Jackson, Michigan


Jackson, Michigan
Jackson, Michigan
—  City  —
Nickname(s): The Rose City, Prison City, Jack Town
Location of Jackson within Jackson County, Michigan
Coordinates: 42°14′39″N 84°24′26″W / 42.24417°N 84.40722°W / 42.24417; -84.40722
Country United States
State Michigan
County Jackson
Government
 – Type Council-Manager
 – Mayor Karen Dunigan
 – City Manager Warren Renando
Area
 – City 11.1 sq mi (28.7 km2)
 – Land 11.1 sq mi (28.7 km2)
 – Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 932 ft (284 m)
Population (2010)
 – City 33,534
 – Density 3,031.1/sq mi (1,265.4/km2)
 – Metro 160,248
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 – Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
ZIP codes 49201-49204
Area code(s) 517
FIPS code 26-41420[1]
GNIS feature ID 0629165[2]
Website http://www.cityofjackson.org/

Jackson is a city located along Interstate 94 in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan, about 40 miles (64 km) west of Ann Arbor and 35 miles (56 km) south of Lansing. It is the county seat of Jackson County.[3] As of the 2010 census, the city population was 33,534. It is the principal city of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Jackson County and has a population of 160,248.[4]

It was founded in 1829, and named after President Andrew Jackson.

Contents

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles (28.7 km2), all of it land.

History

Jackson County Tower, Jackson's tallest building.

On July 3, 1829, Horace Blackman, accompanied by Alexander Laverty, a land surveyor, and an Indian guide forded the Grand River and made camp for the night at what is now Trail and S. Jackson Street. They arrived in Jackson on a well-traveled Indian trail leading west from Ann Arbor. Blackman hired Laverty and Pewytum to guide him west. Blackman returned to Ann Arbor and then Monroe and registered his claim for 160 acres (65 ha) at two dollars an acre. Blackman returned to Jackson in August 1829, with his brother Russell. Together they cleared land and built a cabin, built on the corner of what would become Ingham and Trail streets. The town was first called Jacksonopolis. Later, it was renamed Jacksonburgh. Finally, in 1838 the town's name was changed to simply Jackson.

Birthplace of the Republican Party – "Under the Oaks"

Jackson is the disputed birthplace of the Republican Party. Undisputed is the fact that the first official meeting of the group that actually called itself "Republican" was held in Jackson under the Oaks on July 6, 1854. Earlier meetings of groups that later formed the Republican Party were held in Ripon, Wisconsin; Exeter, New Hampshire; and Crawfordsville, Iowa, and all four cities bill themselves as the "Birthplace of the Republican Party."[5]

A Michigan Historical Marker at what is now the northwest corner of Second and Franklin streets in Jackson commemorates an anti-slavery convention of men on July 6, 1854. Meeting outside to avoid a hot, over-crowded hall, the group ultimately selected a slate of candidates for state elections. The marker identifies this as the birth of the Republican Party. The site, an oak grove on "Morgan's Forty", then on the outskirts of town, became known as "Under the Oaks".[6]

Economy

CMS Energy headquarters in downtown Jackson

Three major private employers in the city are CMS Energy, which provides natural gas and electrical services to much of Michigan and has its international headquarters in the city, as well as Allegiance Health (Formerly Foote Hospital) and the Eaton Corporation.

Michigan Automotive Compressor, Inc. (MACI) is the largest manufacturer in Jackson County and its fourth-largest individual employer. However, in February 2009 it began offering voluntary buyouts to its workers, in reaction to the slowing economy.[7]

Jackson is also home to a state prison complex, which includes a building once known as the largest walled prison in the world. Portions of the prison complex closed in 2007, including the Annex of the Charles Egeler Reception and Guidance Center Annex (RGC)[8][9] and the Southern Michigan Correctional Facility (JMF).[10] However, the five other facilities in the complex, including two in the old walled building, remain open: the G. Robert Cotton Correctional Facility (JCF),[11] the Cooper Street Correctional Facility (JCS),[12] the Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (RGC),[13] the Parnall Correctional Facility (SMT).[14]

Income tax

The City of Jackson currently assesses a 1% income tax to residents and businesses located within the city, and 0.5% for non-residents working within the city limits. The income tax provides $7,000,000 of revenue, or 32% of the city's annual budget.

Motorsports

Jackson is 18 miles (29 km) from Michigan International Speedway. Each year the facility hosts several NASCAR sanctioned races including two Sprint Cup races held in June and August, in addition to a NASCAR Camping World Truck series race and one Nationwide Series race.

The Jackson area was the home of Indy 500-winning car owner U. E. Patrick ("Pat" Patrick) and NASCAR team owner Harry Melling. Patrick Racing was formed in 1978 concurrent with the formation of Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART). For many years CART was sponsored by PPG. Patrick Racing won three Indianapolis 500s and two CART PPG championships with Gordon Johncock and Emerson Fittipaldi before the team folded in 1991. The team was revived in 1994 to test Firestone Indy car tires, and won the 1995 Michigan 500. Patrick Racing jumped to the IRL in 2004 and folded at the end of the season. Jackson area residents gave early financial support to Bill Elliott, then a promising young driver who joined the new Melling Racing team in 1982. Melling Racing with Elliott driving the Coors sponsored number 9 Ford Thunderbird won the NASCAR Winston Cup series title in 1988.

Jackson County is home to Springport Motor Speedway in Springport, Michigan. Springport Motor Speedway is a state-of-the-art facility constructed in 1989 and home to the some of the finest short track racing in Michigan.

Retail

The city includes two major shopping malls: Westwood Mall west of town and Jackson Crossing north of town.

Government and infrastructure

The Michigan Department of Corrections operates several correctional facilities in Blackman Township, near Jackson.[15] They include the Cooper Street Correctional Facility,[16] the Cotton Correctional Facility,[17] the Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (reception center for new male prisoners),[18] and the Parnall Correctional Facility.[19]

Education

Jackson is served by Jackson Public Schools. The Jackson urbanized area is home to approximately 16 elementary public schools, as well as about 16 private or parochial schools. It also has a large public middle school (The Middle School at Parkside), as well as Jackson Catholic Middle School. Finally, it also boasts eight high schools: Jackson High School (Public), East Jackson High School (Public), Jackson County Western High School (Public), Northwest High School (Public), The daVinci Institute (Charter), Jackson Christian School (Private, Non-Denom), T. A. Wilson Academy (Public), and Lumen Christi High School (Private, Catholic).

Education continues for adults who can take advantage of programs offered at three institutions of higher learning: Jackson Community College (JCC), Baker College, and Spring Arbor University. There are an additional 15 institutions all within one hour of Jackson County.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 2,363
1860 5,000 111.6%
1870 14,447 188.9%
1880 16,105 11.5%
1890 20,798 29.1%
1900 25,180 21.1%
1910 31,433 24.8%
1920 48,374 53.9%
1930 55,187 14.1%
1940 49,656 −10.0%
1950 51,088 2.9%
1960 50,720 −0.7%
1970 45,484 −10.3%
1980 39,739 −12.6%
1990 38,303 −3.6%
2000 36,316 −5.2%
2010 33,534 −7.7%

As of the 2010 census Jackson had a population of 33,534. The median age was 32. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 71.4% white, 20.4% black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.6% from some other race and 5.5% from two or more races. 5.3% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.[20]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 36,316 people, 14,210 households, and 8,668 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,274.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,264.4 /km2). There were 15,241 housing units at an average density of 1,374.4 per square mile (530.7 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 73.87% White, 19.70% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.65% from other races, and 3.67% from two or more races. 4.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 14,210 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 19.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,294, and the median income for a family was $39,072. Males had a median income of $31,957 versus $23,817 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,230. About 15.2% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over.

Churches

Jackson has a number of notable historic churches, several of which were established prior to the American Civil War. The First Baptist Church was established in 1839; the present building, a Romanesque Revival structure, was dedicated in March 1872. The First Congregational Church is housed in a monumental Romanesque Revival building constructed in 1859. Its congregation has actively participated in local social reform efforts, participating in the antislavery movement in the 1840s and later supporting the temperance and civil rights movements. St. Paul's Episcopal Church was also founded in 1839. The congregation's first church building, constructed in 1840, was replaced by a Romanesque Revival building in 1853; it is one of the oldest Episcopal Church structures in southern Michigan.

Constructed in 1857, St. John's the Evangelist Church is the oldest Roman Catholic church in the city. It was established as a mission in 1836 to serve a congregation that was originally predominately Irish but has since diversified to include people of many ethnic backgrounds. St. Mary Star of the Sea was established in 1881 as Jackson's second Catholic church. The present building, a limestone Romanesque structure built between 1923–26, incorporates elements of the parish's first church as well as stained glass windows, marble altars and communion rails imported from Italy and Austria.[21]

Jackson is also home to Temple Beth Israel, a Reform synagogue founded in 1862 by German Jews.

Transportation

Jackson was a major railway hub from the late nineteenth century into the mid-twentieth century, and for over a century has been known as the crossroads of Michigan.

Major highways

Jackson is at the junction of Interstate Highway I-94 and US-127.

I-94.svg
I-94
Business Loop 94.svg
I-94 Business Loop
US 127.svg
US-127 is a north-south highway providing access northerly toward Lansing and Clare and southerly into Ohio. In the Jackson area, US-127 runs concurrently with I-94 for approximately four miles. It is freeway from Jackson northerly past Lansing, while the freeway south of Jackson quickly transitions to a two-lane, uncontrolled access highway.
Business plate.svg
US 127.svg
Business US-127 is a loop route running through downtown, connecting with US-127 at either end.
M-50.svg
M-50 enters Jackson from the northwest, and exits southeast of town.
M-60.svg
M-60 approaches Jackson from the southwest, ending at I-94 west of the city.
M-106.svg
M-106 enters Jackson from the northeast and ends downtown.

Airport

Reynolds Field at Jackson County Airport is the main airport for the city. It hosted commercial service, primarily under the North Central Airlines banner, until 1984. With the "Blue Goose" aircraft now gone, the airport today operates as a general aviation facility. The Jackson Blues Festival is held there annually.

Rail

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Jackson, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicago and Pontiac, Michigan, via Detroit. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons.

Public transportation

Jackson Transit Authority operates eight routes Monday through Saturday out of a central station located downtown. Greyhound Lines provides service from the JTA station. In addition to the publicly funded JTA, there are four private taxicab companies operating in town.

Michigan Flyer operates bus service between Jackson and Detroit Metro Airport running eight times daily.

Notable people from Jackson

Sister cities

  • Northern Ireland Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland[25]

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Jackson, Michigan
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ Population of Michigan Regions and Statistical Areas, 2000 and 2010, at www.michigan.gov
  5. ^ . http://www.boston.com/news/local/new_hampshire/articles/2004/04/10/four_cities_claim_to_be_birthplace_of_the_republican_party?mode=PF. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Jackson Michigan Historical Markers Under the Oaks". Albion Design. http://www.jacksonmich.com/markers/mark1.htm. 
  7. ^ Scott, Sara (February 4, 2009). "Jackson-based Michigan Automotive Compressor, Inc. offers voluntary buyouts". MLive.com. Michigan Live for Jackson Citizen Patriot. http://www.mlive.com/news/jackson/index.ssf/2009/02/jacksonbased_michigan_automoti.html. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Charles Egeler Reception and Guidance Center Annex (RGC) Closed November 2, 2007"
  9. ^ Michigan Department of Corrections 2008 Statistical Report, pg. F-18
  10. ^ "Southern Michigan Correctional Facility (JMF) Closed November 17, 2007"
  11. ^ "G. Robert Cotton Correctional Facility (JCF)"
  12. ^ "Cooper Street Correctional Facility (JCS)"
  13. ^ "Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (RGC)"
  14. ^ "Parnall Correctional Facility (SMT)"
  15. ^ "Blackman township, Jackson County, Michigan." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on August 13, 2011.
  16. ^ "Cooper Street Correctional Facility (JCS)." Michigan Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 13, 2011. "3100 Cooper St. Jackson, MI 49201"
  17. ^ "G. Robert Cotton Correctional Facility (JCF)." Michigan Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 13, 2011. "3500 N. Elm Road Jackson, MI 49201"
  18. ^ "Charles Egeler Reception & Guidance Center (RGC)." Michigan Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 13, 2011. "3855 Cooper St. Jackson , MI 49201-7547"
  19. ^ "Parnall Correctional Facility (SMT)." Michigan Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 13, 2011. "1780 E. Parnall Jackson, MI 49201"
  20. ^ 2010 general prolfile of population and housing characteristics of Jackson from the US census
  21. ^ Ashlee, Laura R. Traveling through time: a guide to Michigan's historical markers, pp. 202–205. University of Michigan Press, 2005. ISBN 0472030663
  22. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/yblog_localdtw/20101209/ts_yblog_localdtw/coveted-coneys-michiganians-are-loyal-to-the-regions-signature-treats
  23. ^ http://www.todoroffs.com/toci/Our_History/our_history_index.htm
  24. ^ Greater Jackson Chamber of Commerce June 5, 2002. Retrieved on September 11, 2009.
  25. ^ Fessel, Lynn (May 9, 2006). "Jackson City Council Meeting: Minutes, May 9, 2006". City of Jackson, Michigan.

External links

Coordinates: 42°14′45″N 84°24′05″W / 42.24583°N 84.40139°W / 42.24583; -84.40139


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