University of Calcutta


University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta
কলিকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়

Seal of University of Calcutta
Motto Advancement of Learning
Established 24 January 1857
Type Public
Chancellor Mayankote Kelath Narayanan
Governor of West Bengal
Vice-Chancellor Prof Suranjan Das
Undergraduates 100,000[1]
Postgraduates 5,500[1]
Location Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Campus Urban, 153 affiliated colleges[2]
Affiliations UGC, NAAC, AIU
Website caluniv.ac.in

The University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) (Bengali: কলিকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) is a public university located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, founded on 24 January 1857. It was the first multidisciplinary modern university in South Asia, as the oldest institution to have university status, Senate of Serampore College (University), Serampore[3] was granted freedom to grant degrees in theology only.

Within India it is recognized as a "Five Star University" and a "Centre with Potential for Excellence" by the University Grants Commission.[2][4] Within all state Universities all over India, Calcutta University occupies the top rank in terms of the highest number students who cleared the PhD entrance eligibility exam in Science conducted by Central Govt (CSIR-UGC NET) to became eligible to pursue PhD studies with full Govt. Scholarship.[5]

It is a state-government administered urban-based affiliating and research university. It has its central campus in College Street (called Ashutosh Shiksha Prangan). Its other campuses are in Rajabazar (called Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan), Ballygunge (called Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan), Alipore (called Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan), Hazra and South Sinthi.

Contents

History

Vice Chancellors
  • James William Colvile, 1857–1859
  • William Ritchie, 1859–1862
  • Claudius James Erskine, 1862–1863
  • Henry Sumner Maine, 1863–1867
  • W. S. Seton-Karr, 1867–1869
  • Edward Clive Bayley, 1869–1875
  • Arthur Hobhouse, 1875–1877
  • William Markby, 1877–1878
  • Alexander Arbuthnot, 1878–1880
  • Arthur Wilson[disambiguation needed ], 1880–1883
  • H. J. Reynolds, 1883–1886
  • C. P. Ilbert, 1886 - 1886
  • William Wilson Hunter, 1886–1887
  • William Comer Petheram, 1887–1889
  • Gooroodass Banerjee, 1890–1892
  • Jones Quain Pigot, 1893 - 1893
  • Alfred Croft, 1893–1896
  • E. J. Trevelyan, 1897–1898
  • Francis William Maclean, 1898–1900
  • Thomas Raleigh, 1900–1904
  • Alexander Pedler, 1904–1906
  • Asutosh Mookerjee, 1906–1914
  • Deva Prosad Sarbadhicary, 1914–1918
  • Lancelot Sanderson, 1918–1919
  • Nilratan Sircar, 1919–1921
  • Asutosh Mookerjee, 1921–1923
  • Bhupendra Nath Bose, 1923–1924
  • William Ewart Greaves, 1924–1926
  • Jadunath Sarkar, 1926–1928
  • W. S. Urquhart, 1928–1930
  • Hassan Suhrawardy, 1930–1934
  • Syama Prasad Mookerjee, 1934–1938
  • Sir Azizul Huque, 1938–1942
  • Bidhan Chandra Roy, 1942–1944
  • Radhabinod Pal, 1944–1946
  • Pramathanath Banerjee, 1946–1949
  • Charuchandra Biswas, 1949–1950
  • Sambhunath Banerjee, 1950–1954
  • Jnanchandra Ghosh, 1954–1955
  • Nirmalkumar Sidhanta, 1955–1960
  • Subodh Mitra, 1960–1961
  • Surajit Chandra Lahiri, 1962 - 1962
  • Bidhubhushan Malik, 1962–1968
  • S. N. Sen, 1968–1976
  • Sushil Kumar Mukherjee, 1976–1983
  • Ramendra Kumar Podder, 1979–1983
  • Santosh Bhattacharyya, 1983–1987
  • Bhaskarananda Ray Chaudhuri, 1987–1991
  • Rathindra Narayan Basu, 1991–1999
  • Asis Kumar Banerjee, 1999–2008
  • Suranjan Das, 2008–present

The University of Calcutta has so far produced 4 Nobelists, more than any other Indian university: Ronald Ross, Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen.[6] The school was founded in 1857 while Lord Canning was the Governor General of India. Dr Fredrick John, the education secretary to the then British Government in India, first tendered a proposal to the British Government in London for the establishment of a university in Calcutta, similar to London University, to create an educated class that would help them rule India; at that time the plan failed to obtain the necessary approval. However, a proposal to establish two universities, one in Calcutta and the other in Bombay was later accepted in 1854 and the necessary authority was given. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon (now in Myanmar) , and Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university.[6]

The first Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University were Governor General Lord Canning and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Sir James William Colvile, respectively.[7] In 1858, Joddu Nath Bose and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay became the first graduates of the university.[8] On 30 January 1858, the Syndicate of the Calcutta University started functioning.[8] The first meeting of the Senate was held in the Council room of the Calcutta Medical College. A temporary office of the university was started in a few rented rooms in Camac Street. For several years afterwards the meetings of the Senate and Syndicate were held in a room of the Writers' building. 244 candidates appeared for the first entrance examination of the university, held in March 1857 in the town hall of Calcutta. In 1862, a decision was taken by the Senate to construct for the university a building of its own. Accordingly, the historical Senate Hall was constructed at a cost of Rs. 2,52,221/- and inaugurated on 12 March 1873 by holding the convocation of the university.

In 1857 Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Government College[9] in Kapurthala , Punjab province of British India became one of the first colleges to be affiliated with University of Calcutta. Later many institutions came under its jurisdiction. Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi Basu became the first female graduates of the country in 1882.[8] The Honourable Justice Gooroodas Banerjee became the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of University of Calcutta in the year 1890.[7] Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms (1906–1914) and a fifth two-year term (1921–23).

Campus

Ashutosh Building at the College Street campus

The university has several campuses spread over the city of Kolkata and its suburbs. The university also has many affiliated colleges spread over southern West Bengal. The main campus of the university, located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres (0.011 km2).[10] The main campus is also known as the Asutosh Siksha Prangan, and contains Darbhanga Building, Asutosh Building, Hardinge Building, and the Centenary Building.[11] The Rashbihari Siksha Prangan (also known as University College of Science and Technology or popularly Rajabazar Science College), located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, houses several scientific and technological departments, e.g., pure and applied chemistry, pure and applied physics, applied mathematics, psychology, physiology, biophysics and molecular biology, to name but a few.[11] Taraknath Siksha Prangan (also known as University College of Science or Ballygunge Science College) on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city houses the departments of agriculture, anthropology, biochemistry, botany, genetics and most notably geology among others.[11] Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan at Behala houses the department of Archeology, Business Management, Political Science, Sociology and others. Other campuses are Hazra Road Campus, University Press And Book Depot, B. T. Road Campus, Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, University Health Service, Haringhata Campus, Dhakuria Lakes (University Rowing Club) and University Ground and Tent at Maidan.[11] The university has a plan to create a "Techno Campus", to bring together the engineering and technical departments under one roof, in Salt Lake.[12]

Academics

Research

Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students are assigned to a major when they enter the university, and cannot change it later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand, as these fields are perceived to have better job opportunities. Most programs are organized by years, though some programs use a semester system. Most departments offer masters programs that are one or two years in duration. Research in the university is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs.

The university has 18 research centres, 650 teachers,[citation needed] 3000 non-teaching staff and 12,400 post-graduate students.[citation needed]

Faculties

Darbhanga Building at the College Street campus
Department of Business Management, University of Calcutta

Calcutta University has sixty five departments organised into eight faculties: Agriculture; Arts; Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management; Education, Journalism and Library Science; Engineering & Technology; Fine Arts, Music and Home Science; Law and Science.[13]

  • Faculty of Agriculture: This faculty consists only one department called the Institute of Agricultural Science and offers post graduate courses on agronomy, horticulture, Genetics & Plant Breeding and Seed Science & Technology among others. The College of Agriculture was founded by professor Pabitra Kumar Sen, who was the Khaira Professor of Agriculture in early 1950s[14]
  • Faculty of Arts: This faculty consists of 21 departments offering courses on several Indian (including Sanskrit and Pali) and foreign languages, linguistics, ancient Indian history and culture, Islamic history and culture, South & South east Asian studies and many more.[15]
  • Faculty of Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management: This faculty consists of the Departments of Business Management and Commerce.
  • Faculty of Education, Journalism and Library Science: This faculty consists of three departments that offer courses on journalism and mass communication, library & information science.[16]
  • Faculty of Fine Arts, Music and Home Science: This faculty consists of the Department of Home Science, which offers courses on subjects such as food and nutrition, human development, home science.[18]
  • The Faculty of Law: This faculty comprises only the Department of Law. Established in January 1909 as the "University College of Law," it was granted the status as the Department of Law of the university in February 1983.
  • The Faculty of Science: This faculty has nineteen departments. This faculty offers courses on traditional science subjects like geology, geography, statistics, anthropology, biochemsitry, zoology, physics, chemistry, botany as well as subjects like biotechnology, microbiology, bioinformatics, marine science etc.[19] The Department of Applied Physics was established in 1925 and is located in Anand Nagar. Presently studies are being conducted in Instrumentation Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Optics, and Opto-electronics.

Institutes

The university offers affiliation or outside support to a number of autonomous institutes and centres, based mostly in Calcutta, and one each in Bangalore and Patna. They are either under its direct control, or offer courses in collaboration with the university or are autonomous bodies that offer fellowships to students enrolled for a Ph.D. at the university. These institutes are Bose Institute, Calcutta, (outside support), Calcutta Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Calcutta, (outside support) Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, (outside support), Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta, (outside support), Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, (outside support), Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Calcutta, (affiliated), Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata, (affiliated), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies, Calcutta, (outside support), Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, (outside support), Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (partly affiliated), and S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Calcutta (outside support).

Colleges

The university has 153 affiliated colleges[20] under its umbrella. See the template for a list of affiliated or associated institutions. For a list of formerly affiliated institutions, see list of academic institutions formerly affiliated to the University of Calcutta.

Accreditation and recognition

The university enjoys both national and international repute:

  • In 2001 the university was awarded the status of a ‘five star university’ by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council.[4]
  • On 8 December 2005, the Indian University Grants Commission declared Calcutta University as a ‘‘University with Potential for Excellence’’.[21]
  • The Manuscript Library at the university has been recently designated as a Manuscript Conservation Centre under the National Mission for Manuscripts, which was established in 2003.[22]
  • Times Higher Education published its list of the world's top arts and humanities universities on 10 November 2005. Calcutta University ranked 39 in the list and was the only Indian university to make it to the top 50 that year.
  • The Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings also ranked the university among the first 500 universities of the world for five consecutive years: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009[23]
  • On 5 January 2010, the National Assessment and Accreditation Council awarded its highest grade of 'A' to the university.[4]
  • The 22 May 2010 issue of India Today magazine ranked it within the top five Indian universities (after three central universities), and as India's best state-government administered university.[2]This has been maintained in the subsequent annual ranking (15 August 2011 edition) of Indian universities[24]

Notable initiatives

The Centenary Library at the College Street campus overlooking College Square. The library was built on the place of the previously existing University Senate Hall

Some of the notable initiatives associated with the university are:

  • The first university located to the east of Suez to teach European classics, English literature, European and Indian philosophy and Occidental and Oriental history.
  • The first medical school of Asia, the Calcutta Medical College, was established in 1835. Later it was affiliated to the university.
  • The first college for women in India, the Bethune College, was established in 1879.
  • The nation's first homeopathy college was established in 1880.
  • The science college was established in 1917, the first in India.
  • The first school for blind people in India was established in 1925.
  • The first university museum in India, The Ashutosh Museum, was established in 1937.
  • The Government Arts College was established in 1951.
  • The Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM) was established in 1953 as the country's first management institute.

Notable alumni and faculty

For an extended list of the University's alumni, see the list of University of Calcutta people.

The university has produced many scientists, engineers, world leaders and Nobel laureates and teachers. As the oldest university of Bengal and India, many students of the subcontinent came to this university in the nineteenth century. Nobel laureates who either studied or worked here include Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman and Amartya Sen. The Academy Award winning director Satyajit Ray was also an alumnus of this university. So is the composer of the national song of India, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Some of the industrialists who studied in this university include Sir Rajen Mookerjee, Rama Prasad Goenka, Lakshmi Mittal, Aditya Birla and many other leading industrialists]. Scientists Jagadish Chandra Bose and his student Meghnad Saha, eminent Physicist and Mathematician Jamal Nazrul Islam were also students of this university.

An nationalist leader, former president of the Indian National Congress, co-founder of the Indian National Army, and Head of State of the Provisional Government of Free India, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose studied in this university. Another President of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Banaras Hindu University, Madan Mohan Malaviya graduated in 1884 as a student of the University of Calcutta. Amongst the presidents of India who either studied or taught here were the first two presidents of the republic, Rajendra Prasad, and Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. The current Vice President of India, Mohammad Hamid Ansari studied here, as did a former Deputy Prime Minister of India, Jagjivan Ram. Many governors of Indian states have studied here, including the first Indian governor of Bihar and Orissa, Lord Satyendra Prasanno Sinha of Raipur, Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, governor of the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, and Banwari Lal Joshi, the former governor of Delhi, and Meghalaya, and current governor of Uttarakhand. The former ruler of the Indian princely state of Coochbehar, Maharaja Nripendra Narayan Bhupa Bahadur as well as Patayet Sahib Maharajkumar Bhoopendra Narayan Singh Deo of Saraikela were also alumni of this university. Amongst its former students are one Prime Minister and five Chief Ministers of Bengal, including A.K. Fazlul Huq, Bidhan Chandra Ray, Prafulla Chandra Sen, Siddhartha Shankar Ray, Jyoti Basu, and Buddhadeb Bhattacharya; two Chief Ministers of Assam, Bishnu Ram Medhi and Gopinath Bordoloi and one Chief Minister of Meghalaya, Brington Buhai Lyngdoh. Heads of state from other countries associated with the University of Calcutta include four Presidents of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Mohammad Mohammadullah, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem, Abdus Sattar, two Prime Ministers of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and Muhammad Mansur Ali, three Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Bogra, Hussein Shaheed Suhrawardy, and Nurul Amin, the first Premier of Burma under British rule, Ba Maw, the current and first President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav and the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  2. ^ a b c Hubs of excellence
  3. ^ Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Higher Education [2]
  4. ^ a b c CU makes the highest grade
  5. ^ CSIR–UGC National Eligibility Test: a performance indicator of basic science education in Indian universities: Inderpal, S.Chetri, A.Saini and R. Luthra , Current Science, Vol.97, No 4, 25 August 2009 link
  6. ^ a b Chakraborty, Rachana. "University of Calcutta". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/U_0028.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  7. ^ a b "Genesis and Historical Overview of the University". University and its Campuses. University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070321035649/http://www.caluniv.ac.in/university_campuses/university_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  8. ^ a b c "Memorable Events". University and its Campuses. University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070321035649/http://www.caluniv.ac.in/university_campuses/university_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  9. ^ "Tribune of India article on Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Government College". Tribuneindia.com. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20061001/society.htm#1. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  10. ^ "Campus Area". University and its Campuses. University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070321035649/http://www.caluniv.ac.in/university_campuses/university_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Campuses". University and its Campuses. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/university_campuses/university_frame.htm. 
  12. ^ "Calcutta University plans Techno campus". Other States: West Bengal (The Hindu). 16 January 2006. http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/16/stories/2006011610440300.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  13. ^ "Courses Offered". University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  14. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Agriculture". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  15. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Arts". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  16. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Education, Journalism and Library Science". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  17. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Engineering & Technology". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  18. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Fine Arts, Music and Home Science". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  19. ^ "Faculty Council for Post-Graduate Studies in Science". Courses offered. University of Calcutta. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/courses_offered/courses_frame.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  20. ^ "Affiliated College". Official site, University of Calcutta, Copyright © 2004. http://www.caluniv.ac.in/Affiliated%20college/college.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  21. ^ "CU gets "Potential for Excellence" tag of University Grants Commission". Cities.expressindia.com. 2010-11-25. http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=160637. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  22. ^ Manuscript Conservation Centres National Mission for Manuscripts.
  23. ^ Times Higher Education profile on the University of Calcutta
  24. ^ India's best universities: On higher ground

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