Stockton, California

Stockton, California
City of Stockton
—  City  —
The head of the Stockton Deep Water Channel from Center Street

Seal
Nickname(s): California's Sunrise Seaport, Mudville, Stocktown
Motto: "Stockton--All America City"
Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California
Coordinates: 37°58′32″N 121°18′03″W / 37.97556°N 121.30083°W / 37.97556; -121.30083Coordinates: 37°58′32″N 121°18′03″W / 37.97556°N 121.30083°W / 37.97556; -121.30083
Country  United States
State  California
County San Joaquin
Incorporated July 1850
Government
 – Type Council-Manager
 – Mayor Ann Johnston
 – City Council Elbert Holman
Katherine Miller
Paul Canepa
Diana Lowery
Susan Talamantes Eggman
Dale Fritchen
 – City Manager Bob Deis
 – Senate Lois Wolk (D)
 – Assembly Joan Buchanan (D)
Cathleen Galgiani (D)
Area[1]
 – Total 64.753 sq mi (167.708 km2)
 – Land 61.670 sq mi (159.723 km2)
 – Water 3.083 sq mi (7.985 km2)  4.76%
Elevation 13 ft (4 m)
Population (2010)
 – Total 291,707
 – Rank 1st in San Joaquin County
13th in California
65th in the United States
 – Density 4,504.9/sq mi (1,739.4/km2)
Time zone Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)
 – Summer (DST) Pacific (PDT) (UTC-7)
ZIP code 952xx
Area code(s) 209
FIPS code 06-75000
GNIS feature ID 1659872
Website www.stocktongov.com

Stockton, the county seat of San Joaquin County, is the 4th-largest city in Central Valley. With a population of 291,707 at the 2010 census, Stockton ranks as the 13th largest city in the state of California. The city is located in Northern California south of the state capital Sacramento and north of Modesto.

Stockton is along Interstate 5, State Route 99 and State Route 4 amid the farmland of the California Central Valley. It is connected westward with San Francisco Bay by the San Joaquin River's 78-mile (126 km) channel, and is, with Sacramento, one of the state's two inland sea ports. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways and rivers that make up the California Delta.

The city hosts the annual Asparagus Festival and is the location of Haggin Museum, an art and history museum built in Victory Park in 1931. The museum displays 19th and 20th century works of art and houses local historical exhibits. For much of the later 19th century, starting with the Gold Rush, Stockton was one of the largest cities in the state, for a while the third largest city.

Contents

History

The Miwok Indians lived in the Central Valley among the delta's waterways, using them for food and transportation. The northern San Joaquin Valley was also the southern end of the Siskiyou Trail, a centuries-old footpath leading through the Sacramento Valley, over the Cascades, and onward to Oregon.

When Captain Charles Maria Weber, a German immigrant, decided to try his hand at gold mining in late 1848, he soon discovered that serving the needs of gold-seekers was a more profitable venture.[2] As an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, so he formed a partnership with William Gulnae. Born in New York, Gulnae had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, and he applied in Weber's place for a land grant of eleven square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River.[3]

Weber acquired the Rancho Campo de los Franceses Mexican land grant, and founded Stockton in 1849. The area now known as Weber Point is the same spot where Captain Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley.[4]

During its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including "Tuleburg", "Fat City," and "Mudville". Captain Weber decided on "Stockton" in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. Stockton was the first community in California to have a name not of Spanish or Native American origin

Main Street, Stockton, California, from Robert N. Dennis collection of stereoscopic views, ca. 1870

The city was officially incorporated on July 23, 1850, by the County Court, and the first city election was held on July 31, 1850. In 1851, the City of Stockton received its charter from the State of California. Early settlers included gold seekers from Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, the Pacific Islands, Mexico and Canada. The historical population diversity is reflected in Stockton street names, architecture, numerous ethnic festivals, and in the faces and heritage of a majority of its citizens.

Benjamin Holt settled in Stockton in 1883 and with his three brothers founded the Stockton Wheel Co., and later the Holt Manufacturing Company. On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 24, 1904, Holt successfully tested the first workable track-laying machine plowing soggy San Joaquin Valley Delta farmland.[5] Company photographer Charles Clements was reported to have observed that the tractor crawled like a caterpillar, and Holt seized on the metaphor. "Caterpillar it is. That’s the name for it!" [6]

British Major Ernest Swinton saw the potential of a track-laying tractor. He proposed that the Army should adapt the Holt tractor to build a power-driven, bullet-proof, tracked vehicle that could destroy enemy guns. While the Admiralty chose to use a British firm, Foster and Sons, whose managing director and designer was Sir William Tritton,[7] the Holt tractor was credited by Swinton with helping to win the war. He traveled to Stockton and in a public ceremony on April 22, 1918, relayed England's gratitude to the inventor.[8] The Holt tractor became one of the most important military vehicles of all time.[9] After the war, Holt built the gasoline-electric tank, an American tank.

Stockton, California circa 1860

The extensive network of waterways in and around Stockton were fished and navigated by Miwok Indians for centuries. During the California Gold Rush, the San Joaquin River was navigable by ocean-going vessels, making Stockton a natural inland seaport and point of supply and departure for prospective gold-miners. From the mid-19th century onward, Stockton became the region's transportation hub, dealing mainly with agricultural products. In 1933, the port was modernized and the Stockton Deepwater Channel linking the city to San Francisco Bay was deepened and completed. This created commercial opportunities that fueled the city's growth and paved the way for the Rough and Ready Island naval base which placed Stockton in a strategic position during the Cold War.

In September 1996, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission announced the final closure of Stockton's Naval Reserve Center on Rough and Ready Island. The island's facilities had served as a major communications outpost for submarine activities in the Pacific during the Cold War. The site is slowly being redeveloped as commercial property.

Downtown revitalization

Beginning in the late 1990s under the mayorship of Gary Podesto, Stockton has experienced some revitalization.[citation needed]

Newly built or renovated buildings include the Bob Hope Theater, Regal City Centre Cinemas and IMAX, San Joaquin RTD Downtown Transit Center, Lexington Plaza Waterfront Hotel, Hotel Stockton, Stockton Arena, San Joaquin County Administration Building, and the Stockton Ballpark.

The "sunken parking lot" in front of the Hotel Stockton was transformed in the late 1990s into a public space named "Dean DeCarli Waterfront Square." The area is designed to provide for many different settings including a sunken plaza, shade structure, numerous trees and planters, stadia seating, bench seating, viewing platforms, a weir at the west end, and a cascading waterfall at the east end. DeCarli Square is now a popular location hosting music, art and religious events, festivals, Farmers Markets and social gatherings.

A new Downtown Marina and adjacent Joan Darrah Promenade were added along the South Shore of the Stockton Deep Water Channel during 2009. Various public art projects were also installed throughout the area (see Stockton's public art section).

Other projects under consideration by the city council or under consideration as of January, 2009 include South Shore housing, the revitalization of the Robert J. Cabral Train Station neighborhood, bridges across the Stockton Deep Water Channel, and a new San Joaquin County Court House.[citation needed]

Geography and climate

Stockton is located at 37°58' north, 121°18' west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 64.8 square miles (168 km2), of which 61.7 square miles (160 km2) is land and 3.1 square miles (8.0 km2) (4.76%) is water. The city lies at the nadir of the San Joaquin Valley.

Stockton has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), with hot, dry summers and cool but mild, wet winters. In an average year, about 80% of the 13.8 inches (351 mm) of precipitation falls from October through April. Located in the Central Valley, the temperatures range is much greater than in the nearby Bay Area. Tule fog blankets the area during some winter days.

At the airport, the highest recorded temperature was 115 °F (46 °C) on July 23, 2006, and the lowest was 16 °F (−9 °C) on Jan. 11, 1949. There are an average of 81 days annually with high temperatures of 90 °F (32.2 °C) or higher, and 19 above 100 °F (37.8 °C); 22.2 days see low temperatures at or below freezing. The wettest year was 1983 with 26.65 inches (677 mm) and the lowest year was 1976 with 5.6 inches (140 mm). The most rainfall in one month was 8.22 inches (209 mm) in February 1998 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.01 inches (76 mm) on Jan. 21, 1967. There are an average of 55 days with measurable precipitation. Only light amounts of snow have been recorded; the most was 0.3 inches (7.6 mm) in February 1976.[10]


Climate data for Stockton, California (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 53.8
(12.1)
61.2
(16.2)
66.1
(18.9)
73.3
(22.9)
81.3
(27.4)
88.9
(31.6)
93.8
(34.3)
92.6
(33.7)
88.2
(31.2)
78.6
(25.9)
64.0
(17.8)
53.8
(12.1)
74.6
Average low °F (°C) 38.1
(3.4)
41.0
(5.0)
43.6
(6.4)
46.7
(8.2)
52.1
(11.2)
57.5
(14.2)
60.8
(16.0)
60.3
(15.7)
57.4
(14.1)
50.5
(10.3)
42.1
(5.6)
36.7
(2.6)
48.9
Rainfall inches (mm) 2.71
(68.8)
2.46
(62.5)
2.28
(57.9)
0.96
(24.4)
0.50
(12.7)
0.09
(2.3)
0.05
(1.3)
0.05
(1.3)
0.33
(8.4)
0.82
(20.8)
1.77
(45)
1.82
(46.2)
13.84
(351.5)
Avg. rainy days 9.5 8.9 9.3 4.8 2.3 1.0 0.4 0.4 1.2 3.3 6.7 7.5 55.3
Source: NOAA [11]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1860 3,679
1870 10,066 173.6%
1880 10,282 2.1%
1890 14,424 40.3%
1900 17,506 21.4%
1910 23,253 32.8%
1920 40,296 73.3%
1930 47,963 19.0%
1940 54,714 14.1%
1950 70,853 29.5%
1960 86,321 21.8%
1970 109,963 27.4%
1980 149,779 36.2%
1990 210,943 40.8%
2000 243,771 15.6%
2010 291,707 19.7%

2010

The 2010 United States Census[12] reported that Stockton had a population of 291,707. The population density was 4,505.0 people per square mile (1,739.4/km²). The racial makeup of Stockton was 108,044 (37.0%) White, 35,548 (12.2%) African American, 3,086 (1.1%) Native American, 62,716 (21.5%) Asian, 1,822 (0.6%) Pacific Islander, 60,332 (20.7%) from other races, and 20,159 (6.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 117,590 persons (40.3%).

The Census reported that 285,973 people (98.0% of the population) lived in households, 3,896 (1.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,838 (0.6%) were institutionalized.

There were 90,605 households, out of which 41,033 (45.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 41,481 (45.8%) were heterosexual married couples living together, 17,140 (18.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 7,157 (7.9%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 7,123 (7.9%) unmarried heterosexual partnerships, and 720 (0.8%) homosexual married couples or partnerships. 19,484 households (21.5%) were made up of individuals and 7,185 (7.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.16. There were 65,778 families (72.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.69.

The population was spread out with 87,338 people (29.9%) under the age of 18, 34,126 people (11.7%) aged 18 to 24, 76,691 people (26.3%) aged 25 to 44, 64,300 people (22.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 29,252 people (10.0%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.8 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.

There were 99,637 housing units at an average density of 1,538.7 per square mile (594.1/km²), of which 46,738 (51.6%) were owner-occupied, and 43,867 (48.4%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.2%; the rental vacancy rate was 9.4%. 146,235 people (50.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 139,738 people (47.9%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 243,771 people, 78,556 households, and 56,167 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,720.4/km² (4,455.7/mi²). There were 82,042 housing units at an average density of 579.0/km² (1,499.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 43.26% White, 11.25% African American, 1.12% Native American, 19.90% Asian, 0.40% Pacific Islander, 17.31% from other races, and 6.76% from two or more races. 32.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 78,556 households out of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.5% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.59.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,453, and the median income for a family was $40,434. Males had a median income of $35,181 versus $26,602 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,405. 23.9% of the population and 18.9% of families were below the poverty line. 32.8% of those under the age of 18 and 11.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Living conditions

In the February 2, 2011 issue of Forbes, the magazine gave Stockton the dubious distinction of being the "most miserable" US city, largely as a result of the steep drop in home values.[14]

Central Connecticut State University surveys from 2005 and 2006 ranked the city as the least literate of all U.S. cities with a population of more than 250,000.[15][16][17]

According to a Gallup poll, Stockton was tied with Montgomery, Alabama for the most obese metro area in the United States of America with an obesity rate of 34.6 percent.[18]

Stockton lies in the fertile heart of the California Mediterranean climate prairie delta, about equidistant from the Pacific Ocean and the Sierra Nevada.

Government

Ann Johnston is the mayor of Stockton as of January 1, 2009[19] Johnston succeeded Ed Chavez, who succeeded Gary Podesto.

The City Council consists of the following members as of January 1, 2009;[20]

  • Elbert Holman—District 1
  • Katherine Miller—District 2
  • Paul Canepa—District 3
  • Diana Lowery—District 4
  • Susan Talamantes Eggman—District 5
  • Dale Fritchen—District 6

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city reported a significant deficit with USD$443.9 million in revenue and USD$485.4 million in expenditures. The report cited USD$1,903.5 million in total assets and USD$679.9 million in total liabilities, with $203.5 million in cash and investments.[21]

Former Fairfield, California City Manager Kevin O'Rouke was hired as Interim City Manager after the retirement of Palmer, until the Stockton City Council announced that former County of Sonoma Administrator Bob Deis as permanent replacement and will take over the position as of July 2010.

The current form of government is a city manager council:[21][22]

City Department Director
City Manager Bob Deis
Deputy City Managers Laurie K. Montes, Mike Locke
Administrative Director/CFO Susan Mayer
Director Community Development Michael M. Niblock
Interim Director Human Resources Di Smith
Director Municipal Utilities Mark J. Madison
Director Community Services/Library Services Pamela J. Sloan
Director Public Works Bob Murdoch
Fire Chief Ronald L. Hittle
Police Chief Blair Ulring
Director of Economic Development

Economy

Although historically an agricultural community, Stockton's economy has since diversified. These include telecommunications and manufacturing among others. Because of the new focus on renewable energy, the proximity to agriculture will become even more important in the future as research and development combine agriculture with alternative fuels.

Stockton is centrally located relative to both San Francisco and Sacramento. Given its location, its proximity to the state and interstate freeway system, and relatively inexpensive land costs, several companies base their regional operations in Stockton. These include Duraflame, Pac-West Telecommunications, Golden State Lumber Company and several others.

Stockton is rapidly becoming the community of choice for companies looking for an area to move or expand industries related to renewable energy. The Port of Stockton is one of the largest receivers of wind turbines in the world. Stockton’s rail capacity makes distribution from the Port seamless. The sun and wind potential in Stockton is among some of the best in the country and with 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) available, the Port is already home to biodiesel and ethanol plants. The City of Stockton and the Port have worked in partnership to focus resources on developing green sustainable industry. The City of Stockton has been leading the way with their own policies for supporting green and renewable technologies. Stockton is working with local educational institutions, including high schools, community colleges, and four year universities, to educate the workforce for the booming renewable energy industry.[citation needed]

As of May, 2011, Stockton's unemployment rate is among the highest in the nation, at 18.4%.

Top employers

According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[21] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 San Joaquin County 5,938
2 Stockton Unified School District 4,000
3 St. Joseph’s Medical Center 2,230
4 OG Packing 2,001
5 California Division of Juvenile Justice 1,492
6 Diamond Foods 1,467
7 City of Stockton 1,425
8 Dameron Hospital 1,200
9 North California Youth Center 1,000
10 University of the Pacific 966

Real estate crash

Stockton was disproportionately affected by the collapse of the sub-prime lending market in 2007, and led the United States in foreclosures for that year, with one out of every thirty homes posted for foreclosure.[23] From September 2006 to September 2007, the value of a median-priced house in Stockton declined by 44%.[24] Stockton's Weston Ranch neighborhood, a subdivision of modest tract homes built in the mid 1990s, had the worst foreclosure rate in the area according to ACORN, a national advocacy group for low and moderate-income families. As a result of the population increase, Stockton found itself squarely at the center of the United States' speculative housing bubble in the 2000s. Real estate in Stockton more than tripled in value between 1998 and 2005, but when the bubble burst in 2007, the ensuing financial crisis made Stockton one of the hardest-hit cities in America. Stockton housing prices fell 39% in the 2008 fiscal year, and the city had the country's highest foreclosure rate (9.5%) as well. Because of the shrinking economy, Stockton also had an unemployment rate of 13.3% in 2008, one of the highest in the United States. Stockton was rated by Forbes in 2009 as America's fifth most dangerous city because of its crime rate.[25] In 2010, mainly due to the aforementioned factors, Forbes named it one of the top three worst places to live.[26]

Transportation

Stockton is centrally located with access to an international deep-water port, national railroad system, and intrastate and interstate freeway system.

Land

Due to its location at the "crossroads" of the Central Valley and a relatively extensive highway system, Stockton is easily accessible from virtually anywhere in California. Interstate 5 and State Route 99, California's major north-south thoroughfares, pass through city limits. In addition, Stockton is minutes away from Interstate 80, Interstate 205 and Interstate 580.

Stockton is served by San Joaquin Regional Transit District [27] Stockton is also connected to the rest of the nation through a network of railways. Amtrak and Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) both make stops in Stockton, with Amtrak providing passenger access to the rest of the nation. Union Pacific and BNSF Railway, the two largest railroad networks in North America both service Stockton and its port via connections with the Stockton Terminal and Eastern Railroad and Central California Traction Company, who provide local and interconnecting services between the various rail lines. Recently, BNSF Railway opened a much needed $150 million intermodal freight transport facility in southeast Stockton, which satisfies long-haul transportation needs.

Air

Stockton is served by Stockton Metropolitan Airport, located on county land just south of city limits. The airport has been designated a Foreign Trade Zone and is mainly used by manufacturing and agricultural companies for shipping purposes. Since airline deregulation, passenger service has come and gone several times. Domestic service resumed on June 16, 2006 with service to Las Vegas by Allegiant Air.[28] The days of service/number of flights were expanded a few months later due to demand. Air service to Phoenix began in September 2007, but this has since been discontinued.[28][29] Most recently, on July 1, 2010, Allegiant Air implemented non-stop service to and from Long Beach, CA.[28] With respect to international service, in 2006 Aeromexico had plans to provide flights to and from Guadalajara, Mexico, but the airport's plan to build a customs station at the airport was initially rejected by the customs service. However, the possibility of building this station is currently a continuing matter of negotiation between the airport and the customs service, and Aeromexico has indicated a continuing interest in eventually providing service. Ground transportation is available from Hertz, Enterprise, Yellow Cab and Aurora Limousine.

Water

The Port of Stockton is a fully operating seaport approximately 75 nautical miles (120 km) east of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Set on the San Joaquin River, the port operates a 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) transportation center with berthing space for 17 vessels. The port also includes 1.1 million square feet (102,000 m²) of dockside transit sheds and shipside rail trackage and 7.7 million square feet (715,000 m²) of warehousing.[30] Adjacent to the port is Rough and Ready Island, which served as a World War II-era naval supply base until it was decommissioned as a result of BRAC 1995.

Education

Burns Tower on the University of the Pacific campus.

Primary and secondary

Stockton feeds into four public school districts, Stockton Unified School District, Lincoln Unified School District, Lodi Unified School District, and Manteca Unified School District. There are more than 30 private elementary and secondary schools, which include Saint Mary's High School, Stockton Collegiate International School,

Post-secondary

The University of the Pacific moved to Stockton in 1924 from San Jose. The university is the only private school in the United States with less than 10,000 students enrolled to offer eight different professional schools. It also offers a large number of degree programs relative to its student population.[31] The campus has been used in the filming of a number of Hollywood films (see below), partly due to its aesthetic likeness to East Coast Ivy League universities.

Also located in Stockton are:

  • National University (the second largest private university in the state);
  • San Joaquin Delta College, features Distance Learning Education and Internet Classes. Additional sites are being set up to expand access to education in distant locations;
  • California State University, Stanislaus established a Stockton campus on the grounds of the former Stockton State Hospital. The hospital was the first state mental institution in California;
  • Humphreys College and School of Law (which has its main campus in Stockton and a branch campus in Modesto, California),
  • Heald College;
  • Kaplan College of Stockton;
  • Christian Life College is a private four-year Bible college offering Associate and Bachelor of Arts degrees in Bible and Theology or Christian Music;
  • MTI Business College;
  • University of the Pacific.

Crime

Stockton has had a reputation for high crime rates relative to other cities in the region. The city has made efforts to reduce this rate, including improvements to public venues, using a "broken windows" strategy of linking city repairs to reduced rates, as modeled in Los Angeles.[32] In 2009, Forbes magazine reported Stockton to be on their list of the nation's most dangerous cities, at number five.[33]

In 2005, Forbes magazine listed Stockton as having 6,570 crimes per 100,000 residents[34] — the highest listed;[35] and 0.8% of engineers within total employment[36] — the lowest listed.[35] The city had the 7th lowest (of 150) educational attainment (bachelor's degree or higher over the age 25).[37] However, in 2009, Forbes reported Stockton was no longer the most dangerous city, moving to number five.

According to the San Joaquin County district attorney, the city of Stockton has the "second most violent crime rate in the state," while San Joaquin County is the fifth-most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States. This is because of Stockton's proximity to Interstate 5 in the center of California, making it "a hub for the drug cartel between Mexico, Seattle and Vancouver, British Columbia."[38]

The Cleveland Elementary School shooting

On January 17, 1989, the Stockton Police Department received a threat against Cleveland Elementary School from an unknown person. Later that day, Patrick Purdy, who was later determined to be mentally ill, opened fire on the school's playground with a semi-automatic rifle, killing five children, all Cambodian or Vietnamese refugees, and wounding 29 others, and a teacher, before taking his own life. The event received national news coverage and is sometimes referred to as the Cleveland School massacre.[39]

Then-Mayor Barbara Fass' subsequent work on gun control received national attention and sparked nationwide efforts that sought to ban semi-automatic military-style rifles like the one used in the shooting.

Popular singer and song writer Michael Jackson paid a visit to Cleveland Elementary School to see the children and families affected by this tragedy on February 7, 1989.[40]

Entertainment and culture

Performing arts

Music schools and orchestras

The Stockton Symphony is the third-oldest professional orchestra in California (founded in 1926), after the San Francisco Symphony and the Los Angeles Philharmonic.[41] The University of the Pacific is known for its music conservatory and for being the home of the Brubeck Institute, named after Dave Brubeck, a Pacific alumnus and jazz piano legend. The institute maintains an archive of Brubeck's work and offers a fellowship program for young musicians. The Brubeck Institute Jazz Quartet is composed of Pacific students and tours widely.[42] San Joaquin Delta College has a growing jazz program and is home to several official and unofficial jazz bands composed of Delta and Pacific students and faculty.[43] Christian Life College offers Associate and Bachelor of Arts degrees Christian Music.

Stockton hosts several live music venues, including the Stockton Arena, which is home to several sports teams, and has hosted nationally known entertainers such as Gwen Stefani, Rob Zombie, Ozzy Osbourne, Josh Groban, and Bob Dylan. The annual Apollo Night talent show draws about 1,500 people to the Stockton Civic Auditorium to watch performances by aspiring Northern California musicians.[44] The Bob Hope Theatre, formerly known as the Fox California Theatre in downtown Stockton, is one of several movie palaces in the Central Valley. Bob Hope often came to Stockton to visit close friend and billionaire tycoon Alex Spanos, who donated much of the money to revitalize the theater after Hope's death. The University of the Pacific Faye Spanos Concert Hall often hosts public performances, as does the Stockton Memorial Civic Auditorium. The Warren Atherton Auditorium at the Delta Center for the Arts on the campus of the San Joaquin Delta College is a 1,456-seat theater with a 60-foot (18 m) proscenium and full grid system.[45] The Stockton Empire Theater is an art deco movie theater that has been revitalized as a venue for live music.

Founded in 1951, the Stockton Civic Theatre offers an annual series of musicals, comedies and dramas. It maintains a 300-seat theater in the Venetian Bridges neighborhood. The company also hosts the annual Willie awards for the local performing arts.

Other performing arts organizations and venues include:

  • Stockton Opera
  • Pacific Theatre at the University of the Pacific
  • Tillie Lewis Theatre at the Community Delta College
  • KUDOS Children's Theatre
  • Stockton School of Performing Arts
  • Stockton Ballet School
  • New Dance Company
  • Jagged Lines of Imagination Academy

Musicians, bands, and producers with origins in Stockton

  • The rock band Pavement was formed in Stockton's Morada exurb in 1989 by Stephen Malkmus and Scott Kannberg. Much of their early material was recorded in North Stockton at Gary Young's Louder Than You Think Studios, which later moved to Linden.
  • Singer-songwriter Grant-Lee Phillips, later of the Los Angeles band Grant Lee Buffalo, grew up in Stockton. Phillips moved to Los Angeles in the 1980s with fellow Stocktonian Jeffrey Clark, where the two musicians formed the indie-rock band Shiva Burlesque. Phillips formed Grant Lee Buffalo from the ashes of Shiva Burlesque, then went solo.
  • Singer/actor Chris Isaak was born in Stockton and grew up there, before forming his band Silvertone in San Francisco.
  • Noted Canadian-born jazz composer/arranger/bandleader Gil Evans grew up in Stockton, where he led bands before moving to New York.
  • Hipster poet, performer and Tuolumne County native Lord Buckley grew up in Stockton.
  • Stockton-based producers Hallway Productionz have created beats for well-known musicians, including Blackalicious, Ice Cube and WC.[46]
  • R&B singers Bear [46] and Erin Jennae[47] appeared on the Billboard charts in 2006 and 2007, respectively.
  • In 2006 Tim Sovinec, a Stockton youth pastor and guitarist for the Christian rock band everybodyduck, became the first local resident to perform at the Stockton Arena.[48]
  • In 2006 Latin Magic Band became the first local act to perform at both the arena and the 2,000-seat Bob Hope Theatre.[46]
  • Local rapper Okwerdz received an Australian Gold record in 2008 for his work with the Hilltop Hoods.[49]
  • Deftones bassist Chi Cheng is from Stockton.
  • Hip Hop artist Icarus Jones is a Stockton native.
  • International performing and professional recording artist Savage Sun was born and lived in Stockton, CA. [50]
  • The indie-pop band Craft Spells' frontman Justin Vallesteros is from Stockton.

Museums, visual art, and galleries

Stockton is home to several museums. The Haggin Museum features collections and exhibits related to local history and California history, and owns important works by late 19th and early 20th century artists. Notable among them is Albert Bierstadt, who was well-known for interpreting the towering grandeur of Yosemite and much of California's magnificent Sierra Nevada mountains.[4] The local Tidewater Art Gallery features the work of local artists. The Stockton Art League maintains the Elsie May Goodwin Gallery. The University of the Pacific’s Reynolds Gallery and San Joaquin Delta College’s Horton Gallery feature contemporary work by students and local and nationally-known artists. The Children's Museum of Stockton is housed in a former warehouse on the Downtown waterfront, and features many interactive displays. The Filipino American National Historical Society has proposed the construction of the National Pinoy Museum in the Little Manila district. The museum would be dedicated to the history of Filipino-Americans. Stockton once had one of the largest population of Filipinos in the United States.[citation needed]

The Stockton Arts Commission, a division of city government, oversees a city endowment fund that provides grants to local artists and arts and cultural organizations. It sponsors the annual arts awards, a writing contest and the arts and crafts show at the Asparagus Festival. The commission also serves as an advocate and information clearinghouse for the arts and cultural community.

Stockton public art projects include:

  • Kinetic sculptures on the South and North Shores of the Stockton Channel, Downtown (2008–2009); “Airbourne”—a 32-foot-high (9.8 m) kinetic sculpture, brushed stainless steel, at the North Point by Moto Ohtake, Santa Cruz; A group of five stainless steel and aluminum kinetic sculptures on the South Point by Mark White, Santa Fe, NM.
  • Stainless steel and bronze images imbedded in the Downtown Stockton walkways (2004–2009)—designed and installed by Dan Snyder, Berkeley. Stockton’s first public/private public art partnership commissioned by Guaranty Bank, Weber Avenue, Hunter Street, San Joaquin Street, and Downtown Marina.
  • Water creature elements incorporated in stair railings, bicycle racks, and light poles (2009)—designed by Wayne Chabre, Walla Walla, WA, Downtown Marina.
  • Stockton Rising (2006)—a concrete with bronze sculpture by Scott Donahue between the Stockton Arena and the Lexington Plaza Hotel.
  • Stockton Arena parking garage entryway feature (2005)—a collage by Napa artist Gordon Huether featuring 22,000 Mattell toy cars, Fremont Street.
  • Ed Coy Garage Installation (2005)—medallions and a LED lit column by David Griggs on the Edward "Ed" Coy Garage, N. Hunter Street.
  • Downtown's Maintenance Hole Covers (2004)—by local artist Molly Toberer. The covers depict 17 unique designs representing topics such as Work, Taste Grow, Invent and others. The designs carry unique aesthetic legacy of the American 1930’s style.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Statue (2004)—a bronze statue by Rafael Arrieta-Eskarzaga on the east side of the MLK Square, El Dorado Street.
  • Memorial to Mexican Braceros (2002)—bronze, cement and masonry sculpture by Rafael Arrieta-Eskarzaga, McLeods Park, Fremont Street.
  • Fire Fighter Memorial (1998)—a bronze sculpture, McLeods Park, Fremont Street.
  • Ethnic Diversity Sculpture (1989)—a sculpted concrete post by Eric Lee on the corner of San Joaquin Street and Weber Avenue.
  • Confucius Monument—13 and a half foot high pagoda-like monument of red and green tile was a gift to the City of Stockton from the Chinese Community for the bi-centennial celebration.
  • Murals depicting the city's history decorate the exteriors of many downtown buildings.

In addition to its history galleries, the Haggin Museum displays fine art of late 19th and early 20th century artists such as Jean Beraud, Albert Bierstadt, Rosa Bonheur, William Bouguereau, Paul Gauguin, Jean-Leon Gerome, Childe Hassam, George Inness, Daniel Ridgway Knight, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Jehan-Georges Vibert, and Jules Worms. It also hosts temporary touring exhibitions.

In 2005, the Downtown Stockton Alliance began sponsoring a monthly art walk during the summer. The event features local artists exhibiting their work at downtown businesses and galleries as well as in some otherwise vacant storefronts. Musicians also perform throughout downtown as part of the event.

Festivals

Stockton hosts several annual festivals celebrating the rich cultural heritage of the city. These include:

  • Valleydance Festival (Spring/Summer)
  • Lunar New Year (January or February)
  • San Joaquin Children's Film Festival (January 2009)
  • San Joaquin International Film Festival (February)
  • Chinese New Year's Parade and Festival (February/March)
  • St. Patric's Day and Shamrock Run (March)
  • Stockton Asparagus Festival (April)
  • Brubeck Jazz Festival (April)
  • Earth Day Festival (April)
  • Stockton Tree-Dip (April)
  • Cambodian New Year (April)
  • Annual Nagar Kirtan, Sikh Parade (April)
  • Boat Parade for the Opening of Yachting Season (April)
  • Cinco de Mayo Parade and Festival (May)
  • Jewish Food Fair (June)
  • Juneteenth Day Celebration (June)
  • Stockton Obon Bazaar (July)
  • Stockton Quilting Bee (July)
  • Box Lunch Bazaar (July)
  • Colombian Independence Day Festival (July)
  • Taste of San Joaquin and West Coast BBQ Championships (4 July Weekend)
  • Filipino Barrio Fiesta (August)
  • Bacon-wrapped Asparagus Celebration (August)
  • Penny Day At The Park For Literacy Awareness (August)
  • Miracle Mile Night - Street Festival & Car Show (August)
  • Black Family Day (September)
  • San Joaquin County Coastal Cleanup Day (September)
  • Greek Festival (September)
  • Chapman Family Days Picnic (September)
  • Festa Italiana: Tutti In Piazza (September)
  • Stocktoberfest, Beer and Brats Festival on the Waterfront (October)
  • Hmong New Year (November)
  • Stockton Festival of Lights and Boat Parade (December)
  • The Record's Family Day at the Park

Media

Television stations

As part of the Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto television market, Stockton is primarily served by stations based in Sacramento, but may carry some San Francisco Bay area television stations' airwaves. These are listed below, with the city of license in bold:

  • KCRA Channel 3 (NBC affiliate) Sacramento
  • KCSO Channel 33 (Telemundo affiliate) Sacramento
  • KMAX Channel 31 (The CW O&O) Sacramento
  • KOVR Channel 13 (CBS O&O) Stockton
  • KQCA Channel 58 (My Network TV affiliate) Sacramento
  • KTFK Channel 64 (TeleFutura affiliate) Stockton
  • KTNC Channel 42 (Estrella TV affiliate) Concord
  • KTXL Channel 40 (Fox affiliate) Sacramento
  • KUVS Channel 19 (Univision affiliate) Modesto
  • KVIE Channel 6 (PBS affiliate) Sacramento
  • KXTV Channel 10 (ABC affiliate) Sacramento
  • KSPX Channel 29 (ION Media Networks affiliate) Sacramento
  • KRON Channel 14 (My Network TV affiliate) San Francisco
  • KQED Channel 9 (PBS affiliate) San Francisco

Radio broadcast stations

FM stations

  • KJOY 99.3: Lite Rock
  • KMIX 100.9: Regional Mexican
  • KQOD 100.1: Rhythmic Oldies
  • KSTN-FM 107.3: Christian
  • KATM 103.3: Country
  • KUOP 91.3: (Capital Public Radio NPR affiliate)News/Talk and Jazz
  • KWIN 97.7: Urban Contemporary
  • KHOP 95.1: Rhythmic Contemporary
  • KYCC 90.1: Christian
  • KLOVE 89.7: Christian
  • KRXQ 98.5: Alternative Rock
  • The Hawk 104.1: Classic Rock
  • KQED-FM 88.5: (NPR affiliate)News/Talk

AM stations

  • KCVR 1570: Spanish Adult Hits
  • KWG 1230: Catholic, switched formats to News/talk. One of California's oldest running AM radio stations.[citation needed]
  • KWSX 1280: Rock and Roll simulcast of KMRQ 96.7 Manteca

In addition, several radio stations from nearby San Francisco, Sacramento and Modesto are receivable in Stockton.

The world's first radio disc jockey was Ray Newby, of Stockton, California. In 1909, at 16 years of age, Newby began regularly playing records on a small spark transmitter while a student at Herrold College of Engineering and Wireless, located in San Jose, California, under the authority of radio pioneer Charles "Doc" Herrold. Though it was really called Disco Jockey, it has been changed through the years to Disc Jockey but it can be referred as DISCO or DISC Jockey.[3][4] We used popular records at that time, mainly Caruso records, because they were very good and loud; we needed a boost… we started on an experimental basis and then, because this is novel, we stayed on schedule continually without leaving the air at any time from that time on except for a very short time during World War I, when the government required us to remove the antenna… Most of our programming was records, I'll admit, but of course we gave out news as we could obtain it…[3] —Ray Newby, I've Got a Secret (1965)

Print media

  • Big Monkey Group publishes 4 Stockton magazines: Weston Ranch Monthly, Brookside Monthly, Spanos Park Monthly and On the Mile
  • The Record is a daily newspaper
  • The Central Valley Business Journal is a monthly newspaper
  • Vida en el Valle is a bilingual weekly newspaper from Fresno.
  • Bilingual Weekly News publishes a bi-weekly newspaper, in both Spanish and English, based in Stockton.
  • Caravan is a local community arts and events monthly newspaper.
  • 209Vibe is an alternative monthly newspaper covering music, entertainment and culture.
  • San_Joaquin_Magazine is a regional lifestyle magazine covering Stockton, Lodi, Tracy, Manteca and more
  • The Downtowner is a free monthly guide to downtown Stockton's events, commerce, real estate, and other cultural and community happenings.
  • Poets' Espresso Review is a periodical that has been based in Stockton, mostly distributed by mail, since summer of 2005.
  • Artifact is a San Joaquin Delta College periodical based in Stockton since December 2006. Writing in all genres, photography and visual media by students, staff and faculty as well as community members are accepted.

Motion pictures

A number of motion pictures have been filmed in Stockton.[51] Over the years, filmmakers have used Stockton's waterways[52] to stand in for the Mississippi delta, the surrounding farmland as the American plains and Midwest, and Pacific's campus[53] as an Ivy League college. Some of the movies filmed in Stockton include:

Television Shows

  • The 1960s Western TV series The Big Valley was set just outside Stockton.
  • Sons of Anarchy (2008–Present), the hit FX T.V. Show Sons of Anarchy is set in and outside of Stockton.

Sports

Stockton is home to several minor league franchises:

The Stockton Ports Baseball Team play their home games at Banner Island Ballpark, a 5,000 seat facility built for the team in downtown Stockton. A 10,000 seat arena, Stockton Arena, located in Downtown Stockton, opened in December 2005 and is the home of the Stockton Thunder professional hockey team and Stockton Cougars indoor soccer.

Rowing Regatta featuring Junior, Collegiate and Master Level Rowing & Sculling Competition is organized by the University of the Pacific annually on the Stockton's Deep Water Channel. Teams from throughout Northern California compete in this Olympic sport which is also the oldest collegiate sport in the United States.

Stockton hosts a wide variety of sports events every year: from resident hockey, baseball and soccer games through basketball at the University of the Pacific and at the Stockton Arena; golf championships at two 18-hole courses and a Par 3 Executive Course; rowing, sailing and fishing on the Delta and the Stockton Channel; martial arts and cage fighting.

Stockton is one of a handful of cities that lays claim to being the inspiration for Casey at the Bat.[86] The University of the Pacific was the summer home of the San Francisco 49ers Summer Training Camp from 1998 through 2002.

Awards and recognition

Stockton received an All-America City award from the National Civic League twice, in 1999 and 2004. 2004's award was based on a 60-member delegation's presentation titled "The Dream Lives On!", and featured three community-driven projects: Community Partnership for Families, Downtown Alliance, and the Peace Keeper Program.[87] The 1999 award recognized the Apollo Night Talent and Performing Series, the conversion of the Stockton Developmental Center into an off-campus center for the California State University at Stanislaus, and the LEAP (Let Education Attack Pollution) program.[88]

Sunset magazine named Stockton Best Tree City in the western United States in March 2002,[89] and "Best of the West Food Fest" in March 2000. Stockton contains 49 city, state, and national historical landmarks, dating as far back as 1855.

In February 2009,[90] and again in February 2011,[91] Stockton was named "America's Most Miserable City" by Forbes, reflecting the city's issues with commuting times, violent crime rates, income tax levels, and unemployment rates. Stockton had placed second in this listing in 2008.

Notable residents

Izzy Gallegos, a member of the band US5, was born in Stockton. Nathan Parrish, born and raised in Stockton, is a guitarist in the Christian Worship/Rock band Worth Dying For. The massively popular, top rated Podcast "The Mitch and Kevo Show" hosts, Kevin Rogers, and Mitch Higgins currently reside in the city. Singer Chris Isaak was born in Stockton in 1956 and graduated from A. A. Stagg High School. Stephen Malkmus, founding member of the band Pavement, grew up in Stockton and attended Tokay High School. Silhouette artist Kara Walker was raised in Stockton, as was Maxine Hong Kingston, author of The Woman Warrior. Mixed martial artists Nick and Nate Diaz were born, raised and still reside in Stockton. Dallas Braden, an alumnus of A. A. Stagg High School, threw the 19th perfect game in Major League Baseball history on May 9, 2010, for the Oakland Athletics. Braden still resides in Stockton. Alex Spanos, owner of the NFL's San Diego Chargers, resides in Stockton.

Sister cities

Stockton has seven sister cities worldwide:

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Census
  2. ^ "Captain Charles M. Weber Award". City of Stockton - Cultural Heritage Board. 2008-05-23. http://www.ci.stockton.ca.us/Awards/WeberAward.cfm. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  3. ^ Tinkham, George Henry (1880). A history of Stockton from its organization up to the present time. W.M. Hinton & Co.. pp. 397. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWEtAAAAYAAJ. 
  4. ^ a b "Historical Sketch". City of Stockton. http://www.stocktongov.com/history/sketch.cfm. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  5. ^ Pernie, Gwenyth Laird (March 3, 2009). "Benjamin Holt (1849-1920): The Father of the Caterpillar tractor". http://www.wastehandling.com/ME2/Audiences/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&id=47C5DE563581487B9E4394B939909F9E&tier=4. 
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  9. ^ "The Holt 15-ton Tractor". http://www.landships.freeservers.com/new_pages/holt_tractor_info.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  10. ^ "STOCKTON WSO, CALIFORNIA (048558) Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Wrcc.dri.edu. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?ca8558. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
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  12. ^ All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
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Further reading

External links


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