Infobox German Location
Art = city
image_photo = Essen_pan.jpg
image_caption = View over the center of Essen from the "Tetraeder" landmark in
Bottrop. In the background the " RuhrHeights".
Wappen = Wappen_Stadt_Essen_DE.svg
lat_deg = 51 | lat_min = 27 | lat_sec = 3
lon_deg = 7 | lon_min = 0 | lon_sec = 47
Bundesland = North Rhine-Westphalia
Regierungsbezirk = Düsseldorf
Kreis = urban
Höhe = 116
Fläche = 210.32
Einwohner = 578990
pop_ref = [ [http://www.essen.de/Deutsch/Rathaus/Statistik/Bev%C3%B6lkerungszahlen.pdf] ]
Stand = 2007-09-30
pop_metro = 5.302.179
pop_metro_date = 2004-12-31
PLZ = 45001-45359
PLZ-alt = 4300
Vorwahl = 0201, 02054 (Kettwig)
Kfz = E
Gemeindeschlüssel = 05 1 13 000
NUTS = DEA13
LOCODE = DE ESS
Gliederung = 9 districts, 50 boroughs
Website = [http://www.essen.de/ www.essen.de]
Bürgermeister = Dr. Wolfgang Reiniger
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
Partei = CDU
ruling_party1 = CDU
ruling_party2 = Green
Essen (pronounced|ˈɛsən) is a
cityin the center of the Ruhr Areain North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Located on the RuhrRiver, its population of approximately 579,000 (as of June 30, 2008) makes it the 7th-or-8th-largest-city in Germany. The city was appointed European Capital of Culturefor 2010 on behalf of the whole Ruhr Area.
Formerly one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers and historically linked to the centuries-old
Kruppfamily iron works, the city has developed a strong tertiary sector of industryand (sometimes together with nearby Düsseldorf) claims to be the "desk of the Ruhr area" [http://www.essen.de/Dokumente/Download%20Bau-%20und%20Immobilienwirtschaft%20deutsch_2006.pdf ("Schreibtisch des Ruhrgebiets")] . It is home to 13 of the 100 largest German corporationsand seat to several of the region's authorities.
In 1958, the city was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic Diocese (often referred to as "Ruhrbistum" or "diocese of the Ruhr"). In early 2003, the universities of Essen and its neighboring city of Duisburg (both established in 1972) were merged into the
University of Duisburg-Essenwith campuses in both cities and a university hospitalin Essen.
Location, neighboring communes and general geography
The City of Monessen, PA, situated along the
Monongahela River, was named after the river and Essen. [http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_497856.html]
Industry and infrastructure
Major companies based in Essen
Essen is seat to several large companies, among them the
ThyssenKruppindustrial conglomerate which is also registered in Duisburgand originates from a 1999 merger between Duisburg-based "Thyssen AG" and Essen-based Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp. The largest company only registered in Essen is Germany's second-largest electric utilityRWE AG. Other major companies include Germany's largest construction company Hochtief AG, as well as ALDI Nord, Evonik Industries, Arcandor AG, Medion AG and Deichmann, Europe's largest shoe retailer. With Eon-Ruhrgas, Germany's largest gas company also has its seat in Essen. The Coca-Cola Companyhad also originally established their German headquarters in Essen (around 1930), where it remained until 2003, when it was moved to the capital Berlin.
The city's fair grounds host some 50 trade fairs each year. With around 530.000 visitors each year,
Essen Motor Show, the top international car tuningfair, is by far the largest event held there. Other important fairs open to the consumers include SPIEL, the world's biggest consumer fair for gaming and also occasion of the presentation of the Essen Featherand of the Deutscher Spiele Preis, "Techno-Classica" ( vintage cars) and one of the leading fairs for equestrian sports, "Equitana", held every two years. Important fairs restricted to professionals include "Security" (security and fire protection), "IPM" (gardening) and "E-World" (energy and water).
Westdeutscher Rundfunkhas a studio in Essen, which is responsible for the central Ruhr Area. Each day, it produces a 30-minute regional evening news magazine (called "Lokalzeit Ruhr"), a 5-minute afternoon news program, and several radio news programs. A local broadcasting station went "on-the-air" in the late 1990s. The WAZ Media Group is one of the most important (print) media companies in Europe and publishes the Ruhr Area's two most important daily newspapers, Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung(WAZ; 580.000 copies) and "Neue Ruhr/Rhein Zeitung" (NRZ; 180.000 copies). In Essen, the WAZ Group also publishes the local "Borbecker Nachrichten" (at times Germany's largest local newspaper) and "Werdener Nachrichten", both of which are formerly independent weekly newspapers for parts of Essen. Additionally, Axel Springer run a printing facility for their boulevard-style daily paper Bildin Essen.
One renowned educational institution in Essen is the
Folkwang Academy, a University of the Arts founded in 1927, which is headquartered in Essen and has additional facilities in Duisburg, Bochumand Dortmund.
The University of Duisburg-Essen, which resulted from a 2003 merger of the universities of Essen and Duisburg, is one of Germany's "youngest" universities. One of its primary research areas is "urban systems" (i.e., sustainable development, logistics and transportation), a theme largely inspired by the highly urbanized Ruhr area. Other fields include
nanotechnology, discrete mathematicsand "education in the 21st century". Another university in Essen is the private "Fachhochschule für Oekonomie und Management", a university of applied sciences with over 6000 students and branches in 15 other major cities throughout Germany.
Essen offers a highly diversified health care system with more than 1,350 resident doctors and almost 6,000 beds in 13 hospitals, including a university hospital. The university hospital dates back to 1909, when the city council established a municipal hospital; although it was largely destroyed during
World War II, it was later rebuilt, and finally gained the title of a university hospital in 1963. It focuses on (West German Heart Centre Essen), oncologyand transplantation medicine, with the department of bone marrow transplantation being the second-largest of its kind in the world.
The road network of Essen consists of 3,227 streets, which in total have a length of convert|1595|km|mi|0|abbr=on.
The Ruhrschnellweg (A40) runs directly through the city, dividing it roughly in half. A tunnel was built in the 1970s, when the then-
Bundesstraßewas upgraded to Autobahnstandards, so that the A40 is hidden from public view in the inner-city district near the main station. As with most freeways in the Ruhr Area, the Ruhrschnellweg suffers from congestion during rush hours, which is why many people in the area do not call it Ruhrschnellweg (Ruhr fast way) but nicknamed it "Ruhrschleichweg" (Ruhr crawling way). Other major Autobahns include the A52, which (coming from Duesseldorf) enters the city limits at Kettwig, continues past the fairground through the southern borough of Rüttenscheid, and then merges with the Ruhrschnellweg at the AutobahndreieckEssen-Ost junction. A proposed extension to replace B224 in the northern boroughs has not yet been realized.In the northern borough of Karnap, the A42 briefly touches Essen territory, serving as an interconnection between the neighboring cities of Oberhausenand Gelsenkirchenand destinations beyond.
Local transport is carried out by
Essener Verkehrs-AG, a public company operating the Essen Stadtbahn(partly with used Docklands Light Railstock), 7 tram and 48 bus lines (83 and convert|459|km|mi|0|abbr=on total length, respectively). As a speciality, Essen has a Spurbus guided bus line on the median of the A40 autobahn connecting the city centre to the borough of Kray, as well as a Stadtbahnline on the median of the same autobahn leading towards Mülheim.
Essen Hauptbahnhof, the city is connected to the InterCityExpressnetwork of high-speed trains and the general long distance networks operated by Deutsche Bahn. Minor so-called "Regionalbahnhöfe" (regional railway stations) are situated in the boroughs of Altenessen, Borbeck, Kray (south) and Steele, and 20 further S-Bahnstations in the whole urban area. The first railway line to run over now-Essen territory was the Köln-Mindener Eisenbahn, which opened in 1847 with a stop at Altenessen. The station still exists, though it was renamed from "Essen" to "Essen-Altenessen" when the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahnfrom Mülheim an der Ruhrto Bochumopened in 1862.
All local and DB regional traffic is subject to the fare structure of the VRR transportation association.
Sights in Essen
Zollverein Industrial Complex
Coal mine (built in 1932, closed in 1986) and coking plant (built in 1961, closed in 1993). Visitors now have access to the precincts, which frequently house temporary art exhibitions. Once the largest sub-surface coal mine in the world, it has been awarded
World Cultural Heritagestatus by UNESCO.
Built at the end of the 19th century by industrial magnate
Alfred Kruppas a representative seat to his family, the real estate register solely lists the 269-room mansion (convert|8100|m2|sqft|-1|abbr=on|disp=/) surrounded by a park of convert|28|ha|acre|1|abbr=on| as a single-family house. Today, the mansion houses exhibitions and music concerts.
A 14th-century cathedral with a
westworkand cryptfrom the 10th century, rebuilt in 1958. It is not spectacular in appearance, but has some exquisite artworks from around 1000 AD on display in the attached treasure house: a crown of Emperor Otto III and the oldest preserved sculpture of the Virgin Mary in the world ("Goldene Madonna", commonly referred to as "Essen sein Schatz", to translate literally "Essen its treasure"). Alte Synagoge
The Jewish community inaugurated the
synagoguein 1913. Destroyed by fire in the Nazi pogroms of 1938, it was restored after World War II. It stands as the largest synagogue north of the Alps.
Essen city hall
Germany's highest city hall (convert|106|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=/), built from 1971 to 1979. Free guided tours offer a view from the 22nd floor, overlooking the city from convert|100|m|ft|-1|abbr=on above ground.
The shopping mall is one of the largest shopping malls in Germany. Because the shopping center is still under construction, only the first part was opened. On March, 13th 2008 the first part was opened with 100 shops covering 35,000 square meters. It was prior to these new developments the northernmost point of Germany's first designated pedestrian-only inner city shopping area. The "Limbecker Strasse" connects it with the peripherie of "Kennedyplatz" (the heart of the city) and with "Kettwiger Strasse", the southern leg of beforesaid pedestrian zone which leads to the main railway station called "Essen Hauptbahnhof".
[http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limbecker_Platz german Article "Limbecker Platz"]
The 2nd-highest skyscraper in
North Rhine Westphaliaand corporate headquarters of the second largest electric power company in Germany (after E.ON) RWE AG, situated across the street from the Aalto theatre (Opernplatz 1).
Popular opera house designed by Finnish architect
Alvar Aalto, opened in 1988.
Once a town of its own, it became a borough of Essen in 1929; the center of the town has partly retained its medieval townscape with many pubs and restaurants. It stands near the Lake Baldeney and hosts the Folkwang College of Music and Performing Arts.
Located south of the Ruhr river, and also once a town of its own, it was incorporated in 1975. Until today, residents of Kettwig can only be called using an area code different from that of the rest of Essen. Additionally (allegedly because of relatively high church tax incomes), the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig part of the
Archbishopric of Cologne, whereas all other parts of Essen and some neighbouring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen ("Ruhrbistum").
Mille Petrozza(born 1966)ndash musician (Guitarist,Vocalist in German Thrash metal band Kreator)
Christian Keller(born 1972)ndash medley and freestyle swimmer
Jens Lehmann(born 1969)ndash German footballer, goalkeeper
Frank Mill(born 1958)ndash German footballer
Diether Krebs(born 1947)ndash actor and comedian
Jürgen Bartsch(born 1946)ndash serial killer
Otto Rehhagel(born 1938)ndash German footballer and football coach
Elisabeth Volkmann(born 1936)ndash actress and voice actor
Alfred Herrhausen(born 1930)ndash banker
Helmut Rahn(born 1929)ndash German football legend
Uta Ranke-Heinemann(born 1927)ndash theologian and author
Theo Albrecht(born 1922)ndash entrepreneur
Hildegard Hamm-Brücher(born 1921)ndash politician
Karl Albrecht(born 1920)ndash entrepreneur
Gunter d'Alquen(born 1910)ndash publisher
* Peter Anders (born 1908)ndash singer
Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach(born 1907)ndash member of the Kruppdynasty
Heinz Rühmann(born 1902)ndash actor
Josef Terboven(born 1898)ndash Nazi leader
Franz Blücher(born 1896)ndash politician
Carl Humann(born 1839)ndash discoverer of the Pergamon Altar.
Alfred Krupp(born 1812)ndash member of the Krupp dynasty
Karl Baedeker(born 1801)ndash publisher
Johann Julius Hecker(born 1707 in Werden, today Essen-Werden)ndash educator
Johan van Galen(born 1604)ndash commodore in the navy of the United Provinces of the Netherlands
Jan Lehmkamperndash musician (X-Fusion/Noisuf-X/Kombat Unit)
* Most sections of this article are translations from the German Wikipedia. The versions used can be found under the following three links: [http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Essen&oldid=22493083] , [http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Essen&oldid=24508847] and [http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Essen&oldid=30272114] . The original authors of the German language version can be found [http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Essen&action=history here]
* [http://www.essen.de/ Official city website]
* [http://www.stadtpanoramen.de/en/essen/essen.html Essen City Panoramas] — Panoramic Views and virtual Tours
* [http://germany.mygreatworld.com/West/North%20Rhine%20-%20Westphalia/Cities/Essen/ Photos & Impressions of Essen]
* [http://www.heinzalbers.org/kettwig.htm Pictures from Kettwig]
* [http://www.world-shots.com/world_en144-1532.html World Cities Images. Germany. Essen]
* [http://sites-of-memory.de/main/location.html#essen Memorials in Essen at sites-of-memory.de]
* [http://www.conruhr.org/ ConRuhr - Academic Liaison Office for Universities of Duisburg-Essen, Dortmund, Bochum]
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