- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Infobox Hindu leader
name=Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Midnapore, West Bengal, India
birth-date= birth date|1820|9|26|mf=y
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar ( _bn. ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বিদ্যাসাগর "Ishshor Chôndro Biddashagor") (1820-1891), born Ishwar Chandra Bandopadhyaya ( _bn. ঈশ্বর চন্দ্র বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়, "Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae"), was a Bengali
polymathand a pillar of the Bengal Renaissance.
Vidyasagar was a
philosopher, academic, educator, writer, translator, printer, publisher, entrepreneur, reformer, and philanthropist. His efforts to simplify and modernize Bangla prose were significant. He also rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet and type, which had remained unchanged since Charles Wilkinsand Panchanan Karmakar had cut the first Bangla types in 1780.
In 1841, Vidyasagar took the job of a Sanskrit
pundit(professor) at Fort William Collegein Kolkata( Calcutta). In 1846, he joined the "Sanskrit College" as Assistant Secretary. A year later, he and a friend of his, Madan Mohan Tarkalankar, set up the Sanskrit Press and Depository, a print shop and a bookstore.
While Vidyasagar was working at the
Sanskrit College, some serious differences arose between him and Rasamoy Duttawho was then the Secretary of the College, and so he resigned in 1849. One of the issues was that while Rasamoy Dutta wanted the College to remain a Brahmin preserve, Vidyasagar wanted it to be opened to students from all castes.
Later, Vidyasagar rejoined the College, and introduced many far-reaching changes to the College's syllabus.
Vidyasagar was one of the first persons in India to realize that modern science was the key to India's future. He translated into Bengali the English biographies of some outstanding scientists like
Copernicus, Newton, and Herschel. He sought to inculcate a spirit of scientific inquiry into young Bengalis. A staunch anti- Berkeleyan, he emphasized the importance of studying European Empiricistphilosophy (of Francis Bacon) and the inductive logic of John Stuart Mill.
In the face of opposition from the Hindu establishment, Vidyasagar vigorously promoted the idea that regardless of their caste, both men and women should receive the best education.
Reform Concerning Widow Remarriages
Vidyasagar championed the uplift of the status of women in India, particularly in his native
Bengal. Unlike some other reformers who sought to set up alternative societies or systems, he sought, however, to transform orthodox Hindu society from "within".
With valuable moral support from people like Akshay Kumar Dutta, Vidyasagar introduced the practice of widow remarriages to mainstream Hindu society. In earlier times, remarriages of widows would occur sporadically only among progressive members of the Brahmo Samāj. The prevailing deplorable custom of
Kulin Brahmin polygamyallowed elderly men -- sometimes on their deathbeds -- to marry teenage or even prepubescent girls, supposedly to "spare their parents the shame of having an unmarried girl attain puberty in their house". After such marriages, these girls would usually be left behind in their parental homes, where they might be cruelly subjected to orthodox rituals, especially if they were subsequently widowed. These included a semi starvation diet, rigid and dangerous daily rituals of purity and cleanliness, hard domestic labour, and close restriction on their freedom to leave the house or be seen by strangers. Unable to tolerate the ill treatment, many of these girls would run away and turn to prostitution to support themselves. Ironically the economic prosperity and lavish lifestyles of the city made it possible for many of them to have quite successful careers once they had stepped out of the sanction of society and into the demi-monde. In 1853 it was estimated that Calcutta had a population of 12,718 prostitutes and public women. [Nikhil Sarkar [Sripantho] , "Bat tala", (Calcutta: Ananda, 1977) p. 66. (This text is in Bengali and is, unfortunately, yet to be translated.)]
Vidyasagar took the initiative in proposing and pushing through the "Widow Remarriage Act XV" of 1856 in India.
Vidyasagar was a first-rate linguist . He reconstructed the Bengali alphabet and reformed Bengali typography into an alphabet of twelve vowels and forty consonants.
Vidyasagar contributed significantly to Bengali and Sanskrit literature.
Rectitude and courage were the hallmarks of Vidyasagar's character, and he was certainly ahead of his time.
In the final years of life, he chose to spend his days among the "
Santhals", an old tribe in India. Shortly after Vidyasagar's death, Rabindranāth Tāgore reverently wrote about him: "One wonders how God, in the process of producing forty million Bengalis, produced a man!"
A fair named "Vidyasagar Mela" ( _bn. বিদ্যাসাগর মেলা "Biddashagor Mêla") which is dedicated to spreading education and increasing social awareness has been held annually in West Bengal since 1994. Since 2001, it has been held simultaneously in Kolkata and Birsingha.
* [http://www.calcuttaweb.com/people/vidyasagar.shtml Biography (Calcuttaweb.com)]
Benoy Ghosh, "Vidyasagar O Bangali Samaj", Orient Longman, KolkataIndramitra, "Karunasagar Vidyasagar", Ananda Publishers, Kolkata ISBN 81-7215-040-7Asok Sen, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and his Elusive Milestones, Riddhi, Kolkata.Gopal Haldar, "Vidyasagar: A Reassessment", People's Publishing House, New Delhi
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