University of Bologna


University of Bologna

Infobox University
name =University of Bologna
native_name =Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna
latin_name =Universitas Bononiensis


image_size =160px
motto ="Alma mater studiorum" (Latin)
mottoeng =Nourishing mother of the studies
established =1088
type =State-supported
endowment =
faculty =
rector =Prof. Pier Ugo Calzolari
students = 96,000 (2006)
undergrad =
postgrad =
doctoral =
city =Bologna
state =
country =Italy
campus =
free_label =Sports teams
free = [http://www.cusb.unibo.it/ CUSB]
affiliations =Coimbra Group, Utrecht Network
website = [http://www.eng.unibo.it/PortaleEn/default.htm www.unibo.it]
logo =

The University of Bologna ( _it. Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world, and the second largest university in Italy. It was probably the first university founded in the western world (conventionally AD 1088, but the true date is uncertain) and since 2000, its motto has been "Alma mater studiorum" (Latin for "fostering mother of studies"). The university of Bologna received a charter from Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the birth of the University back to 1088, making it arguably the longest-lived university in the West. The University of Bologna is historically notable for its teaching of canon and civil law, and is presently one of the most important universities in Europe [ [http://www.topuniversities.com/worlduniversityrankings/results/2007/subject_rankings/arts_humanities/ THES — QS World University Rankings 2007] ] .

The University counts about 100,000 students in its 23 faculties. It has branch centers in Reggio nell'Emilia, Imola, Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires.

History

The University of Bologna's history is one of great thinkers in science and the humanities, making it an indispensable point of reference in the panorama of European culture.

The institution that we today call the University began to take shape in Bologna at the end of the 11th century, when masters of grammar, rhetoric and logic began to devote themselves to law, inspiring themselves of the Byzantine Justinian Code.

The first recorded scholars were Pepone and Irnerius, the latter of whom was defined by the former as "lucerna iuris". In 1158, at the urging of four doctors (thought to be pupils at the University), Frederick I promulgated the "Constitutio Habita", in which the University was legally declared a place where research could develop independently from any other power.

In the 14th century, so-called "artists" — scholars of medicine, philosophy, arithmetic, astronomy, logic, rhetoric, and grammar — began to collaborate with the school of jurists. In 1364, the teaching of theology was instituted. Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Guido Guinizelli, Cino da Pistoia, Cecco d'Ascoli, Re Enzo, Salimbene da Parma and Coluccio Salutati all studied in Bologna.

In the 15th century Greek and Hebrew studies were instituted, and in the 16th century those of "natural magic", which we would refer to as, "experimental sciences." The philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi upheld the study of the laws of nature against the traditionalist position of theology and philosophy. A representative figure of this period was Ulisse Aldrovandi, whose contributions ranged from pharmacopoeia to the study of animals, fossils, and marvels of nature which he collected and classified.

In the 16th century Gaspare Tagliacozzi completed the first studies of plastic surgery.

In the 17th century, which is thought of as the "golden era" of the University, medicine coincided with the teachings of Marcello Malpighi and students began to employ the microscope for anatomical research. By this time, the University's fame had spread throughout Europe and it was a destination for many illustrious guests. Famous scholars and students included Pico della Mirandola and Leon Battista Alberti, who devoted themselves to canon law; and Nicolaus Copernicus who began his astronomical observations while studying pontifical law. Paracelsus (aka Paracelso), Raymond of Peñafort, Albrecht Dürer, St. Carlo Borromeo, Torquato Tasso, and Carlo Goldoni all spent time at the University.

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the University promoted scientific and technological development. In this period came the studies of Luigi Galvani who was one of the founders of modern electrotechnical studies (along with Alessandro Volta, Benjamin Franklin and Henry Cavendish). Following the establishment of the United Italian State came a period of great prosperity for the University in which the figures of Giovanni Capellini, Giosuè Carducci, Giovanni Pascoli, Augusto Righi, Federigo Enriques, Giacomo Ciamician, and Augusto Murri stand out.

In 1888 the eighth centennial of the University was celebrated with a grand ceremony. Representatives from universities all over the world convened in Bologna to honour the "mother of universities," and celebrate their common roots and ideals of progress and tolerance.

The University maintained its central position on the scene of global culture until the period between World War I and World War II. As its own influence declined and other universities came to prominence, Bologna was called upon to forge relationships with institutions in the most advanced countries to modernise and reinvigorate its activities. Among the many challenges which it has met with success, Bologna committed itself to the European dimension which has now led to adoption of the new university system.

Organization

The primary objective of the faculties of the University of Bologna is to define, organise, and connect the academic activities of the degree courses. Corresponding to the defined scientific-disciplinary fields, the faculties are divided into one or more first-level degree courses which are followed by specialised degree courses.

Higher education processes are being harmonised across the European Community. Nowadays the University offers 128 different "Laurea" or "Laurea breve" first-level degrees (three years of courses), followed by a similar number of "Laurea specialistica" specialised degrees (two years). However, some courses have maintained preceding rules of "Laurea specialistica europea", with only one cycle of study of five years, except for medicine which requires six years of courses. After the "Laurea" one may attain 1st level Master. After "Laurea specialistica" and "Laurea specialistica europea" are attained, one may proceed to 2nd level Master, specialisation schools, or doctorates of research.

* Advanced School of Modern Languages for Interpreters and Translators — SSLMIT — Forlì
* Faculty of Agriculture
* Faculty of Architecture Aldo Rossi
* Faculty of Economics
* Faculty of EconomicsForlì
* Faculty of EconomicsRimini
* Faculty of Education Sciences
* Faculty of Engineering
* II Faculty of EngineeringCesena/Forlì
* Faculty of Exercise and Sport Sciences
* Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature
* Faculty of Industrial Chemistry
* Faculty of Law
* Faculty of Letters and Philosophy
* Faculty of Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences
* Faculty of Medicine
* Faculty of Pharmacy
* Faculty of Political Sciences
* Faculty of Political Sciences Roberto Ruffilli
* Faculty of Preservation of the Cultural Heritage
* Faculty of Psychology
* Faculty of Statistical Sciences
* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Notable members of the University of Bologna

*11th century
** Irnerius
*12th century
** Gratian
** Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem
** Stephen of Tournai
** Bulgarus
** Martinus Gosia
** William of Tyre
*13th century
** Rambertino Buvalelli
** Bettisia Gozzadini
** William of Saliceto
** Guido Guinizelli
*14th century
** Dante Alighieri
** Manuel Chrysoloras
** Francesco Petrarca (aka Petrarch)
** Coluccio Salutati
*15th century
** Leon Battista Alberti
** Nicolaus Copernicus
** Georgius de Drohobycz
** Albrecht Dürer
** Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
*16th century
** Girolamo Cardano
** Ignazio Danti
** Girolamo Maggi
** Giovanni Antonio Magini
** Paracelsus
*17th century
** Giovanni Cassini
** Ulisse Aldrovandi
** Marcello Malpighi
*18th century
** Laura Bassi
** Maria Gaetana Agnesi
** Luigi Galvani
** Carlo Goldoni
*19th century
** Giosuè Carducci
** Giacomo Ciamician
** Camillo Golgi
** Giovanni Pascoli
** Pellegrino Rossi
*20th century
** Umberto Eco
** Vincenzo Balzani
** Romano Prodi
** Amelio Guizzardi
** Augusto Righi
** Carlo Rovelli
*21st century

Notes

Points of interest

* Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna

ee also

*Coimbra Group (a network of leading European universities)
*Utrecht Network
*Bologna declaration
*Bologna process
*List of Italian universities
*Medieval university
*Bologna

External links

* [http://istudy.iagora.com/Universit%E0_di_Bologna/reviews.html University of Bologna for foreign students on iAgora] — reviews by former international students in Bologna on [http://www.iagora.com/ iAgora]
* [http://www.unibo.it/Portale/default.htm University of Bologna Website] it icon en icon zh icon
* [http://www.justresponse.net/Bolognese_corruption.html Denunciation of corruption in Italian universities, with a report concerning the University of Bologna in particular, by former THES and The Guardian correspondent Domenico Pacitti]


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