Dearborn, Michigan


Dearborn, Michigan
City of Dearborn
—  City  —
Hyatt Regency Dearborn
Location in Michigan
Coordinates: 42°18′40.79″N 83°12′48.53″W / 42.3113306°N 83.2134806°W / 42.3113306; -83.2134806Coordinates: 42°18′40.79″N 83°12′48.53″W / 42.3113306°N 83.2134806°W / 42.3113306; -83.2134806
Country United States
State Michigan
County Wayne
Settled 1836
Incorporation (village) 1893
Incorporation (city) 1927
Government
 - Type Strong Mayor-Council
 - Mayor John B. O'Reilly, Jr.
Area
 - Total 24.5 sq mi (63.3 km2)
 - Land 24.4 sq mi (63.1 km2)
 - Water 0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation 591 ft (180 m)
Population (2010)
 - Total 98,153
 - Density 4,013.7/sq mi (1,549.7/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 313
FIPS code 26-21000[1]
GNIS feature ID 0624432[2]
Website Official website

Dearborn is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located in the Detroit metropolitan area and Wayne County, and is the eighth largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153.[3] The city was the home of Henry Ford and is the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company. It has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford Community College. Dearborn contains The Henry Ford, America's largest indoor-outdoor museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction.[4][5]

Contents

History

The area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged mostly to the Algonquian-language family, although the Huron were Iroquoian speaking.

The Dearborn area was settled by Europeans in 1786, after the American Revolutionary War.[6] The village of Dearbornville was established in 1836, named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a General in the American Revolution and Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson. Its origins as a city trace back to a January 1929 consolidation vote that established its present-day borders by merging Dearborn and neighboring Fordson (previously known as Springwells), which feared being absorbed into Detroit. The area between the two towns was, and still remains in part, undeveloped.

Once farm land, this was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, and the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Later developments in this corridor were the Ford airport (later converted to the Dearborn Proving Grounds), other Ford administrative and development facilities, The Henry Ford (the region's leading tourist attraction containing a reconstructed historic village and museum), the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, and the Dearborn Civic Center. It is planted with sunflowers and often with Henry Ford's favorite soybeans. The crops are never harvested.

In 2005, the Arab American National Museum (AANM) opened in Dearborn, the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Most of the Arab-Americans in Dearborn and the Detroit area are ethnic Lebanese Christians, who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry, like many immigrants to the area. They have been joined by more recent Arab immigrants from other nations, some of whom are Muslim.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles (63 km2), of which, 24.4 square miles (63 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.37%) is water. The Rouge River runs through the city with an artificial waterfall/low head dam on the Henry Ford estate to power his powerhouse. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river is widened and channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access.

Fordson Island (42°17′38″N 83°08′52″W / 42.29389°N 83.14778°W / 42.29389; -83.14778) is an 8.4 acre (33,994 m²) island about three miles (5 km) inland from the Detroit River on the River Rouge. Fordson Island is the only major island in a tributary to the Detroit River. The island was created in 1922 when engineers dug a secondary trench to reroute the River Rouge to increase navigability for shipping purposes. The island is privately owned, and public access to the island is prohibited. The island is part of the city of Dearborn, which itself has no coast along the Detroit River.[7][8]

Dearborn is among a small number of municipalities that owns property in other cities (the 626-acre (2.53 km2) Camp Dearborn in Milford, Michigan, 35 miles (56 km) from Dearborn[9]) and is possibly unique in holding property in another state (the Dearborn Towers apartment complex in Clearwater, Florida). These holdings are considered part of the city of Dearborn, and revenues generated by camp admissions and rent collected are used to bolster the city's budget.

Economy

Ford Motor Company World Headquarters in Dearborn, known as the Glass House

Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn.[10] In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses such as the Fairlane Town Center shopping mall. DFCU Financial, the largest credit union in Michigan, was created for Ford and related companies' employees. One of the largest employers in Dearborn is Oakwood Healthcare System. Other major employers include auto suppliers like Visteon, education facilities like Henry Ford Community College and museums like The Henry Ford. Other businesses which are headquartered in Dearborn include Carhartt (clothing), Eppinger (fishing lures), United Airlines Detroit Reservation Center, AAA Michigan (insurance), and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.[citation needed]

Largest employers

According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[11] the largest employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Ford 33,000
2 Oakwood Health System 5,670
3 Visteon 4,300
4 Dearborn Board of Education 2,681
5 Lear 2,500
6 Severstal North America 1,840
7 Auto Club of Michigan 1,781
8 United Technologies Auto 1,266
9 Dearborn Stamping Plant 1,000
10 UM Child Development Center 963

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1900 844
1910 911 7.9%
1920 2,470 171.1%
1930 50,358 1,938.8%
1940 63,589 26.3%
1950 94,994 49.4%
1960 112,007 17.9%
1970 104,199 −7.0%
1980 90,660 −13.0%
1990 89,286 −1.5%
2000 97,775 9.5%
2010 98,153 0.4%

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 97,775 people, 36,770 households, and 23,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,013.2 per square mile (1,549.7/km²). There were 38,981 housing units at an average density of 1,600.0 per square mile (617.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.86% White, 1.28% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, and 9.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.00% of the population.

33.4% were of Arab ancestry (categorized as "White" in Census collection data), 10.3% Polish, 9.9% German, 6.5% Irish, and 6.0% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 61.9% spoke English, 29.3% Arabic, 1.9% Spanish, and 1.5% Polish as their first language.

There were 36,770 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.42.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,560, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $45,114 versus $33,872 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,488. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over. As of the 2006 estimate, Dearborn's population was thought to have fallen to 92,382, a decrease of 5.5% since 2000. Over the same period, though, SEMCOG, the local statistics agency of Metro Detroit Council of Governments, has estimated the city to have grown to 99,001, or an increase of 1.2% since 2000. The Census Bureau estimates the 2005 proportion of African Americans to be 4.1% of the total population of the city.

Dearborn has a large community of descendants of ethnic European immigrants from the 19th and 20th centuries, whose ancestors generally first settled in Detroit: Irish, German, and Polish. The city has had a small African American population, many of whose ancestors came to the area in the Great Migration of the early twentieth century.[12]

The city's population includes 30,000 Arab Americans. Ethnic Arabs own many shops and businesses, offering services in both English and Arabic.[13] Lebanese are included among the population.[14] In the 2000 census, Arab Americans comprised 30% of Dearborn's population; many have been in the city for several generations. The city has the largest proportion of Arab Americans for a municipality of its size (about 100,000).[15]

The first Arab immigrants came in the early-to-mid-20th century to work in the automotive industry and were chiefly Lebanese Christians (Syriac-Maronites). Other immigrants from the Mideast in the early twentieth century included a large Armenian-American community, who are Christian. Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syriacs have also immigrated to the area.

Since then, Arab immigrants from Yemen, Iraq, and the Palestinian territories, most of whom are Muslim, have joined them. Lebanese Americans are still the most numerous group.[16] The Arab Muslim community has built the Islamic Center of America, the largest mosque in North America,[17] and the Dearborn Mosque. More Iraqi refugees have come, fleeing the continued war in their country since 2003.

As of 2010 the population of Dearborn was 98,153. The racial and ethnic composition was 86.7% Non-Hispanic whites (including Arabs), 4.0% black or African-American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 4.0% reporting two or more races and 3.4% Hispanic or Latino.[18]

Transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Dearborn, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between Chicago, Illinois and Pontiac, Michigan via Detroit. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons. Currently there are two rail stops in Dearborn: the ordinary Amtrak station and a rarely-used station at Greenfield Village. Amtrak operates on Norfolk southern's (NS) "Michigan line". This track runs from Dearborn to Kalamazoo, Michigan. Most of the freight traffic on these rails is related to the automotive industry. Norfolk Southern's Dearborn Division offices are also located in Dearborn.

Education

Colleges and universities

University of Michigan–Dearborn

University of Michigan–Dearborn & Henry Ford Community College are located in Dearborn on Evergreen Road and are adjacent to each other.

Primary and secondary schools

Dearborn residents, along with a small portion of Dearborn Heights residents attend Dearborn Public Schools, which operates 34 schools including 3 major high schools. Divine Child High School and Elementary School are in Dearborn as well; the high-school is the largest private coed high school in the area. Dearborn Schools operated the Clara B. Ford High School inside Vista Maria, a non-profit residential treatment agency for girls in Dearborn Heights. Clara B. Ford High School became a charter school in the 2007–08 school year.[citation needed]

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit previously operated the St. Alphonsus Elementary School in Dearborn. In 2005 the archdiocese announced that the school would close.[19]

Free speech controversy

The Arab-American community in Dearborn sponsors an annual Arab-American Festival, which attracts hundreds of thousands of attendees from the region. In recent years Christian evangelists have tried to hand out religious literature at the festival; others have protested, sometimes with signs or spoken insults about Arabs, Muslims, Catholics and other groups. The city has struggled to deal with reducing confrontations while supporting a major public event and has entered into controversial areas related to free speech.

In 2010 four members of the Christian group, Acts 17 Apologetics, were arrested and prosecuted for "breach of the peace" because they were preaching to a crowd at the annual Arab-American Festival.[20] All the charges, except one of failure to obey a police order, were thrown out by a jury.[21]

At a Tea Party campaign rally in Nevada following the incident, Sharron Angle, a Republican candidate for Congress in the state, responded to a question, saying, "We're talking about a militant terrorist situation, which I believe isn't a widespread thing, but it is enough that we need to address, and we have been addressing it."[20][22] She suggested (incorrectly) that the Dearborn city government and one in Frankford, Texas enforced sharia (Islamic) law rather than the US Constitution.[20] As noted in the "Demographics" section, most of the Arab-American residents in Dearborn are descendants of Lebanese Christians and are not Muslim. "Mayor Jack O'Reilly [of Dearborn] called Angle's comments "shameful." He said they were based on distorted Tea Party accounts of the arrest of members of an anti-Islam group at an Arab festival." He said Angle had "maligned" the city.[20] She was defeated in the election.

During the festival, four other people from Apologetics were blocked from handing out Arabic-English copies of the Gospel of John on a public street. Police ordered them to stop filming the incident, to provide identification, and to move at least five blocks from the border of the fair.[23][24] The group had also appeared at the 2009 Arab-American festival and were removed by security guards that year.[25] [26]

On April 22, 2011, the preacher Terry Jones planned a protest outside the Islamic Center of America during the Arab-American Festival. Local authorities required him either to post a "peace bond" or to go to trial. The jury voted to require the posting of a $1 "peace bond", but Jones and his co-pastor Wayne Sapp refused to pay. They were held briefly in jail, while alleging that the bond requirement violated their First Amendment rights. Later that night, Jones paid the bail and was released by the court.[27] The ACLU criticized the city for violations of Jones' right of free speech, and filed an amicus brief supporting his protest plans. It does not support his ideas.[28] Jones tried to speak at the annual Festival on June 18, 2011, but he was turned away by protesters. Christian missionaries accompanied Jones with their own signs of protest; they yelled insults at Arabs, Muslims, Islam, and Catholics.[29]

Notable residents

Henry Ford's Fair Lane estate in Dearborn.
River Rouge from Henry Ford's estate.

Historical timeline

European exploration and colonization

  • 1603 French lay claim to unidentified territory in this region, naming it New France.
  • July 24, 1701 Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his soldiers first land at what is now Detroit.
  • November 29, 1760 The British take control of the area from France.
  • 1780 Pierre Dumais clears farm near what is today's Morningside Street in Dearborn's South End.

Early U.S. history

  • 1783 By terms of the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain cedes territory south of the Great Lakes to the United States, although the British retain practical control of the Detroit area and several other settlements until 1797.
  • 1786 Agreed year of first permanent settler in present-day Dearborn.
  • 1787 Territory of the US north and west of the Ohio River is officially proclaimed the Northwest Territory.
  • December 26, 1791 Detroit environs become part of Kent County, Ontario.
  • 1795 James Cissne becomes first settler in what is now west Dearborn.
  • 1796 Wayne County is formed by proclamation of the acting governor of the Northwest Territory. Its original area is 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), stretching from Cleveland, Ohio to Chicago, Illinois and northwest to Canada.
  • May 7, 1800 Indiana Territory, created out of part of Northwest Territory, although the eastern half of Michigan including the Dearborn area, was not attached to Indiana Territory until Ohio was admitted as a state in 1803.
  • January 11, 1805 Michigan Territory officially created out of a part of the Indiana Territory.
  • June 11, 1805 Fire destroys most of Detroit.
  • November 15, 1815 Current boundaries of Wayne County drawn, county split into 18 townships.
  • January 5, 1818 Springwells Township established by Gov. Lewis Cass.
  • October 23, 1824 Bucklin Township created by Gov. Lewis Cass. The area ran from Greenfield to approximately Haggerty and from Van Born to Eight Mile.
  • 1826 Conrad Ten Eyck builds Ten Eyck Tavern at Michigan Avenue and Rouge River.
  • 1827 Wayne County's boundaries changed to its current 615 square miles (1,593 km2).
  • April 12, 1827 Springwells and Bucklin townships formally organized and laid out by gubernatorial act.
  • October 29, 1829 Bucklin Township split along what is today Inkster Road into Nankin (west half) and Pekin (east half) townships.
  • March 21, 1833 Pekin Township renamed Redford Township.
  • March 31, 1833 Greenfield Township created from north and west sections of Springwells Township, including what is now today east Dearborn.
  • April 1, 1833 Dearborn Township created from southern half of Redford Township south of Bonaparte Avenue (Joy Road).
  • 1833 Detroit Arsenal built.
  • October 23, 1834 Dearborn Township renamed Bucklin Township.
  • March 26, 1836 Bucklin Township renamed Dearborn Township.
  • January 26, 1837 Michigan admitted to the Union as the 26th state. Stevens T. Mason is first governor.
  • 1837 Michigan Central Railroad extended through Springwells Township. Hamlet of Springwells rises along railroad.
  • April 5, 1838 Village of Dearbornville incorporates. Village later unincorporated on May 11, 1846.
  • 1849 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Brooklyn Street.
  • April 2, 1850 Greenfield Township annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • February 12, 1857 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Grand Boulevard.
  • March 25, 1873 Springwells Township annexes back section of Greenfield Township south of Tireman
  • May 28, 1875 Postmaster general changes name of Dearbornville post office to Dearborn post office, hence changing the city's name.
  • 1875 Detroit Arsenal closed.
  • 1875 Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • 1876 William A. Nowlin writes The Bark Covered House in honor of country's 100th birthday.
  • June 20, 1884 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Livernois.
  • 1889 First telephone installed in Dearborn at St. Joseph's retreat.

Incorporation as village

  • March 24, 1893 Village of Dearborn incorporates.
  • 1906 Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
  • 1916 Detroit annexes more of Springwells Township, forming Dearborn's eastern boundary.
  • 1917 Rouge "Eagle" Plant opens.
  • November 1, 1919 The first house numbering ordinance in Dearborn starts. Residents required to place standard plate number on right side of the main house entrance five feet up.
  • December 9, 1919 Springwells Township incorporates as village of Springwells.
  • October 16, 1922 Springwells Township annexes small section of Dearborn Township east of present-day Greenfield Road.
  • December 27, 1923 Voters approve incorporation of Springwells as a city. It officially became a city April 7, 1924.
  • September 9, 1924 Village of Warrendale incorporates.
  • November 1924 Ford Airport opens.
  • April 6, 1925 Warrendale voters and residents of remaining Greenfield Township approve annexation by Detroit.
  • May 26, 1925 Village of Dearborn annexes large portion of Dearborn Township.
  • December 23, 1925 Springwells changes name to city of Fordson.
  • February 15, 1926 First U.S. airmail delivery made, going from Ford Airport in Dearborn to Cleveland.
  • September 14, 1926 Election approves incorporation of village of Inkster. Unincorporated part of Dearborn Township split into two unconnected sections.
  • October 11, 1926 Only dirigible to ever moor in Dearborn docks at Ford Airport.

Reincorporation as city

  • February 14, 1927 Village of Dearborn residents approve vote to become a city.
  • June 12, 1928 Voters in Dearborn, Fordson and part of Dearborn Township vote to consolidate into one city.
  • January 9, 1929 Clyde Ford elected as first mayor of Dearborn.
  • 1929 Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opens.
  • July 1, 1931 Dearborn Inn opens as one of first airport hotels in world.
  • March 7, 1932 Ford Hunger March crosses Dearborn city limits. Four marchers are shot to death by police and Ford service men.
  • 1936 John Carey becomes mayor of Dearborn.
  • June 19, 1936 Montgomery Ward opens in Dearborn.
  • May 26, 1937 Harry Bennett's Ford "service" men beat United Auto Workers (UAW) official Richard Frankensteen in the Battle of the Overpass
  • June 21, 1941 Ford Motor Company signs its first union contract.
  • 1939 The Historic Springwells Park Neighborhood is established by Edsel B. Ford to provide company executives and auto workers with upscale housing accommodations.
  • January 6, 1942 Orville L. Hubbard takes office as mayor of Dearborn for first time.
  • April 7, 1947 Henry Ford dies.
  • October 20, 1947 Dearborn City Council approves purchase of land near Milford, Michigan for what would become Camp Dearborn. First section of camp opens following year.
  • October 21, 1947 Ford Airport officially closes.
  • 1950 First Pleasant Hours senior citizen group formed.
  • 1950 Dearborn Historical Museum formally established.
  • January 1952 Oakwood Hospital formally opened and dedicated.
  • April 22, 1958 Election held to annex part of South Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
  • 1959 University of Michigan (Dearborn Campus) opens.
  • April 6, 1959 Election held to annex part of North Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
  • 1962 St. Joseph's retreat closed and razed
  • 1962 New Henry Ford Community College campus dedicated.
  • November 9, 1962 Ford Rotunda burns down
  • 1967 Dearborn Towers in Clearwater, Florida opens.
  • March 2, 1976 Fairlane Town Center opens.
  • 1978 John B. O' Reilly, Sr. becomes mayor of Dearborn
  • November 6, 1981 Cable Television reaches first home in Dearborn, on Abbot Street.
  • December 16, 1982 Orville Hubbard dies.
  • 1986 Michael Guido becomes mayor of Dearborn.
  • 1993 Michael Guido is the first mayor to run unopposed.
  • 2006 Michael Guido dies at the age of 52 during his 6th term, the only mayor to die in office.
  • 2006 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is to become temporary Mayor. O'Reilly's father was the mayor who had preceded Mayor Guido.
  • 2007 John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is elected mayor of Dearborn winning 93.97% of the vote.
  • 2008 John B. O'Reilly, Sr. dies at the age of 89; he was Mayor of Dearborn (1978–1985) and also served as Chief of Police for 11 years.

See also

  • Images of metropolitan Detroit
  • University of Michigan–Dearborn

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Dearborn, Michigan
  3. ^ Population of Michigan Cities, Villages, Townships, and Remainders of Townships. www.michigan.gov.
  4. ^ America's Story, Explore the States: Michigan (2006). Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
  5. ^ State of Michigan: MI Kids (2006).Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
  6. ^ "History", Dearborn Area Living, accessed 15 May 2010
  7. ^ Buttle and Tuttle Ltd (2000–2008). "Wayne County island place names". http://www.placenames.com/us/26163/island/. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  8. ^ Heritage Newspapers (2009). "Dearborn Area Living: rivers, creeks, ditches". http://www.dearbornarealiving.com/topography.shtml. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  9. ^ Camp Dearborn, Dearborn city website
  10. ^ "Contact Ford." Ford Motor Company. Retrieved on November 7, 2009.
  11. ^ "City of Dearborn 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). http://www.cityofdearborn.org/documents/doc_download/576-comprehensive-annual-financial-report-2010. 
  12. ^ Rev. Horace L. Sheffield, III, Denounces 'Residents Only' Policy at New Dearborn Civic Center as Racist Attempt to Limit Access by African-Americans,PR Newswire, HighBeam Research
  13. ^ of Citizenship, University of Michigan
  14. ^ http://www.aaiusa.org/page/file/f6bf1bfae54f0224af_3dtmvyj4h.pdf/MIdemographics.pdf
  15. ^ The Arab Population: Census Bureau, 2000, pp. 7-8, accessed 15 Apr 2008
  16. ^ http://www.commongroundnews.org/article.php?id=1044&lan=en&sid=1&sp=0
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ 2010 population report for Dearborn, Fact Finder
  19. ^ Pratt, Chastity, Patricia Montemurri, and Lori Higgins. "PARENTS, KIDS SCRAMBLE AS EDUCATION OPTIONS NARROW." Detroit Free Press. March 17, 2005. A1 News. Retrieved on April 30, 2011. "School closings announced Wednesday by the Archdiocese of Detroit doomed eight high schools in Detroit and neighboring suburbs and will shutter 10 elementary schools, including historic landmarks such as St. Alphonsus Elementary in Dearborn and St. Florian Elementary in Hamtramck."
  20. ^ a b c d Jill Lawrence, "Sharron Angle on Sharia Religious Law: It's Already Supplanting the Constitution", Politics Daily, 7 October 2010
  21. ^ Light, Jonathan (September 25, 2010). "Acts-17 Group Acquitted of Inciting Crowd". Dearborn Free Press (DEARBORN, Michigan). http://www.dearbornfreepress.com/2010/09/25/acts-17-group-acquitted-of-inciting-crowd/. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "Sharron Angle Claims Dearborn, Michigan Ruled by Sharia Law", The Atlantic
  23. ^ Brayton, Ed (2010-07-22). "Dearborn police accused of violating First Amendment". The Michigan Messenger. http://michiganmessenger.com/39903/dearborn-police-accused-of-violating-first-amendment. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  24. ^ "Video: Cops arrest Christians for handing out gospel at Dearborn Arab festival? Update: Pushback". Hot Air. Michelle Malkin. 2010-06-23. http://hotair.com/archives/2010/06/23/video-cops-arrest-christians-for-handing-out-gospel-at-dearborn-arab-festival/. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  25. ^ Acts17Apologetics. "Arab Festival 2009: Sharia in the US". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fEPod-hxD7g. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  26. ^ Vallely, Paul E. (July 8, 2009). "The signs of Sharia in Dearborn Michigan". Canada Free Press.Com. http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/12717. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  27. ^ Brand-Williams, Oralandar; Tom Greenwood (2011-04-22). "Pastor released from jail after being held on $1 'peace bond'". The Detroit News (Dearborn). http://www.detnews.com/article/20110422/LIFESTYLE04/104220401/Pastor-released-from-jail-after-being-held-on-$1-%E2%80%98peace-bond%E2%80%99. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  28. ^ "Terry Jones Amicus Brief", ACLU Michigan Website, accessed 1 September 2011
  29. ^ WARIKOO, Niraj (Jun. 19, 2011). "Christian missionaries take on Muslims, Catholics at Arab International Festival". Detroit Free Press. http://www.freep.com/article/20110619/NEWS02/110619004/Christian-missionaries-take-Muslims-Catholics-Arab-International-Festival?odyssey=tab%7Ctopnews%7Ctext%7CFRONTPAGE. Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  30. ^ "Michigan's Rima Fakih Wins Miss USA Pageant". CBS News. May 16, 2010. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/05/16/national/main6490542.shtml. 
  31. ^ http://www.mashceleb.com/celeb/david-burtka

Further reading

  • Cantor, George (2005). Detroit: An Insiders Guide to Michigan. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472030922. 
  • Fisher, Dale (2003). Building Michigan: A Tribute to Michigan's Construction Industry. Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing. ISBN 1891143247. 
  • Fisher, Dale (2005). Southeast Michigan: Horizons of Growth. Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing. ISBN 1891143255. 
  • Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher (2002). AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3. 

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