Madan Mohan Malaviya


Madan Mohan Malaviya
Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya
Portrait of Madan Mohan Malviya unveiled by Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 19 December 1957.
President of the Indian National Congress
In office
1909–10; 1918–19; 1930 and 1932
Incumbent Sonia Gandhi
Personal details
Born 25 December 1861(1861-12-25)
Allahabad, India
Died 12 November 1946(1946-11-12) (aged 84)
Allahabad
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Alma mater Allahabad University
University of Calcutta
Religion Hindu

Madan Mohan Malaviya (Hindi: पंडित मदन मोहन मालवीय) (1861–1946) was an Indian educationist, and freedom fighter notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and his espousal of Hindu nationalism. Later in life, he was also addressed as 'Mahamana'.[1]

He was the President of the Indian National Congress on four occasions and today is most remembered as the founder of the largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world[2], having over 12,000 students across arts sciences, engineering and technology, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, of which he also remained the Vice Chancellor, 1919–1938 [3][4] Pandit Malviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India.[5] He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909.[6]

He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition in 1936.[6]

Contents

Early life and education

Pandit Malaviya was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India on 25 December 1861, in a Brahmin family of Brijnath and Moona Devi. He was the fifth child in a family of five brothers and two sisters. His ancestors, known for their Sanskrit scholarship, originally hailed from Malwa and hence came to be known as 'Malaviyas'. His father Pandit Brijnath was also a learned man in Sanskrit scriptures, and used to recite the Bhagvat Katha to earn a living.[7][8]

Pandit Malviya's education began at age five in Sanskrit, when he was sent to Pandit Hardeva's Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala, where he completed his primary education and later another school run by Vidha Vardini Sabha. He then joined Allahabad Zila School (Allahabad District School), where he started writing poems under the pen name Makarand which were published in journals and magazines. Pandit Malviya matriculated in 1879 from the Muir Central College, now known as Allahabad University. Harrison College's Principal provided a monthly scholarship to Pandit Malviya, whose family had been facing financial hardships, and he was able to complete his B.A. at the University of Calcutta.

Career

Though he wanted to pursue an M.A. in Sanskrit, his family conditions didn't allowed it and his father wanted him to take his family profession of Bhagavat recital, thus in July 1884 Madan Mohan Malviya started his career as teacher in Allahabad District School. In December 1886, he attended the IInd Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji, where he spoke on the issue of representation in Councils. His address not only impressed Dadabhai but also Raja Rampal Singh, ruler of Kalakankar estate near Allahabad, who started a Hindi weekly Hindustan but was looking for a suitable editor to turn it into a daily. Thus in July 1887, he left his school job and joined as the editor of the nationalist weekly, he remained here for two and a half years, and left for Allahabad to join L.L.B., it was here that it was offered co-editorship of The Indian Union, an English daily. After finishing his law degree, he started practicing law at Allahabad District Court in 1891, and moved to Allahabad High Court by December 1893[8][9]

Malviya Ji became the president of the Indian National Congress in 1909, 1918, 1930 and 1932. Like many of the contemporary leaders of Indian National Congress he was a Moderate.

Though, Scouting in India was officially founded in British India in 1909, at the Bishop Cotton's Boys School in Bangalore, Scouting for native Indians was started by Justice Vivian Bose, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru, Girija Shankar Bajpai, Annie Besant and George Arundale, in 1913, he also started a Scouting inspired organisation called Seva Samithi.[10]

It was a unique and rare combination in him that he was a political leader of mass acceptance, together with being a widely respected educational luminary. To redeem his resolve to serve the cause of education and social-service he renounced his well established practice of law in 1911, for ever. In order to follow the tradition of Sannyasa throughout his life, he pursued the avowed commitment to live on the society's support. But when 177 freedom fighters were convicted to be hanged in the Chouri-choura case he appeared before the court, despite his vow and got acquitted 156 freedom fighters.[11]

In April 1911, Annie Besant met him and they decided to unite their forces and work for a common Hindu University at Varanasi. Annie and fellow trustees of the Central Hindu College, which she has founded in 1898 also agreed to Government of India's precondition that the college should become a part of the new University. Thus Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was established in 1916, through under the Parliamentary legislation, 'B.H.U. Act 1915', today it remains a prominent institution of learning in India.[3][12]

He remained a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 and when in 1919 it was converted to the Central Legislative Assembly it remained its member as well, till 1926.[13]

In early 1920s, he became one of the important figures in the Non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi,[14] and was subsequently arrested on 25 April 1932, along with 450 other Congress volunteers in Delhi, only a few days after he was appointed the President of Congress after the arrest of Sarojini Naidu.[15] Then in 1928 he joined Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru and many others in protesting against the Simon Commission, which had been set up by the British to consider India's future. Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on 30 May 1932, a manifesto urging concentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India.[16]

Totally opposed to the politics of appeasement, Malviya had opposed the separate electorates for Muslims under the Lucknow Pact of 1916 and also opposed the participation of Congress in the Khilafat movement in early 20's. Giving his clear verdict against the division of the country, he cautioned Gandhiji against bargaining for freedom at the cost of division of the country.[11]

He also represented India at the First Round Table Conference in 1931. In 1939, he left the Vice chancellorship of BHU and was succeeded by none other than S. Radhakrishnan, who went on to become the President of India.[17]

Malviya Ji popularised the slogan Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone will triumph).[18]

Malaviya ji also graced the position of Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition in 1936. The paper was saved from an untimely demise when he stepped in to realise his vision of a newspaper in Delhi." [19] Malaviya raised Rs. 50,000 rupees to acquire the Hindustan Times along with the help of nationalist leaders Lala Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrilist Ghanshyam Das Birla, who paid most of the cash. The paper is now owned by the Birla family.

Social work

He worked for the eradication of caste barrier in temples and other social barriers. He is believed to have undergone a Kayakalpa[citation needed]. Also, he organized a mass of 200 Dalit peoples, including the Hindu Dalit (Harijan) leader P. N. Rajbhoj to demand entry at the Kalaram Temple on a Rath Yatra day. All those who participated in this event took a dip in the Godavari River and chanted Hindu mantras.[20] Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya made massive efforts for the entry into any Hindu temple.[20]

Legacy

Statue of Madan Mohan Malaviya at the entrance of Banaras Hindu University

Malviya Nagar in Allahabad, Lucknow, Delhi, Bhopal and Jaipur are named after him. A postage stamp has been printed in India in his honour.[21] Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) at Jaipur is named after him, as is Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College in Gorakhpur, UP. He started the tradition of Arati at Har ki Pauri Haridwar to the sacred Ganges river which is performed till date, the Malviya Dwipa, a small island across the ghat, named after him. This was inline with the Ganesha Festival started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in maharashtra to organize the masses.

Mahamana's life size portrait was unveiled in the Central Hall of India's Parliament by the then President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad, and his life-size statue was unveiled in 1961 by the then President of India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in front of the BHU main gate on the occasion of his birth centenary. This year 2011 is being celebrated as his 150th birth centenary by the Government of India under the Chairmanship of India's Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh. In front of the main Gate leading to the Assembly Hall and outside the porch, there exists a bust of Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya, which was inaugurated by the former Lt. Governor of Delhi, Dr. A.N. Jha on 25 December 1971.[13]Pt. On 25 December 2008, on his birth anniversary, the national memorial of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya was inaugurated by the then president A P J Abdul Kalam at 53, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, in Delhi.[22]

As was the tradition in those days, he was married in 1878, when he was about sixteen years of age to Kundan Devi of Mirzapur. The couple had five sons and five daughters, out of which four sons, Ramakant, Radhakant, Mukund, Govind and two daughters Rama and Malati survived.

Mahamana's youngest son Pt. Govind Malaviya (1902-1961)(Freedom Fighter), was a Member of India's Parliament till his death in 1961. He was the only one from Mahamana's family who became Vice-Chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University. One of Madan Mohan Malaviya's grand daughter in-law Smt Saraswati Malviya (Freedom Fighter), wife of Late Shri Shridhar Malaviya (Freedom Fighter, and eldest son of Mahamana's eldest son Shri Ramakant Malviya) lives in Allahabad with her daughters. The house in which she currently resides has hosted numerous political luminaries including Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Feroz Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu, Late Shri Rajeev Gandhi to name a few.

Among his eminent grandsons are Pt. Shashidhar Malaviya, who resides in the USA and has to his credit many IBM inventions, Pt. Prem Dhar Malaviya who served in the Indian Police Service and worked as Director-General of Police for the state of Madhya Pradesh and the National Police Academy of India, Pt. Lakshmi Dhar Malaviya who lives in Japan and worked as Professor in the Osaka International University, and Pt. Justice Giridhar Malaviya who lives in Allahabad and worked as an Hon'ble Judge of the Allahabad High Court, and is President of many social and educational institutions, and is a patron of the All-India Mahamana Malaviya Mission. One of Mahamana's ten great grandson Shri Rajeev Malaviya, has a doctorate in International Relations and has represented the country at World Forums. Shri Rajeev Malaviya is currently the President of a private organization Mahamana Malaviya Foundation.

Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya's grand-daughter Dr. Manju Malviya Sharma a Ph.D. botanist, from his daughter Rama [23], who is a former Secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. She is a fellow of National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI) and Third World Academy of Sciences. She is recipient of many awards and distinctions and has also received Padma Bhushan. Presently she is President and Executive Director of Indian Institute of Advanced Research at Gandhinagar, Gujarat, which she has established [24].

Works

  • A criticism of Montagu-Chelmsford proposals of Indian constitutional reform. Printed by C. Y. Chintamani, 1918.
  • Speeches and writings of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Publisher G.A. Natesan, 1919.

Biographies

  • Malaviyaji, a brief life sketch of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, by B. J. Akkad. Pub. Vora, 1948.
  • Malaviyana: a bibliography of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya by Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Library. Ed. Prithvi Nath Kaula. 1962.
  • Role of Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya in our national life, by Chandra Prakash Jha. Modern Publications, 1977.
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya: a socio-political study, by Sundar Lal Gupta. Pub. Chugh Publications, 1978.
  • Mahāmanā Madan Mohan Malaviya: An Historical Biography, by Parmanand. Malaviya Adhyayan Sansthan, Banaras Hindu University, 1985.
  • Struggle for Independence: Madan Mohan Malaviya by Shri Ram Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1989. ISBN 8170411424.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya: the man and his ideology, by S. R. Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1991. ISBN 8170414296.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya, by Sitaram Chaturvedi. Publ. Division, Ministry of I & B, Govt. of India, 1996. ISBN 8123004869.
  • Visionary of Modern India- Madan Mohan Malaviya, by S K Maini, K Chandramouli and Vishwanath Pandey. Mahamana MalaviyaJi Trust. 2009.

References

  1. ^ "Mahamana's life as exemplary as Mahatma's: BHU V-C". The Times of India. 27 December 2009. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/varanasi/Mahamanas-life-as-exemplary-as-Mahatmas-BHU-V-C/articleshow/5385360.cms. 
  2. ^ Singh, Binay (Mar 13, 2009). "BHU set to realise future goals" (in English). VARANASI: The Times of India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-03-13/varanasi/28042346_1_rajiv-gandhi-south-campus-mahamana-madan-mohan-malviya-banaras-hindu-university. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "History of BHU". Banaras Hindu University website. http://www.bhu.ac.in/history1.htm. 
  4. ^ "University at Buffalo, BHU sign exchange programme". Rediff News. 4 October 2007. http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/oct/04univ.htm. 
  5. ^ Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders). Children's Book Trust. 1989. p. 61. ISBN 8170118425. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2NoVNSyopVcC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=Madan+Mohan+Malaviya+Scouting&source=bl&ots=4oVY8PFiXf&sig=bzIWnjpIp9KGyErYK9A3C6A_x4I&hl=en&ei=AntIS9WNIYqTkAWe6oD4Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwADgo#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  6. ^ a b "C. Y. Chintamani (April 10, 1880 — July 1, 1941)". The Tribune. May 7, 2000. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20000507/spectrum/main2.htm#3. 
  7. ^ Rao, P. Rajeswar (1991). The Great Indian patriots, Volume 1. Mittal Publications. pp. 10–13. ISBN 817099280X. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=eTrs9MF9374C&pg=PA10&dq=Madan+Mohan+Malaviya&lr=&cd=5#v=onepage&q=Madan%20Mohan%20Malaviya&f=false. 
  8. ^ a b Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders): Madan Mohan Malaviya. Children's Book Trust. 1989. pp. 53–73. ISBN 8170118425. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2NoVNSyopVcC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=Madan+Mohan+Malaviya+Scouting&source=bl&ots=4oVY8PFiXf&sig=bzIWnjpIp9KGyErYK9A3C6A_x4I&hl=en&ei=AntIS9WNIYqTkAWe6oD4Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwADgo#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  9. ^ A brief summary of Indian Warriors
  10. ^ "Honouring the oath: The beginning". The Hindu. 17 Aug 2007. http://www.hindu.com/yw/2007/08/17/stories/2007081750750800.htm. 
  11. ^ a b "RSS Resolution 2: 150th Birth Anniversary of Mhamana Malviya ji". Vishwa Samvada Kendra. 31 Oct 2010. http://samvada.org/2010/news/150th-birth-anniversary-of-malviya-ji/. 
  12. ^ "BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY" (PDF). Indian Academy of Sciences. 2005-07-26. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/sep102005/899.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-19. 
  13. ^ a b "Old Secetariat:Important Members of Imperial Legislative Council". Legislative Assembly of Delhi website. http://delhiassembly.nic.in/history_assembly.htm. 
  14. ^ "Gandhi is Urged to Delay Break". New York Times. 11 February 1922. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E03E0DC1E30EE3ABC4952DFB4668389639EDE. 
  15. ^ "450 Seized at Delhi for Defiance of Ban on Indian Congress". New York Times. 25 April 1932. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0813FC3F5A13738DDDAC0A94DC405B828FF1D3. 
  16. ^ ""Buy Indian" Move Gains". The New York Times. 30 May 1932. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0915FC385A13738DDDA90B94DD405B828FF1D3. 
  17. ^ Murty, K. Satchidananda; Ashok Vohra (1990). Radhakrishnan: his life and ideas. SUNY Press. p. 90. ISBN 0791403432. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=x6FsaptULgAC&pg=PA90&dq=Madan+Mohan+Malaviya&lr=&cd=20#v=onepage&q=Madan%20Mohan%20Malaviya&f=false. 
  18. ^ "India's Freedom Struggle: Madan Mohan Malaviya" (PDF). Kamat's Potpourri. 2007-12-22. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/freedom/malaviya.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  19. ^ TJS George, Lessons in Journalism, 2007, Viva Books, New Delhi.
  20. ^ a b Political Mobilization and Identity in Western India, 1934-47 By Shri Krishan
  21. ^ Indian stamp bearing Madan Mohan Malaviya's picture
  22. ^ "Former President Kalam inaugurates BHU founder’s memorial". The Indian Express. 26 Dec 2008. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/former-president-kalam-inaugurates-bhu-found/403094/. 
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ [2]

“BHU Alumni Cell”==http://www.bhu.ac.in/alumni/meet.html==


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