwondo, trampolining and rhythmic gymnastics at the San Jose State Event Center. In August 2004, the San Jose Seahawk Rugby Football Club hosted the USA All-Star 7-Aside Rugby Championships at Watson Bowl, east of Downtown. San Jose is also home to the St Joseph's Hurling Club. In 2008, around 90 percent of the members of the United States Olympic team were processed at San Jose State University prior to traveling to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[71] The 2009 Junior Olympics for trampoline also were held here. In April 2009, it was announced San Jose State will host the 2011 American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA) national tournament.[72]

Transportation

Public transportation

View of a major freeway interchange for I-280 connecting with SR87 downtown
VTA light rail train running on the Alum-Rock–Santa-Teresa line
VTA Rapid Bus Route 522
A FedEx plane approaches the Mineta San Jose International Airport.

Rail service to and within San Jose is provided by Amtrak (the Sacramento–San-Jose Capitol Corridor and the Seattle–Los-Angeles Coast Starlight), Caltrain (commuter rail service between San Francisco and Gilroy), ACE (commuter rail service to Pleasanton and Stockton), and a local light-rail system connecting downtown to Mountain View, Milpitas, Campbell, and Almaden Valley, operated by the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA). Historic streetcars from History Park operate on the light rail lines in downtown during holidays. Long-term plans call for BART to be expanded to Santa Clara through Milpitas and San Jose from the current terminal in Fremont. Originally, the extension was to be built all at once, but due to the recession, sales tax revenue has dramatically decreased. Because of this, the extension will be built in two phase. Phase 1 will extend service to a temporary terminal in north-eastern San Jose in 2018 at Berryessa station. Construction has been approved and funded and will begin in Summer 2012 and connect with the Warm Springs extension to southern Fremont. In addition, San Jose will be a major stop on the future California High Speed Rail route between Los Angeles and San Francisco.[73] Diridon Station (formerly Cahill Depot, 65 Cahill Street) is the meeting point of all regional commuter rail service in the area. It was built in 1935 by the Southern Pacific Railroad, and was refurbished in 1994.

VTA also operates many bus routes in San Jose and the surrounding communities, as well as offering paratransit services to local residents. Additionally, the Highway 17 Express bus line connects central San Jose with Santa Cruz.

Air transportation

San Jose is served by Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport (IATA: SJCICAO: KSJCFAA LID: SJC), two miles (3 km) northwest of downtown, and by Reid-Hillview Airport of Santa Clara County (ICAO: KRHVFAA LID: RHV) a general aviation airport located in the eastern part of San Jose. San Jose residents also use San Francisco International Airport (IATA: SFOICAO: KSFOFAA LID: SFO), a major international hub located 35 miles (56 km) to the northwest, and Oakland International Airport (IATA: OAKICAO: KOAKFAA LID: OAK), another major international airport located 35 miles (56 km) to the north. The airport is also near the intersections of three major freeways, U.S. Route 101, Interstate 880, and State Route 87.

Freeways and highways

The San Jose area has a large freeway system, including three Interstate freeways and one U.S. Route. It is, however, the largest city in the country not served by a primary Interstate; most of the Interstate Highway Network was planned by the early 1950s well before San Jose's rapid growth decades later.

U.S. 101 runs south to the California Central Coast and Los Angeles, and then runs north up near the eastern shore of the San Francisco Peninsula to San Francisco. I-280 also heads to San Francisco, but goes along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula. I-880 heads north to Oakland, running parallel to the southeastern shore of San Francisco Bay. I-680 parallels I-880 to Fremont, but then cuts northeast to the eastern cities of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Several state highways also serve San Jose: SR 17, SR 85, SR 87 and SR 237. Additionally, San Jose is served by a system of county-wide expressways, which includes the Almaden Expressway, Capitol Expressway, San Tomas Expressway, and Lawrence Expressway.

Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on San Jose freeways. This includes expansion of State Route 87 including more lanes near the downtown San Jose area. The interchange for I-280 connecting with I-680 and US 101, a rush-hour spot where the three freeways meet has been known to have high-density traffic similar to Los Angeles County interchanges.

Major highways

Walkability

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked San Jose the nineteenth most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States.[74]

Utilities

San Jose Water Works at West Santa Clara St.

Potable water is provided primarily by the private-sector San Jose Water Company, with some by the Great Oaks Water Company, and ten percent by the public-sector San Jose Municipal Water System. Great Oaks provides exclusively well water[citation needed], while the other two provide water from multiple sources[citation needed], including well water, and surface water from the Los Gatos Creek watershed, Santa Clara Valley Water District, and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's Hetch Hetchy Reservoir.

Garbage, wastewater treatment, and recycling services are overseen by the city of San Jose's Environmental Services Department. San Jose recycles 64% of its waste, an exceptionally high percentage that is attributed to the recycling program's accepting an unusually long list of recyclable items without requiring that materials be sorted.[75] Among the items accepted are all types of plastic, aerosol cans and paint cans, foam packing materials, aluminum furniture, small metal appliances, pots and pans, and clean fabrics.

Wastewater treatment happens at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, which treats and cleans the wastewater of more than 1,500,000 people that live and work in the 300+ square mile (780 km²) area encompassing San Jose, Santa Clara, Milpitas, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Gatos, Saratoga, and Monte Sereno.[75]

About ten percent of the treated wastewater is sold for irrigation ("water recycling") in San Jose[citation needed], Santa Clara, and Milpitas, through local water providers San Jose Municipal Water System, City of Milpitas Municipal Services, City of Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utility, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose Water Company, and Great Oaks Water Company.

PG&E provides residents natural gas and electricity service. Telephone communications are provided primarily by AT&T, and cable television is provided by Comcast. Internet services are provided by several companies, but primarily by Comcast and AT&T.

Education

Colleges and universities

San Jose is home to several colleges and universities. The largest is San Jose State University, which was founded by the California legislature in 1862 as the California State Normal School, and is the founding campus of the California State University (CSU) system. Located in downtown San Jose since 1870, the university enrolls approximately 30,000 students in over 130 different bachelor's and master's degree programs. The school enjoys a good academic reputation, especially in the fields of engineering, business, art and design, and journalism, and consistently ranks among the top public universities in the western region of the United States.[76] San Jose State is one of only three Bay Area schools that fields a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) Division I college football team; Stanford University and U.C. Berkeley are the other two.

National Hispanic University, with an enrollment of 600, offers associate and bachelor's degrees and teaching credentials to its students, focusing on Hispanic students.

California University of Management and Technology (CALMAT) offers many degree programs, including MBA, Computer Science, Information Technology. Most classes are offered both online and in the downtown campus. Many of the students are working professionals in the Silicon Valley.

Lincoln Law School of San Jose and University of Silicon Valley Law School offer law degrees, catering to working professionals.

National University maintains a campus in San Jose.

The San Jose campus of Golden Gate University offers business bachelor and MBA degrees.

San Jose's community colleges, San Jose City College and Evergreen Valley College, offer associate degrees, general education units to transfer to CSU and UC schools, and adult and continuing education programs. The West campus of Palmer College of Chiropractic is also located in San Jose.

WestMed College is headquartered in San Jose and offers paramedic training, emergency medical technician training, and licensed vocational nursing programs.

The University of California, Santa Cruz operates Lick Observatory atop Mount Hamilton.

Additionally, San Jose residents attend several other area universities, including Santa Clara University, Stanford University in Palo Alto, Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley in Mountain View and the University of California, Berkeley. San Jose and South Bay residents also comprise large proportions of the student bodies at major California public universities, including UC Santa Cruz, UC Davis, and UC San Diego.

Primary and secondary education

Up until the opening of Lincoln High School in 1943, San Jose students only attended San Jose High School. Some of the city's history is embedded within these two high schools, which hold a Thanksgiving Day high school football game, called the "Big Bone." As of 2010, there are 127 elementary, 47 middle, and 44 high schools, of which are all public. Public education in the city is provided by four high school districts, fourteen elementary districts, and four unified school districts (which provide both elementary and high schools).

In addition to the main San Jose Unified School District (SJUSD), other nearby unified school districts of nearby cities are Milpitas Unified School District, Morgan Hill Unified School District, and Santa Clara Unified School District.

Districts using the "feeder" system:

Annexation issue

Prior to 1954, California law required cities and school districts to have the same boundaries. When San Jose began expanding, rural school districts became one of the major opponents, as their territory and tax base was taken by the city. The city's legislators pushed a bill through the California Legislature, removing that requirement, and ending much of the opposition. The result is a patchwork of local school districts in the areas annexed after 1954.[12]

Private education

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library

Private schools in San Jose are primarily run by religious groups. The Catholic Diocese of San Jose has the second largest student population in the Santa Clara County, behind only SJUSD; the diocese and its parishes operate several schools in the city, including six high schools: Archbishop Mitty High School, Bellarmine College Preparatory, Notre Dame High School, Saint Francis High School, St. Lawrence High School, and Presentation High School.[77] Other private high schools not run by the Diocese include two Baptist high schools, Liberty Baptist School and White Road Baptist Academy, one Non-Denominational Protestant high school, Valley Christian High School (San Jose, California), and a nonsectarian K-12 Harker School west of the city in the Blackford neighborhood.

San Jose library system

The San Jose Public Library system is unique in that the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library combines the collections of the city's system with the San Jose State University main library. In 2003, construction of the library, which now holds more than 1.6 million items, was the largest single library construction project west of the Mississippi, with eight floors that result in more than 475,000 square feet (44,100 m2) of space with a capacity for 2 million volumes.[78]

The city has 21 neighborhood branches (17 of them open and not currently undergoing renovation or reconstruction) including the Biblioteca Latinoamericana which specializes in Spanish language works.[79] The East San Jose Carnegie Branch Library, a Carnegie library opened in 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Santa Clara County still operating as a public library and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. As the result of a bond measure passed in November 2000, a number of brand new or completely reconstructed branches have been completed and opened. The four branches currently undergoing construction are the Calabazas Branch, the Educational Park Branch, the Seventrees Branch, and the Bascom Branch and Community Center. The yet-to-be-named brand new Southeast Branch is also planned, bringing the bond library project to its completion.[80]

The San Jose system (along with the University system) were jointly named as "Library of the Year" by the Library Journal in 2004.[81]

Attractions

Aerial view of San Jose. The intersection of I-280 and Guadalupe Parkway is shown at bottom. View is to the south.
View of Circle of Palms Plaza
Front of the San Jose Museum of Art, the remaining façade of San Jose's first post office
The Market in Downtown San Jose as seen with uplit palms
The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum at Rosicrucian Park
Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph
Church of the Five Wounds on East Santa Clara St.
Palm trees on Almaden Boulevard

Parks, gardens, and other outdoor recreational sites

Trails

San Jose's trail network offers over 53 miles (90 km) of recreational and commute trails throughout the City.[83] The major trails in the network include:

This large urban trail network, recognized by Prevention Magazine as the nation's largest, is linked to trails in surrounding jurisdictions and many rural trails in surrounding open space and foothills.

Museums, libraries, and other cultural collections

Sports and event venues

Other structures

Media

NBC 11's KNTV is licensed to San Jose. San Jose is served by Greater Bay Area media. Media outlets in San Jose include the San Jose Mercury News, San Francisco Chronicle, The Oakland Tribune and various smaller newspapers and magazines, thirty-four television stations, twenty-four AM radio stations, and fifty-five FM radio stations.[84]

In April 1909, Charles David Herrold, an electronics instructor in San Jose, constructed a radio station to broadcast the human voice. The station "San Jose Calling" (call letters FN, later FQW), was the world's first radio station with scheduled programming targeted at a general audience. The station became the first to broadcast music in 1910. Herrold's wife Sybil became the first female "disk jockey" in 1912. The station changed hands a number of times before eventually becoming today's KCBS in San Francisco.[85] Therefore KCBS technically is the oldest radio station in the United States, and celebrated their 100th anniversary in 2009 with much fanfare.

Cultural references to San Jose

  • It is referenced in "Do You Know the Way to San Jose", with lyrics by Hal David and music by Burt Bacharach. It became a Grammy-winning 1968 hit single (Pop #10, R&B #23) for Dionne Warwick, her version categorized Scepter Records 12216; more than 100 other known recordings exist.
  • Michaela Roessner's Vanishing Point, (Tor, New York, 1993, ISBN 0-312-85213-4) a post-apocalyptic novel, is largely set in San Jose. In the book, many South Bay survivors have gathered to live in the Winchester Mystery House and the nearby Century Theatres dome.
  • British studio quartet The First Class had a 1974 Billboard #4 hit "Beach Baby", containing the lyric "We couldn't wait for graduation day, we took the car and drove to San Jose. That's where you told me that you'd wear my ring, I guess you don't remember anything."
  • A chapter in the book White Fang has some references to San Jose.
  • Artist Jeremy Blake referenced San Jose's Winchester Mystery House in his Winchester series.
  • A chapter in the book The Kite Runner mentions San Jose and the San Jose Flea Market.
  • The movie Valley Of The Hearts Delight featuring the late Pete Postlethwaite is based on an actual kidnapping, murder, cover up, and mob lynching which took place in San Jose in 1933.[86]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ U.S. Census
  2. ^ "USGS—San Jose, California". http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:1654952. Retrieved February 17, 2007. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov. 
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_United_States_Combined_Statistical_Areas
  5. ^ "The First City". California History Online. Archived from the original on February 18, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080218051828/http://www.californiahistory.net/text_only/4_3_1.htm. Retrieved March 15, 2008. 
  6. ^ "California Admission Day—September 9, 1850". California State Parks. 2007. http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=23856. Retrieved March 15, 2008. 
  7. ^ GaWC. "The World According to GaWC". http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  8. ^ a b "Early History". National Register of Historic Places. http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/santaclara/history.htm. Retrieved June 5, 2007. 
  9. ^ "Junípero Serra". California History Online. California Historical Society. 2000. Archived from the original on August 12, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040812151444/http://www.californiahistory.net/4_PAGES/missions_junipero.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2007. 
  10. ^ Clyde Arbuckle (1986). Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose. Smith McKay Printing. ISBN 978-9996625220. 
  11. ^ "Agnews Insane Asylum". National Register of Historic Places. http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/santaclara/agn.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007. 
  12. ^ a b c "Flashback: A short political history of San Jose". San Jose State University. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/PoliSci/faculty/christensen/flashback.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2007. 
  13. ^ "BAE Systems History". http://www.uniteddefense.com/co/history.htm. 
  14. ^ Winslow, Ward (editor); The Making of Silicon Valley: a One Hundred Year Renaissance; 1995; ISBN 0-9649217-0-7
  15. ^ "San Jose case study, part one: the urban-growth boundary". Thoreau Institute. http://www.ti.org/vaupdate31.html. Retrieved June 7, 2007. 
  16. ^ "Building Permit History, 1980–2006". City of San Jose. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/data/build_permit_hist/table1.asp. Retrieved June 7, 2007. 
  17. ^ "''City of San Jose'' City Charter". Sanjoseca.gov. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/clerk/charter.asp#Art1. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  18. ^ "'Welcome to the City of San José'". http://www.sanjoseca.gov/about.asp. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  19. ^ R. E. Holdsworth; R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe (2001). The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening. Geological Society of London. p. 15. ISBN 978-1862390904. http://books.google.com/?id=K1sFPEjiwiAC&pg=PA15&dq=Calaveras+Fault+San+Jose+earthquake+1984#v=onepage&q=Calaveras%20Fault%20San%20Jose%20earthquake%201984&f=false. 
  20. ^ "Sinking State". San Francisco State University. April 1996. http://www.journalism.sfsu.edu/www/pubs/prism/apr96/14.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  21. ^ San Jose City Council, (March 1, 1983). "Outdoor lighting on private developments". http://sanjoseca.gov/planning/counter/policies/pol_lighting.pdf. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  22. ^ "UCSC, Lick Observatory designate asteroid for the city of San Jose". University of California, Santa Cruz. May 25, 1998. http://www.ucsc.edu/oncampus/currents/97-98/05-25/asteroid.htm. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  23. ^ Miguel Miller. "Climate of San Jose". National Weather Service. http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/mtr/sfd_sjc_climate/sjc/SJC_CLIMATE3.php. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  24. ^ "San Jose Month Weather". AccuWeather. http://www.accuweather.com/us/ca/san-jose/95113/forecast-month.asp. 
  25. ^ wrcc.dri.edu/summary/Climsmcaa.html; San Francisco Chronicle, August 22, 1968
  26. ^ "NCDC: U.S. Climate Normals" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/ca/047821.pdf. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Average Weather for San Jose, CA - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/95129. Retrieved 2011-09-19. 
  28. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. 2008-07. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-01.xls. Retrieved July 19, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000". http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2009-01.csv. 
  30. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 54.
  31. ^ All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
  32. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  33. ^ "San Jose, California: Earnings in the Past 12 Months (In 2007 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars)". U.S. Fact Finder. U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-context=st&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S2001&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=st&-tree_id=307&-keyword=San%20Jose,%20California&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US0668000&-format=&-_lang=en. 
  34. ^ Estrella, Cicero A. (2004-02). "S.F.'s 'Little Saigon' / Stretch of Larkin Street named for Vietnamese Americans". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/02/16/BAG2751OP81.DTL. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Fact Sheet: Community Profile: Employment and Employers". City of San Jose. May 10, 2010. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/data/fact_sheet/FactSheet.pdf. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Contact Us." Acer America. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  37. ^ Helm, Leslie. "contact netcom." Netcom. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
  38. ^ "Netcom to Set Time Limits on Internet Use; Technology: The rule will apply to customers with current services. The firm offers higher-priced plans with an access guarantee." Los Angeles Times. March 25, 1997. Part D Financial Desk Start Page 1. Retrieved on September 7, 2010. "Charting a new direction for money-losing Internet service providers, San Jose- based Netcom On-Line Communications Services..."
  39. ^ fedc.com/ACCRACostofLivingIndex2ndQuarter2004.htm[dead link]
  40. ^ "San Jose – Accolades". "America's Most Livable Communities" (Partners for Livable Communities, Washington, DC). http://www.mostlivable.org/general/san-jos-city-home.html. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  41. ^ "San Jose, Capital of Silicon Valley: #1 Community for Innovators in U.S.". City of San Jose. March 27, 2008. http://www.sjeconomy.com/aboutsj/communityinnovators.asp. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  42. ^ a b America's most livable:San Jose, California[dead link]
  43. ^ City of San Jose Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2010 Retrieved May 29, 2011
  44. ^ "List of California Charter Cities". The California Planners' Book of Lists. California Governor's Office of Planning and Research. 1999. http://ceres.ca.gov/planning/bol/1999/charter.html. Retrieved June 9, 2007. 
  45. ^ a b "San Jose City Charter". Sanjoseca.gov. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/clerk/Charter.htm. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Local Agency Formation Commission". Santaclara.lafco.ca.gov. http://www.santaclara.lafco.ca.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Charter of the County of Santa Clara, Article 101". Santa Clara County. http://www.sccgov.org/SCC/docs%2FSCC%20Public%20Portal%2Fattachments%2F628168County_Charter.pdf. Retrieved February 16, 2008. 
  48. ^ "County of Santa Clara Contacts". http://www.sccgov.org/portal/site/scc/contacts. Retrieved February 16, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved February 10, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Courts of Appeal: Sixth District San Jose". California State Courts. http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/courts/courtsofappeal/6thDistrict/. Retrieved February 16, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Court Info: San Jose". United States District Court for the Northern California District. http://www.cand.uscourts.gov/CAND/FAQ.nsf/840afa494a77a59388256d4e007d54ff/de9a30b748bc1e5388256ebc0055acf4?OpenDocument. Retrieved February 16, 2008. 
  52. ^ a b c "FBI Uniform Crime Reports". http://www.ucrdatatool.gov/Search/Crime/Local/RunCrimeTrendsInOneVarLarge.cfm. 
  53. ^ Males, Mike. Scapegoat Generation
  54. ^ 2007 Morgan Quitno and Khoa Le Award City Crime Rankings by Population Group (To verify the "Since 2002" claim, change the 07 in the URL to see previous year's results.)
  55. ^ City Crime rankings by Population group
  56. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/san-francisco/homicides-spike-san-jose-oakland-163505120.html
  57. ^ "Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members". http://www.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/html/about/members.shtml. 
  58. ^ "Sister City Program". The City of San Jose. http://www.sjeconomy.com/sistercities/. Retrieved May 8, 2009. 
  59. ^ "Staff Review Agenda". City of San Jose. November 15, 2007. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/pdf/recent/111507.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  60. ^ "Development Services". City of San Jose. February 6, 2006. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/development/developmentcenter/second_floor.asp. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  61. ^ "San Jose Downtown Historic District". National Parks Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/santaclara/shd.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  62. ^ "Green Building Policy". April 10, 2007. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/ESD/natural-energy-resources/gb-policy.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  63. ^ Yoders, Jeff (November 1, 2005). "San Jose's Richard Meier-designed city hall: To Leed, or Not to Leed". Building Design and Construction. http://www.bdcnetwork.com/article/CA6281251.html. Retrieved May 5, 2008. [dead link]
  64. ^ 2006–2007 Proposed Capital Budget. City of San Jose. http://www.sanjoseca.gov/budget/FY0607/ProposedCapital/28.pdf. 
  65. ^ "Herhold: I'll miss the red eyes of San Jose's plumed serpent". San Jose Mercury News. http://www.mercurynews.com/scott-herhold/ci_17274049?nclick_check=1. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Fallon statue unveiled". Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal. September 20, 2002. http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2002/09/16/daily78.html. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  67. ^ Jim LaFrenere. "Chicago cows on parade exhibit". Chicagotraveler.com. http://www.chicagotraveler.com/cows_on_parade.htm. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  68. ^ Chris Salter; Peter Sellars (2010). Entangled: Technology and the Transformation of Performance. The MIT Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0262195881. http://books.google.com/?id=ZBJbIP0fMr0C&pg=PA342&dq=San+Jose+Semaphore+Ben+Rubin#v=onepage&q=San%20Jose%20Semaphore%20Ben%20Rubin&f=false. 
  69. ^ "Decoding the San Jose Semaphore". Ear Studio. http://www.earstudio.com/sanjosesemaphore/decoding.pdf. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  70. ^ "San Jose Museum of Art". San Jose Museum of Art. http://www.sanjosemuseumofart.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  71. ^ Bruce Newman (July 24, 2008). "Unseen Heros: Olympians in 'lockdown' at SJSU on way to Beijing". San Jose Mercury News. http://origin.mercurynews.com/tv/ci_9980596. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  72. ^ "San Jose State Spartans Team History". sjsuhockey.net. 2010. http://www.sjsuhockey.net/NewHistory.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  73. ^ Goll, David (March 13, 2009). "BART-San Jose planners in it for the long haul". http://sanjose.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2009/03/16/story4.html. Retrieved March 13, 2009. 
  74. ^ "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. http://www.walkscore.com/rankings/cities/. Retrieved Aug 28, 2011. 
  75. ^ a b "Flat Rate Reality San Jose Area Info". http://www.flatraterealtysanjose.com/html/areaInfo.htm. [dead link]
  76. ^ "Best Colleges 2010". U.S. News and World Report. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/masters-west-top-public. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  77. ^ "Schools". Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in California. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927173701/http://www.dsj.org/dsj/schools_results.asp?show=all. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  78. ^ SJ Library MLK Fast Facts page (Mentions joint university/city status, collection size and size of construction project.)
  79. ^ Locations page at SJ Library site(See BL article for its references.)
  80. ^ "Bond Projects for Branch Libraries page at the SJ Library site". Sjlibrary.org. http://www.sjlibrary.org/about/sjpl/bond/index.htm. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  81. ^ San Jose 2003–2004 Annual Report "In 2004, San José Public Library and San José State University Library were jointly named Library of the Year by the Library Journal."
  82. ^ [1][dead link]
  83. ^ "Network Status Table". City of San Jose. January 30, 2008. http://www.sjparks.org/trails/doc/TrailStatus1-30-08.pdf. Retrieved March 31, 2008. 
  84. ^ Digital/HDTV Television Channel List – SF Bay Area. Choisser.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
  85. ^ Marty Cheek. "KQW Radio, San Jose". Bay Area Radio Museum. http://www.bayarearadio.org/audio/kqw/kqw_30th-anniv_nov-10-1945.shtml. Retrieved June 18, 2007. 
  86. ^ Richard von Busack (Octorber 3, 2007). "'Valley of the Heart's Delight' asks new questions about San Jose's crime of the century—and whether a lynch mob murdered two innocent men in St. James Park". Metro Silicon Valley. http://www.metroactive.com/metro/10.03.07/cover-0740.html. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  • The Weather Channel data for San Jose
  • Peck, Willys I., "When Ma Bell Spoke With a Human Voice," Saratoga Stereopticon: A Magic Lantern of Memory, Cupertino, California: California History Center and Foundation, 1998, pp. 41–42.
  • Map: Mobile Communications: Reaching the World by Mobile Telephone Service, (San Francisco: Pacific Telephone Co., 1983.)
  • Undated San Jose Mercury News article describing exchange names possibly written by Patricia Loomis or Clyde Arbuckle.

Further reading

  • Beilharz, Edwin A.; and DeMers Jr., Donald O.; San Jose: California's First City; 1980, ISBN 0-932986-13-7
  • The California Room, the San Jose Library's collection of research materials on the history of San Jose and Santa Clara Valley.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • San José (California) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda San José, California Apodo(s): Capital of Silicon Valley …   Wikipedia Español

  • San Jose (California) — San José Spitzname: Capital of Silicon Valley Downtown …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • San José (California) — San José es una de las grandes ciudades del estado de California, en los Estados Unidos y es la capital del condado de Santa Clara. La ciudad se ubica en el sur de la bahía de San Francisco, dentro de los límites del llamado Valle del Silicio.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Downtown Historic District (San Jose, California) — San Jose Downtown Historic District U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. Historic district …   Wikipedia

  • Media in San Jose, California — San Jose, California is served by San Francisco Bay Area media. The following lists include the greater Bay Area media. Contents 1 Print media 2 Television 3 Radio 4 Notes and references …   Wikipedia

  • Mission San José (California) — This article refers to the Spanish mission. For the neighborhood and historical town, see Mission San Jose, Fremont, California. Mission San José Mission San José as it appeared in April 2011. Location 43300 Mission Blvd …   Wikipedia

  • History of San Jose, California — ite chosen by De AnzaFor thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans.cite web |url=http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/santaclara/history.htm… …   Wikipedia

  • Berryessa, San Jose, California — Berryessa   Neighborhood of San Jose   Nickname(s): North Valley …   Wikipedia

  • Notre Dame High School (San Jose, California) — Notre Dame High School Address 596 South 2nd Street San Jose, California, (Santa Clara County), 95112 …   Wikipedia

  • Castillero Middle School (San Jose, California) — Infobox middle school name = Castillero Middle School motto = mascot = Cobra established = 1977 type = Public head = Ms.Jonson city = San Jose state = California country = USA campus = Suburban, convert|3.25|acre|m2 students = 1,279 colors =… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.