- Rio de Janeiro
name = Rio de Janeiro
settlement_type = Municipality
official_name = The Municipality ofSão Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
imagesize = 250px
image_caption = View of Rio de Janeiro
nickname = "Cidade Maravilhosa" ("The Marvelous City") or simply, Rio
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in the State of Rio de Janeiro
latd = 22 |latm = 54 |lats = 30 |latNS = S
longd = 43 |longm = 11 |longs = 47 |longEW = W
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_type2 = State
subdivision_name = flag|Brazil
subdivision_name1 = Southeast
leader_title = Mayor
established_title = Founded
March 1, 1565
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_sq_mi = 486.5
area_total_mi2 = 1,182
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 7,050,472 (2nd)
population_density_km2 = 4781
population_metro = 13,100,000
timezone = BST
utc_offset = -3
timezone_DST = BDT
utc_offset_DST = -2
blank_name = HDI (2000)
blank_info = 0.842 – high
website = [http://www.rio.rj.gov.br/ City of Rio de Janeiro]
Rio de Janeiro ("River of January", pronounced|ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in
Brazilian Portuguese, IPA|/ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English), is the second largest city of Brazil, behind São Paulo. The city is capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro. It was the capital of Brazil for almost two centuries, from 1763 to 1822 while it was a Portuguese colony and from 1822 to 1960 as an independent nation. It was the capital of the Portuguese Empirefrom 1808 to 1821. Commonly known as just Rio, the city is also nicknamed "A Cidade Maravilhosa", or "The Marvelous City".
It is famous for its natural settings, its
Carnivalcelebrations, sambaand other music, and hotel-lined tourist beaches, such as Copacabana and Ipanema, paved with decorated black and cream swirl pattern mosaics known locally as "pedra portuguesa". Some of the most famous local landmarks in addition to the beaches include the giant statue of Jesus, known as Christ the Redeemer ('Cristo Redentor') atop Corcovadomountain, which has recently been named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf mountain ("Pão de Açúcar") with its cable car; the " Sambódromo", a giant permanent parade stand used during Carnival; and Maracanã stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums.
Rio also boasts the two
world's largest forests inside an urban area. The first is the forest in "Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca", or "White Stone State Park". The second, almost connected to the first, is the famous "Floresta da Tijuca", or " Tijuca Forest". [ [http://www.almacarioca.com.br/tijuca.htm Floresta da Tijua] pt icon]
Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airportconnects Rio de Janeiro with many Brazilian cities and also operates several international flights. The city is home to the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Despite its charm and beauty, Rio is reputed to be one of the most violent cities in the world.Folha de S. Paulo website, [http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/folha/cotidiano/ult95u368007.shtml "Número de homicídios cai no Brasil"] , published
30 January 2008, retrieved 14 February 2008. See the.xls file linked in the article.] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6214299.stm BBC NEWS | Americas | Rio hit by deadly gang violence ] ] [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,241262,00.html FOXNews.com - Brazil to Send Federal Troops to Rio de Janeiro to Quell Gang Violence - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News ] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6214299.stm BBC NEWS | Americas | Rio hit by deadly gang violence ] ] [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,241262,00.html FOXNews.com - Brazil to Send Federal Troops to Rio de Janeiro to Quell Gang Violence - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News ] ]
Rio de Janeiro
source= [http://weather.uk.msn.com/monthly_averages.aspx?wealocations=wc:BRXX3272 MSN Weather]
Rio de Janeiro is located at 22 degrees, 54 minutes south
latitude, 43 degrees 14 minutes west longitude. The population of the City of Rio de Janeiro is about 6,136,652, [cite web|url=http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/estimativa2005/estimativa.shtm?c=1|title=Estimativas para 1° de Julho de 2006|language=Portuguese|publisher= IBGE|accessdate=2007-07-18] occupying an area of convert|1182.3|km2|sqmi|1. [cite web|url=http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias/cartografia/default_territ_area.shtm?c=5|title=Área Territorial Oficial|language=Portuguese|publisher=IBGE|accessdate=2007-07-18]
The population of the larger
metropolitan areais estimated at 11-12 million. It was Brazil's capital until 1960, when Brasíliatook its place. Residents of the city are known as Cariocas. The city's current mayor (2006) is Cesar Maia. The official song of Rio is "Cidade Maravilhosa" (translated as "Marvelous City").
Rio has a
tropicalclimate. [ [http://www.weather.com/activities/travel/businesstraveler/nutshell/rio_dg.html Rio de Janeiro Destination Guide] from The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2007- 12-02.] The temperature occasionally reaches over 40°C (104°F) in inland areas of the city, and extreme maximum temperatures above 30°C (86°F) can happen every month. In the main tourist areas (south side, where the beaches are located), the temperature is moderated by the cool sea-breezes from the ocean.
The average annual minimum temperature is 20°C (68°F), the average annual maximum temperature is 26°C (79°F) and the average annual temperature is 23°C (73.5°F). The average yearly precipitation is 1,086 mm. The minimum temperature ever registered was 4.8°C (40°F) in July 1928, but temperatures below 10°C (50°F) are rare in most of city today, the absolute maximum reached 43.2°C (110°F) in January 1984. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT001730 Average Conditions, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil] .
BBCWeather Center. Retrieved 2007- 12-03.]
Guanabara Baywas reached by Portuguese explorers in an expedition led by Portuguese explorer Gaspar de Lemoson January 20, 1502; hence Rio de Janeiro, "January River." There is a legend that the mariners named the place thus because they thought the mouth of the bay was actually the mouth of a river, but no experienced sailor would make that mistake. At the time, river was the general word for any large body of water.
An unofficial European presence in the area began not long after. In 1519 when
Ferdinand Magellanresupplied his ships in the bay, French smugglers were already using the bay as a post for smuggling brazilwood. When French naval officer Nicolas Durand de Villegaignonarrived in 1555 with a fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and colonists, he founded the first permanent European settlement in the area. The colony was referred to as " France Antarctique". The colonists consisted of mainly French Huguenots and Swiss Calvinists. Villegaignon left in 1557 after disputes with some of the colonists.
The city was founded on
March 1 1565, by Portuguese knight Estácio de Sá, who called it "São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro" (St Sebastian of the January River), [cite encyclopedia | title = Rio de Janeiro | encyclopedia = Britannica | url = http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/504192/Rio-de-Janeiro#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=Rio%20de%20Janeiro%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia | accessdate = 2008-08-07 ] in honour of Saint Sebastian(day of death traditionally on January 20). For centuries, the settlement was commonly called São Sebastião – or even 'Saint Sebastian' – instead of the currently popular second half of its name. The city was founded as a base from which to invade the French settlement. They succeeded in 1567 and the French were expelled. Later, "São Sebastião" was frequently attacked by pirates and privateers, especially by then enemies of Portugal, such as the Netherlandsand France.
The exact place of Rio's foundation is at the foot of Pão-de-Açúcar (Sugarloaf Mountain). Later, the whole city was moved within a palisade on top of a hill, imitating the medieval European defense strategy of fortified
castles – the place has since then been called "Morro do Castelo" (Castle Hill). Thus, the city developed from the current center (Downtown, see below) southwards and then westwards (with large parts built over reclaimed land); an urban movement which continues today.
In the late 16th century, the Portuguese crown began treating the village as a strategic location for the
Atlantictransit of ships between Brazil, the African colonies and Europe. Fortresses were built and an alliance was formed with nearby native tribes to defend the settlement. Invaders – Rio's neighbor, Niterói, for instance, was founded by Araribóia, a Tamoio Indian chief, for defensive purposes. Sugar canewas the first industry in the area. First native, and later African, slaves were used for manual labor. Eventually the industry dwindled as higher quality sugar cane from northern Brazil became more available.
Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French
pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclercand René Duguay-Trouin. Fact|date=October 2008 After 1720, when the Portuguese found goldand diamonds in the neighboring captaincy of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro became a much more useful port for exporting wealth than Salvador, Bahia, which is much farther to the north. In 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved to Rio. The city remained primarily a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbonnobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro. The kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, which, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes.
When Prince Pedro I proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822, he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the
monarchywas replaced by a republic.Until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighborhood now known as the historic Downtown business district (see below), on the mouth of Guanabara Bay. The city's center of gravity began to shift south and west to the so-called Zona Sul (South Zone) in the early part of the 20th century, when the first tunnel was built under the mountains located between Botafogoand the neighborhood now known as Copacabana. That beach's natural beauty, combined with the fame of the Copacabana PalaceHotel, "the" luxury hotel of the Americas in the 1930s, helped Rio to gain the reputation it still holds today as a beach party town (though, this reputation has been somewhat tarnished in recent years by favelaviolence resulting from the narcoticstrade). Plans for moving the nation's capital city to the territorial centre had been occasionally discussed, and when Juscelino Kubitschekwas elected president in 1955, it was partially on the strength of promises to build a new capital. Though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasíliabuilt, at great cost, by 1960. On April 21that year the capital of Brazil was officially moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
Between 1960 and 1975 Rio was a capital city under the name State of Guanabara (after the bay it borders). However, for administrative and political reasons, a presidential decree known as "The Fusion" removed the city's federative status and merged it with the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1975. Even today, some "Cariocas" advocate the return of municipal autonomy.
The city is commonly divided into the historic downtown (Centro); the tourist-friendly South Zone (Zona Sul), with its world-famous beaches; the residential North Zone (Zona Norte); and the West Zone (Zona Oeste), with the newer
Barra da Tijucadistrict.
(coord|22.905392|S|43.177128|W|scale:15000_region:BR|name=Downtown) Centro (Downtown in American English or CBD in other English use) is the historic centre of the city, as well as its financial centre. Sites of interest include the
Paço Imperial, built during colonial times to serve as a residence for the Portuguese governors of Brazil; many historic churches, such as the Candelária Church, the colonial Cathedral and the modern-style Rio de Janeiro Cathedral. Around the Cinelândia square there are several landmarks of the " Belle Époque" of Rio, such as the Municipal Theatre and the National Librarybuilding. Among its several museums, the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes(National Museum of Fine Arts) and the Museu Histórico Nacional (National Historical Museum) are the most important. Other important historical attractions in central Rio include its Passeio Público, an 18th-century public garden, as well as the imposing arches of the " Arcos da Lapa", a Roman-style aqueductbuilt around 1750. A "bondinho" ( tram) leaves from a city center station, crosses the aqueduct (converted to a tram viaduct in 1896) and rambles through the hilly streets of the Santa Teresa neighbourhood nearby.
Downtown remains the heart of the city's business community. Some of the largest companies in Brazil have their head offices here, including
Petrobrasand Vale(formerly Companhia Vale do Rio Doce), the two largest Brazilian corporations.
(coord|22.974199|S|43.199444|W|scale:75000_region:BR|name=South Zone)The South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (in Portuguese: "Zona Sul") is composed of several districts, amongst which are
São Conrado, Leblon, Ipanema, Arpoador, Copacabana and Leme, which compose Rio's famous Atlantic beach coastline. Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Flamengo, Botafogoand Urca, which border Guanabara Bayand Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânicoand Gávea. It is the richest region of the city and the most famous overseas.
The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world's most spectacular
New Year's Eveparties ("Reveillon"), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworksdisplay. As of 2001, the fireworks have been launched from boats, to improve the safety of the event. To the north of Leme, and at the entrance to Guanabara Bay, is the district of Urcaand the Sugarloaf Mountain ('Pão de Açúcar'), whose name describes the famous mountain rising out of the sea. The summit can be reached via a two-stage cable car trip from Praia Vermelha, with the intermediate stop on Morro da Urca. It offers views second only to Corcovado mountain.
One of the highest hills in the city is the 842 metres (2,762 ft) high
Pedra da Gávea( Crow's nestRock) near the botanical gardens. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Dänikenin his 1973 book, "In Search of Ancient Gods", claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometers around. Hang glidingis a popular activity on the nearby Pedra Bonita (Beautiful Rock). After a short flight, gliders land on the Praia do Pepino (Cucumber Beach) in São Conrado.Since 1961, the Tijuca Forest("Floresta da Tijuca"), the largest city-surrounded urban forest and the second largest urban forest in the world, has been a National Park. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is also located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. [cite web|url=http://www.biodiversityreporting.org/index.php?pageId=sub&lang=pt_BR¤tItem=article&docId=18381&c=Brasil&cRef=Brazil&year=2006&date=abril%202005 |title=Poluição afeta Pedra Branca|publisher= O Globo|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2005|month=April|language=Portuguese|first=Daniel Ernesto|last=Engelbrecht Ferreira] The Catholic University of Rio ( Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiroor PUC-Rio) is located at the edge of the forest, in the Gávea district. The 1984 film " Blame it on Rio" was filmed nearby, with the rental house used by the story's characters sitting at the edge of the forest on a mountain overlooking the famous beaches.
The North Zone of Rio (in portuguese: "Zona Norte") is home to the Maracanã stadium, once the world's highest capacity
football (soccer)venue, able to hold nearly 199,000 people, as it did the World Cup final of 1950. In modern times its capacity has been reduced to conform with modern safety regulations and the stadium has introduced seating for all fans. Currently undergoing renovation, it has now the capacity for 95,000 fans; it will eventually hold around 120,000 people. Maracanã was site for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football competition of the 2007 Pan-American Games.
Besides the Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also holds other tourist and historical attractions, such as 'Manguinhos', the home of
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorishpalace, and the beautiful Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historical old Imperial Palace is located. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specializing in Natural History, Archaeology and Ethnology.
The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician "'Tom" Jobim), the main campus of the
Federal University of Rio de Janeiroat the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio.
This region is also home to most of the Samba Schools of Rio de Janeiro such as Mangueira, Salgueiro, Império Serrano, Unidos da Tijuca, among others. Some of the main neighbourhoods of Rio's North Zone are
Tijuca, which shares the Tijuca Rainforest with the South Zone; Grajaú, Vila Isabel, Méier, São Cristovão Madureira and Penha among others.
The West Zone (in portuguese: "Zona Oeste") is the region furthest from the centre of Rio de Janeiro. It includes
Barra da Tijuca, Jacarepaguá, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Vargem Grande, Vargem Pequena, Realengo, Padre Miguel, Bangu, Campo Grande, Jardim Sulacap, Paciência and Santa Cruz. Neighbouring districts within the West Zone reveal stark differences between social classes. The area has industrial zones, but some agricultural areas still remain in its wide area.
Westwards from the older zones is Barra da Tijuca, a flat expanse of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which is currently experiencing a wave of new construction. It remains an area of accelerated growth, attracting some of the richer sectors of the population as well as luxury companies. High rise flats and sprawling
shopping centres give the area a far more American feel than the crowded city centre. The urban planning of the area, made in the late 1960s, resembles that of United States suburbs, though mixing zones of single-family houses with residential skyscrapers. The beaches of Barra da Tijuca are also popular with the city's residents. Barra da Tijuca is the home of Pan-American Village for the 2007 Pan American Games.
Beyond the neighbourhoods of Barra da Tijuca and Jacarepaguá, another district that has exhibited economic growth is Campo Grande. Some sports competitions in the
Pan-American Gamesof 2007 were held in the Miécimo da Silva Sports Centre, nicknamed the 'Algodão' (Cotton) Gymnasium, and others in the Ítalo del Cima Stadium, in Campo Grande.
According to the
IBGEof 2007, there were 11,714,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. The population density was 4.781 inh./km². The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following percentage: 6,278,704 White people (53.6%), 3,935,904 Pardo(Brown) [See also Multiracial] people (33.6%), 1,440,822 Black people (12.3%) and 58,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.5%). [cite book|url=ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Indicadores_Sociais/Sintese_de_Indicadores_Sociais_2007/Tabelas|title=Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007|publisher= IBGE |location=Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2007|language=Portuguese]
ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated. [ [http://paginas.terra.com.br/educacao/Ludimila/indiosrj.htm Tem índio no Rio ] ]
Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of
Lisbon. The Portuguese community (the oldest in the city) has left a remarkable legacy to Rio de Janeiro since the 16th century. After independence, Rio de Janeiro remained gateway for thousands of Portuguese immigrants, mainly in the first decades of the 20th century. They were mainly poor peasants who, later, found prosperity in Rio as small traders. [ [http://www1.ibge.gov.br/brasil500/portugueses.html Brasil 500 anos ] ] Besides the influence on ethnicity, the Portuguese left their architecture and also the accentof the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro, which sounds more Portuguese than the other Brazilians.
The black community, whose ancestors were brought as slaves, had a great impact in the composition of Rio's population. Nowadays, nearly half of its population is Black or part-Black. Most of the slaves in Rio came from
Angolaor Mozambique. Rio's carnival, with its samba, is probably the most remarkable influence from the black community. [ [http://www1.ibge.gov.br/brasil500/negros/origem.html Brasil 500 anos ] ]
As a result of the diversity of immigrants who came to Brazil between the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, one may find in Rio de Janeiro many Jews, Arabs of Lebanese and Syrian origin, Italians, Spaniards, Germans and people from different parts of Brazil.
;Changing demographics of the city of Rio de Janeiro
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"Source: Planet Barsa Ltda. [ [http://brasil.planetasaber.com/default.asp Barsa Planeta Ltda] ] "
Rio de Janeiro's sister cities are:
List of mayors of Rio de Janeiro
* State of Rio de Janeiro
sisterlinks|Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.rio.rj.gov.br Official homepage] (some pages available in en)
* [http://transito.rio.rj.gov.br/ Rio De Janeiro Webcams]
* [http://www.rio.rj.gov.br/riotur/en/ Riotur]
* [http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/ Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)]
* [http://www.cgmax.com.br CGMAX] - Computer Graphics University at Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.uva.br UVA-Rio] - Veiga de Almeida University of Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.puc-rio.br PUC-Rio] - the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.ufrj.br UFRJ] Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.ufrrj.br UFRRJ] Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.uerj.br UERJ] - University of Rio de Janeiro State
* [http://www.unirio.br UNIRIO] - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State
* [http://www.cefet-rj.br CEFET-RJ] - Federal Center of Tecnology Education
* [http://www.ucam.edu.br UCAM] - Universidade Candido Mendes
* [http://www.faetec.rj.gov.br] - Fundação de Apoio à Escola Técnica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.
* [http://www.earj.com.br Escola Americana do Rio de Janeiro] - (American School of Rio de Janeiro)
* [http://www.estacio.br Universidade Estácio de Sá] - (Estacio de Sa University)
* [http://eayearbooks.com/rio_images.htm Images of Rio— Hundreds of images from the 1920s to the present]
* [http://www.panmap.com/brazil/riodejaneiro/corcovado/panmap.html Corcovado Immersive Virtual Tour]
* [http://www.flickr.com/riotour Images of Rio de Janeiro]
* [http://maplink.uol.com.br Maplink - Rio de Janeiro Street Guide and Maps]
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