- Uttar Pradesh
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = state
state_name = Uttar Pradesh
native_name = Uttar Pradesh
abbreviation = IN-UP
legislature_type = Bicameral
legislature_strength = 404 + 108=512
leader_title_1 = Governor
T. V. Rajeswar
leader_title_2 = Chief Minister
established_date = 18352
area_total = 243286
area_rank = 5th
area_magnitude = 11
population_year = 2008/07/01
population_total = 190,891,000
population_rank = 1st
population_density = 783
districts = 701
website = www.upgov.nic.in
portal = Uttar Pradesh
footnotes = 1 The decision to possibly create an additional six districts is pending.
North-Western Provincesin 1835,
United Provinces of Agra and Oudhin 1902,
renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1947
Uttar Pradesh ( _hi. उत्तर प्रदेश, _ur. اتر پردیش, Audio-IPA|Uttar_Pradesh.ogg| [ʊt̪ːər prəd̪eːʃ] ,
translation: "Northern Province"), [often referred to as U.P.] is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 190 million people, [cite web
title = latest population estimate for Uttar Pradesh
date = 2008-07-01
url = http://www.geohive.com/cntry/india.aspx
accessdate = 2008-08-15] it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity.
With an area of 93,933 sq mi (243,286
km²), Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain. It shares an international border with Nepaland is bounded by the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhandand Bihar. The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknowand the financial and industrial capital is Kanpur. The state's high court is based at Allahabad. It is home to many historical cities like Agraand Varanasi.
Throughout its history, it was sometimes divided between petty kingdoms and at other times formed an important part of larger empires that arose on its east or west, including the Mauryan, Gupta, Kushan and Mughal empires. Uttar Pradesh has an important place in the culture of India; as it is considered to be the birthplace of Hinduism and has many important sites of
Hindupilgrimage. It also holds much of the heritage of the Mughal Empire, including both the famous Taj Mahaland the tomb of the great Mughal Emperor Akbarin Agraand Akbar's capital-palace in Fatehpur Sikri.
Indo-Gangetic plain, that spans most of the state, has been the ancient seat of Hindu religion, learning and culture, the birth place of the Indo-Islamic syncretic culture of the medieval period, a center of nationalism during the colonial period and has continued to play a prominent role in Indian political and cultural movements. The state has a rich heritage of traditional crafts and cottage industries of various types that employ highly skilled craftsmen and artisans.
Legend and ancient periods
The known history of Uttar Pradesh goes back 4000 years, when the Aryans first made it their home in 2000 BC. This heralded the
Vedic ageof the Indian civilization and Uttar Pradesh was its home. The Aryans, who settled in the Doabregion and the Ghagraplains, called it with various names: Madhya Desha(midland) or Aryavarta(the Aryan land) or Bharatvarsha (the kingdom of Bharat, an important Aryan king). In the ages to come, Aryans spread to other parts of the Indian subcontinent, reaching as far south as Keralaand Sri Lanka. Most of the empire building invasions of North India, from the east as well as the west, passed through the vast swathe of Gangetic plainsof what is today Uttar Pradesh.
The ancient kingdom of
Kosalain Ayodhya- where, according to Hindu legend, the divine king Ramaof the Ramayanaepic reigned - was located here. Krishna- another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharataepic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation ( Avatara) of Hindu god Vishnu- was born in the city of Mathura. The aftermath of the Mahabharata waris believed to have taken place in the area between Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandavaking Yudhishtira. The revered Swaminarayan- mentioned in the Brahma Purana and Vishwaksena Samhita as the manifestation of God - was born in the village of Chhapaiya.
Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Mauryan (320-200 BC), Kushan (100-250 AD) and Gupta (350-600 AD) empires. After the Guptas, the Ganga-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of
Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannaujempire was at its zenith: it covered an area extending from Afghanistan and Kashmir in the west to Bengal in the east and up to the Vindhyasin the south, with its capital at Kannauj. Even today many communities in various parts of India- from Kashmir, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Biharto Bengal- boast of being descendants of migrants from Kannauj, reflecting its glory in the past.Fact|date=March 2008.
The state is also important to
Buddhismsince its early days. The Chaukhandi Stupamarks the spot where Buddha met his first disciples. The Dhamek Stupain Sarnathcommemorates Buddha's first sermon.
times, U.P. became the heart-land of their vast empire; they called the place 'Hindustan', which is used to this day as the name for India in several languages.
Agraand Fatehpur Sikriwere the capital cities of Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor of India. At their zenith, the Mughal empire covered almost the entire Indian subcontinent (including present day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh), which was ruled at different times from Delhi, Agra and Allahabad. But, when the empire disintegrated, their last territory remained confined to the Doab region of Hindustan and Delhi. Other areas of Hindustan (U.P.) were now ruled by different rulers: Oudhwas ruled by the Nawabs of Oudh, Rohilkhandby Afghans, Bundelkhandby the Marathasand Benarasby its own king, while Nepalcontrolled Kumaon-Garhwal. The state's capital city of Lucknowwas established by the Muslim Nawabs of Oudhin the 18th century.
Bengalin the later half of the 18th century, a series of battles for North Indian lands finally gave the British East India Companyaccession over this state's territories, including the last Mughal territory of Doab and Delhi, also Bundelkhand, Kumaon and Benaras divisions. Ajmerand Jaipurwere also included in this northern territory and they called it the North Western Provinces (of Agra). Today, the area may seem big compared to several of the Republic of India's present 'mini-states' - no more than the size of earlier 'divisions' of the British era - but at the time it was one of the smallest British provinces. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.
After the failed first freedom war or the
Indian Rebellion of 1857, when the turmoil settled, the British made a major revamp, in desperation: they truncated the Delhi region from NWFP of Agra and merged it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Merwarregion was merged with Rajputana. At the same time, they included Oudh into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.
In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from
Allahabadto Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters.
Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian culture and politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of both the
Indian Independence Movementand the Pakistan Movement.
After independence, the state was renamed Uttar Pradesh ("northern province") by its first chief minister,
Govind Ballabh Pant. Pant was known and close to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehruand was also popular in the Congress party; he established such a good reputation in Lucknow that Nehru called him to Delhi, the capital and seat of Central Government of the country, to make him Home Minister of India in December 27, 1954. He was succeeded by Dr. Sampoornanand, a university professor and classicist Sanskrit scholar, who was chief minister till 1957, before becoming governor of Rajasthan. Sucheta Kripalaniserved as India's first woman chief minister from October 1963 until March 1967, when a two-month long strike by state employees caused her to step down. The confusion and chaos ended only with the defection of Charan Singhfrom the Congress with a small set of legislators; he set up a party called the Jana Congress, which formed the first non-Congress government in U.P. and ruled for over a year.
Hemvati Nandan Bahugunaof the Bharatiya Lok Dalwas chief minister for part of the 1970s. He was dismissed by the Central Government headed by Indira Gandhi, along with several other non-Congress chief ministers, shortly after the imposition of the Emergency, when Narain Dutt Tewari- later chief minister of Uttarakhand - became chief minister. The Congress Partylost heavily in 1977 elections, following the lifting of the Emergency, but romped back to power in 1980, when Mrs. Gandhihandpicked the man who would later become her son's principal opposition, V.P. Singh, to become Chief Minister.
In 2000, the Himalyan portion of the state, comprising the
Garhwaland Kumaondivisions and Haridwar district, was formed into a new state called Uttarakhand, meaning the 'Northern Segment' state.
Uttar Pradesh shares an international border with
Nepaland is bounded by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhandand Bihar. The state can be divided into two distinct hypsographical regions:-
* The larger
Gangetic Plainin the north: it includes the Ganga-Yamuna Doab; the Ghaghra plains; the Ganga plains and the Terai. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and flat topography - (slope 2 m/km) - broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers.
* The smaller Vindhya Hills and plateau region in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata; varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited availability of water.
The climate of Uttar Pradesh is predominantly sub-tropical. Depending on the elevation, the average temperatures vary from 54.5–63.5 °F (12.5–17.5 °C) in January to 81.5–90.5 °F (27.5–32.5 °C) in May and June. The highest temperature recorded in the state was 121.8 °F (49.9 °C) at Gonda on May 8, 1958.
Rainfall in the state ranges from 40–80 inches (1,000–2,000 mm) in the east to 24–40 inches (600–1,000 mm) in the west. About 90 percent of the rainfall occurs during the southwest monsoon, lasting from about June to September. With most of the rainfall concentrated during this four-month period, floods are a recurring problem and cause heavy damage to crops, life, and property, particularly in the eastern part of the state, where the Himalayan-origin rivers flow with a very low north-south gradient. Periodic failure of monsoons results in drought conditions and crop failure. In the Himalayan region, annual snowfall averaging 10 to 15 feet (3 to 5 metres) is common between December and March.
The state comprises several distinct regions: -
Doabregion: the upper Doab and the lower doab with the Braj-bhumi in its centre, which runs along its western border from north to south;
Rohilkhandregion in the north;
Awadh(Oudh, the historic country of Kosalas) in the centre;
* The northern parts of
Bagelkhandand Bundelkhandin the south; and
* The south-western part of the
Bhojpurcountry, commonly called Purvanchal("Eastern Province"), in the east.
Administrative divisions and districts (as in 2007)
The state of Uttar Pradesh consists of seventy districts, which are grouped into seventeen divisions:
Agra, Allahabad, Azamgarh, Bahraich, Bareilly, Basti, Chitrakoot, Devipatan, Faizabad, Gorakhpur, Jhansi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Saharanpurand Varanasi.
The largest district in terms of area is
Lakhimpur Kheri. The largest district in terms of population is Allahabad followed by Kanpur Nagar (Census 2001).
Agra• Allahabad• Bareilly• Ghaziabad• Gorakhpur• Jhansi• Kanpur• Lucknow• Meerut• Varanasi(Banaras).
Other important cities
Aligarh• Azamgarh• Bahraich• Ballia• Banda • Barabanki• Bijnor• Bulandshahr• Deoband• Etawah• Faizabad• Farrukhabad• Fatehgarh• Firozabad• Ghazipur• Gola• Gonda• Gorakhpur. Hameerpur• Kannauj• Khurja• Kulpahar• Kushinagar• Lalitpur• Mainpuri• Mahoba• Mathura• Mirzapur• Moradabad• Muzaffarnagar• Noida• Orai• Pilibhit• Raebareli• Rampur • Saharanpur• Shahjahanpur• Sultanpur• Sant Kabir Nagar.
The state has a large network of multimodal transportation system: -Airways: The state has 4 important airports and 23 air strips. Cities that have nationally well connected domestic airports are
Agra, Kanpur, Lucknowand Varanasi. Lucknowis the biggest and most important airport of the state.
Railways: Almost all the major as well as smaller cities of the state are linked through railways. It has largest railway network in the country; with a total length of 8,546 km (2006), it has the sixth largest railway density.
Roadways: The state has largest road network in the country, after Maharashtra. It boasts of 31 National Highways (NH), with a total length of 4,942 km (8.5% of total NH length in India). It has seventh highest road density in India (1,027 km per 1000 sq kms in 2002 ) and largest surfaced urban road network in the country (50,721 km, as on 2002). New express-ways are coming up between
Agraand Noidaand between Noida with Ballia.
Waterways: A long stretch of the river
Ganges- from Allahabad(Uttar Pradesh) to Haldia(West Bengal) - has been declared as National Waterway (NW)-I and 600 km of the total NW-I lies in Uttar Pradesh.
Although, the state has a large and diversified transportation network, its condition and functioning need substantial improvement.
Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India with a population of over 190 million people as of July 1st 2008. If it were a separate country, Uttar Pradesh would be the world's fifth most populous nation, next only to
China, India, the United Statesand Indonesia.
Uttar Pradesh forms part of the Hindi heartland of India, with
Hindiand Urdu(which are mutually intelligible) being the principal and official languages of the state. While standard Hindi ( Khari boli) is one the official languages, several important regional Hindi dialects are spoken in the state, including Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj, Bagheliand Bundeli, besides several local dialects that do not have a formal name.
Nearly 80% of Uttar Pradeshi's are
Hindu, while Muslimsmake up 18% of the population. The remaining population consists of Sikhs, Buddhists, Christiansand Jains[cite web
title = Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities
work = Census of India
publisher = Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
date = 2001
url = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_data_finder/C_Series/Population_by_religious_communities.htm
accessdate = 2008-07-12] .
The State Assembly (
Vidhan Sabha) has 403 electoral constituencies. In the Uttar Pradesh Elections, 2007, Mayawati's Bahujan Samaj Partyachieved unexpected majority status leading to her emergence as the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh. This is the first time, since 1991 victory of the Bharatiya Janata Partywith a majority, that a single party has gained absolute majority; the last two decades having been mostly dominated by various coalitions among the Samajwadi Party, Bharatiya Janata Party, and the Bahujan Samaj Party. One characteristic of the BSP win in 2007 was the amalgamation of Brahminvotes into this Dalit dominated party, [cite news
title = Brahmin Vote Helps Party of Low Caste Win in India
author = Somini Sengupta
The New York Times
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/12/world/asia/12india.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
May 12, 2007
accessdate = 2007-05-12] as opposed to the decades-old trend of deep-rooted electoral divisions in the state between Dalits, Upper Castes, Muslims and different OBC groups, which tend to vote in blocks.
Mayawati, having won 206 seats, took the oath of secrecy for the post of UP's next CM on 13 May 2007. She became Chief Ministerfor the fourth time. Along with her 19 cabinet rankministers, 21 State Ministers Independent Chargewere also sworn in by T. V. Rajeswarthe Governor. Some of the prominent names are: Awadhpal Singh, Babu Singh Kushwaha, Badshah Singh, Nasimuddin Siddiqui, Rakesh Dhar Tripathi, Ratanlal Ahirwarand Sudhir Goyal. Former Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav's Samajwadi Partystood second in State with 97 seats.
The image of politics in Uttar Pradesh has been tarnished in recent times by the extensive infiltration of people who are alleged to carry a questionable reputation or are prone to incite violence. But, in the last election, the
Election Commission of Indiawas perceived as having effectively managed to prevent booth-capturing and other abuse, through deployment of extremely strict security.
The state has a record of providing national leadership; eight of India's fourteen Prime Minister's were from Uttar Pradesh. They are:
Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Choudhary Charan Singh, Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Chandra Shekharand Atal Behari Vajpayee, who represents a UP constituency, though he was born in Gwalior.
The contemporary political scene is also interesting in the national context. Heirs-apparent to the Nehru-Gandhi family have adopted U.P. as their home state. Congress President
Sonia Gandhirepresents Rae Bareliand her son Rahul Gandhi Amethi, Sultanpur. Indira Gandhi's estranged daughter-in-law Maneka Gandhiis a BJP Parliamentarian from Pilibhit, while her son Varun Gandhiis expected to make his debut soon. Other prominent politicians include BJP leader and past Human Resources Development minister Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, SP leader and ex-Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav, BSP leader and now fourth time Chief Minister Mayawati, BJP President and ex-Chief Minister Rajnath Singh, former BJP Chief Minister Kalyan Singh, Rashtriya Lok Dal chief Ajit Singhand ex-Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and later of Uttarakhand, Narayan Dutt Tiwari.
At the lowest tier of political pyramid, the state has a large number of village councils known as
Panchayats just like the other states of India. One of the most developed Panchayats is Shahabad in Maharajganj District.
The State of U.P. has made investment over the years in all sectors of education and has achieved significant success in overcoming its wide spread educational backwardness and illiteracy. The increase in overall literacy rate is due to persistent efforts made by the state government to enroll and retain children in schools and to effectively implement the adult education programmes. The following is indicative of the gradual progress. As a result UP is Ranked amongst the first few states to have successfully implemented ‘Education For All’ policy.
In 1981, the literacy rate in UP was 28 percent and increased to 42 percent in 1991. In 1991, the adult literacy rate (percent literate among those aged 15 and above) was 38 percent and increased to 49 percent in 1998, an increase of 11 percentage points in the seven-year period. But, the differential between female and male literacy remained high: while in 1991, male literacy was 56 percent and female literacy 25 percent, eight years later in 1999, as per survey estimates, the male literacy became 73 percent and female literacy 43 percent (NFHS II).
One more notable feature in the state has been the persistence of higher levels of illiteracy in the younger age group, more so in females, especially in the rural areas. In the late 1980s, the incidence of illiteracy in the 10-14 age group was as high as 32% for rural males and 61% for rural females, and more than two-thirds of all rural girls in the 12-14 age group never went to school. Only 25% of the girls in 7+ age group were able to read and write in 1991 and this figure went down to 19% for rural areas: it was 11% for the scheduled castes, 8% for scheduled castes in rural areas and 8% for the entire rural population in the most educationally backward districts. In terms of basic or essential educational attainment (the completion of primary or secondary education), in 1992-1993, only 50% of literate males and 40% of literate females could complete the cycle of eight years of schooling (the primary and middle stages). Possibly,
Biharis the only state in India which lags behind U.P. in education.
The problems of state's education system are complex. Due to public apathy the public schools are run inefficiently. Privately run schools (including those run by Christian missionaries) are functional, but expensive and so beyond the reach of ordinary people.
In order to make the population totally literate, steps are being taken by the government to raise public participation, e.g. with the help of NGOs and other organizations. There are also special programmes, like the
World Bankaided DPEP. As a result, progress in adult education has been made and the [http://www.upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-5.htm census] of 2001 indicates a male literacy rate of 70.23% and a female literacy rate of 42.98%.
There are 866,361 Primary Schools, 8,459 higher secondary schools, 758 Degree College, 26 Universities in the state.
Uttar Pradesh has some of the best & the oldest educational institute of India such as Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow), National Institute of Technology (Allahabad) and Asian Academy of Film & Television.
At the level of higher education and technical education, Uttar Pradesh has several renowned universities, among which are:
Aligarh Muslim University[http://www.amu.ac.in/]
Banaras Hindu University[http://www.bhu.ac.in/]
Chaudhary Charan Singh University
Dayalbagh Educational Institute[http://www.dei.ac.in/]
Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University[http://www.ddugu.edu.in/]
M. J. P. Rohilkhand University[http://mjpru.ac.in/]
Purvanchal University (India)[http://vbspu.ac.in/]
Sampurnanand Sanskrit University[http://ssvv.up.nic.in/]
Uttar Pradesh Rajarshi Tandon Open University[http://www.uprtou.org.in/]
Uttar Pradesh Technical University[http://www.uptu.org/]
Some of the institutions in the state, highly prestigious in their fields of specialisation, are:
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow[http://www.iiml.ac.in/] , is the fourth IIM to be established.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur[http://www.iitk.ac.in/] is rated among the best engineering colleges in the country.
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly[http://www.ivri.nic.in] , is rated as one of the best animal and veterinary sciences research and PG teaching institute in India
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad[http://www.mnnit.ac.in/] is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology
Institute of Engineering and Technology[http://www.ietlucknow.edu/]
Institute of Management Technology[http://www.imt.edu/] , Ghaziabad is among the premier MBA institutes.
Dayalbagh Educational Institute[http://www.dei.ac.in/FacultyWeb/FacultyOfEngineering/index.htm] , Agra
Sarojini Naidu Medical College[http://www.snmcagra.in/] , Agra is one of three oldest medical colleges in India.
Asian Academy Of Film & Television[http://www.aaft.com/] , NOIDA is a world famous institution of its genre.
Darul Uloom Deoband[http://www.darululoom-deoband.com/] , one of the world's most prestigious and influential Islamic seminaries, is located in the otherwise small town of Deoband.
Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the 'second largest economy in India' [http://www.ibef.org/download/Uttar%20Pradesh_25April_08.pdf] after Maharashtra. It is notable that: -
* The state is contributing 8.17% to India’s total GDP.
*It is home to largest number of Small Scale units in the country, with 12% of over 2.3 million units. [http://www.ibef.org/download/Uttar%20Pradesh_25April_08.pdf]
*Labour efficiency is higher in UP (26) than the National Average (25). [http://www.ibef.org/download/Uttar%20Pradesh_25April_08.pdf]
*The state is one of the top tourist destinations in India, with almost 25% of the All-India foreign tourists visiting Uttar Pradesh [http://www.ibef.org/download/Uttar%20Pradesh_25April_08.pdf] ,
Agrawas visited by more than 8 million domestic and 825,000 foreign tourists in 2006, followed by Varanasi, Lucknow, Allahabad, Vrindabanand Mathura. More than 71 million domestic tourists in 2003.
Lucknowand NOIDAare the top IT destination of the country.
* The largest shoe-manufacturing centre in the country is
Meerutis regularly among the top tax paying cities in the country. [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Meerut_9th_in_top_10_tax-paying_cities/articleshow/3182693.cms]
The major economic activity in the state is agriculture and in 1991, 73 percent of the population in the state was engaged in agriculture and 46 percent of the state income was accounted for by agriculture. UP has retained its pre-eminent position in the country as a food-surplus state. The following chart shows growth trend of gross state domestic product of Uttar Pradesh at market prices [http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_nad_main.htm estimated] by "Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation" with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. includes
The production of foodgrains has increased from 14.5 million metric tons in 1960-61 to 42.5 million tons in 1995-96, showing an average annual growth rate of 3.1 percent, which is much higher than the population growth rate. At present, the new Uttar Pradesh state produces about 92% of the output of the old Uttar Pradesh state of prior to 1947 partition.
UP has also witnessed rapid industrialization in the recent past, particularly after the launch of policies of economic liberalization in the country. As of March 1996, there were 1,661 medium and large industrial undertakings and 296,338 small industrial units employing 1.83 million persons. The per capita state domestic product was estimated at Rs 7,263 in 1997-98 and there has been visible decline in poverty in the state. Yet, nearly 40 percent of the total population lives below the poverty line. Uttar Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 was $339.5 billion by PPP and $80.9 billion by Nominal, making it the second largest economy in India after Maharashtra and a bigger economy than many of the world's big economic players like Israel, Switzerland and Hong Kong. [ [http://www.mapsofindia.com/top-ten/india-finance/gdp-shares.html Mapsofindia.com] ]
Agriculture and animal husbandry
Uttar Pradesh is a major contributor to the national foodgrain stock. Partly this is due to the fertile regions of the
Indo-Gangetic plainand partly owing to irrigation measures such as the Ganga Canaland tube-wells. Lakhimpur Kheriis a densely populated sugar producing district in the country. It is also home to 78% of national livestockpopulation. It has been the most common producer of food grains in India since the 1950s due to high-yielding varieties of seed, greater availability of fertilizers and increased use of irrigation [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46093/Uttar-Pradesh] . This chart shows the national share of major food commodities from Uttar Pradesh.
Information technology, electronics, and services
Uttar Pradesh is the 'IT-Hub' of North India, with a share of software exports next to that of Karanataka. But, unlike South Indian states, IT enterprises are limited to particular areas only, like NOIDA, Greater NOIDA,
Ghaziabadetc., which lie in National Capital Region (NCR), and in state capital Lucknow.
Upcoming Logix Techno Park, in Noida, the largest STPI in North India.
Uttar Pradesh has booming electronics industries, especially in UP-Delhi-NCR and Lucknow-Kanpur Corridor. It produces almost all types of durables.
Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of visitors both national and international. There are two regions in the state where a majority of the tourists go:
* The city of
Agra, which gives access to three world heritage sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fortand Fatehpur Sikriand also has Asia's largest SPA as well as Asia's First and only 6D theatre.
* The holy cities of
Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, and Allahabad, on the banks of sacred rivers Ganga and the Yamuna.In Agra itself, Dayal Baghis a temple built in modern times that many visit. It is still under construction and would take an estimated one century for completion. Its life-like carvings in marble are unique in India. Also world famous is a 16th century capital city known as Fatehpur Sikri, built by the Mughal emperor Akbar near Agra.
Millions of tourists and pilgrims visit the cities of
Allahabad, the land of the sangam VaranasiWorld's Oldest City, Mathura, birth Place of Lord Krishna and Ayodhya, birth place of Lord Ram as these are considered to be some of the holiest cities in India.
Every year, thousands gather at Allahabad to take part in the festival held on the banks of the Ganges, the Magh Mela. The same festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the
Kumbha Mela, where over 10 million Hindupilgrims congregate — the largest gathering of human beings in the world. Varanasiis widely considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. It is famous for its ghats(bathing steps along the river), that remain bustling year round with devotees from all over India and beyond, who want to take a holy dip in the sacred Ganges River.
About 13 km from
Varanasiis the historically important town of Sarnath. Gautama Buddhagave his first sermon at Sarnath after his enlightenment and hence it is an important pilgrimage site for Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Ashoka Pillar and the Lion Capital, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. Dudhwa National Parkis one of the best Tiger reserves in the country. Lakhimpur Kheriis a must see location, and home to the Tiger reserve.
Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.
Handloom & Handicrafts
Cottage industries, such as handloom and handicrafts, have traditionally provided livelihood to a large number of people in the state: -
* Varanasi is a world famous centre of handloom woven, embroidered textiles; the main products are Zari-embroidery and brocade-work on silk sarees. Lucknow is a centre of 'Chikan' embroidery, renowned for its grace and delicacy, a skill more than 200 years old. Uttar Pradesh produces about 15% of the total fabric production of the country, employs about 30% of the total workforce of artisans in India and is responsible for an annual production of about US$1.2 billion in the state.
* The state has two major production centres of leather and leather products, with over 11,500 units;
Agraand Kanpurare the key centres. About 200 tanneries are located in Kanpur.
* Uttar Pradesh Accounts for about 60% of India’s total handicrafts exports.
However, the real beneficiaries of all these labour intensive traditional cottage industries are the middlemen and traders. The artisans and craftsmen, unorganized and exploited, continue to live at subsistence level only.
Asia's first and the world's second human DNA bank [http://www.dnabankindia.com/] has been set up at the Biotech Park in
Rs 4-bn Discovery Park, for which an approval has been given by the Ministry of Science and Technology, is to be set-up in the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology (RGIIT), Amethi. [http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/Economy/Infrastructure/Asias_first_Discovery_Park_to_come_up_in_Amethi/rssarticleshow/2998306.cms]
Over 3% of the "S&P CNX 500" coglomerates have corporate offices in Uttar Pradesh.
Minerals and heavy industries
Uttar Pradesh has ample reserves of coal, dolomite and gems. Other Important minerals include diaspore, sulphur and magnesite, prophyllite, silica sand and limestone.
Art and Craft
Uttar Pradesh is famous for its rich heritage of art and craft. Most famous centres are the following: -
Agraand Kanpurare internationally known for their leather craft; shoes and other leather items are made for Indian market and export to foreign countries.
Firozabad, the city of bangles, is also a hub for many glass accessories. The glass artifacts produced in its factories are just amazing and are exported the world over.
Kannaujis well known for oriental perfumes, scents and rose water and also for tobacco.
Khurjais famous for its ceramics pottery. In fact, the entire state is famous for its pottery not only in Indiabut also around the world.
Lucknow, the capital, boasts of its cloth work and embroidery (chikan) work on silkand cotton.
Mirzapurand Bhadohiare known for carpets.
Moradabadis well know for its metal ware, specially brass artifacts.
Pilibhitis known for its wood flutes and wood chappal (Khadaoo). flutes are extported to Europe, America and other conteries.
Saharanpuris known all over India and abroad for wood carving items produced here.
Varanasiis famous for its banarasi saris and silk. A banarasi sariis an essential part of any marriage in the state.
Dance and Music
The state is home to a very ancient tradition in dance and music. During the eras of Guptas and Harsh Vardhan, Uttar Pradesh was a major centre for musical innovation.
Swami Haridaswas a great saint-musician who championed Hindustani Classical Music. Tansen, the great musician in Mughal Emperor Akbar's court, was a disciple of Swami Haridas. The ragas sung by Tansenwere believed to be so powerful that they could bring rain, or light a fire, when recited. Kathak, a classical dance form, involving gracefully coordinated movements of feet along with entire body, grew and flourished in Uttar Pradesh. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Today, the state is home to two prominent schools of this dance form, namely, Lucknow Gharanaand Banaras Gharana. The Bhatkande Music University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.
In modern times, Uttar Pradesh has given to the world music legends like
Anup Jalota, Baba Sehgal, Girija Devi, Gopal Shankar Misra, Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Kishan Maharaj, Naushad Ali, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Shubha Mudgal, Siddheshwari Devi, Talat Mehmood, Ustad Bismillah Khanetc. The legendary Ghazalsinger Begum Akhtarbelonged to Uttar Pradesh; she took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times. It is also, incidentally, the birthplace of British pop legend Sir Cliff Richard.
The region's folk heritage includes songs called
rasiya(known and especially popular in Braj), which celebrate the divine love of Radhaand Shri Krishna. These songs are accompanied by large drums known as bumband are performed at many festivals. Other folk dances or folk theater forms include:
Ramlila, which includes enacting the entire Ramayana
Uttar Pradesh has produced some of the finest sportspeople in
India, who have brought glory to the nation.
* Dhyan Chand, the legendary
field hockeyplayer of India and a hero of many Olympic Gamesof yester years, was born on 29 August 1905, in Allahabad, U.P. Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Chancellor of Germany, was so impressed by Dhyan Chand's performance in the BerlinOlympic hockey-finals that he offered to elevate ' Lance Naik' Dhyan Chand to the rank of a Colonelif he migrated to Germany. Of course, Dhyan Chand declined.
Green Park Stadiumin Kanpuris one of the oldest cricketvenues in Indiaand has witnessed some of India's most famous victories.
*Though not renowned for it cricket team, U.P. won its first
Ranji Trophyin February 2006, beating Bengalin the final. It can also boast of its 3-4 players normally finding a place in the national side.
* [http://www.prb.org/pdf07/FuturePopulationofIndia.pdf The future population of India, A Long- range Demographic View]
* [http://www.upgov.nic.in/ Official Website of the Government of Uttar Pradesh]
* [http://allaboututtarpradesh.blogspot.com/ A blog covering news happenings in Uttar Pradesh]
* [http://www.uttarpradesh.in/ Website about Uttar Pradesh]
* [http://www.eindiamaps.com/uttar-pradesh-maps/tourist-map.htm Uttar Pradesh Tourist Map]
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См. также в других словарях:
Uttar Pradesh — उत्तर प्रदेश Status: Bundesstaat Hauptstadt: Lakhnau Fläche: 243.286 km² Einwohner: 199.581.477 (2011) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Uttar Pradesh — Estado de la India … Wikipedia Español
UTTAR PRADESH — L’Uttar Pradesh est de loin le plus peuplé des États de la république de l’Inde, avec 139 millions d’habitants en 1991. Il correspond à la partie centrale de la plaine du Gange et s’étend sur 294 400 kilomètres carrés. Cette très grande unité… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Uttar Pradesh — es el quinto estado en tamaño y el más poblado de la India. Tiene una superficie de 236.286 km² y una población aproximada (2004) de 175.987.400 habitantes. Uttar significa norte mientras que Pradesh significa estado o región . La capital… … Enciclopedia Universal
Uttar Pradesh — [ ʊtə prə deɪʃ], Bundesstaat in Nordindien, grenzt an Nepal und China (Tibet), 294 411 km2(ein Teil der Fläche bildet den 2000 gegründeten neuen Unionsstaat Uttaranchal Pradesh), (2001) 166,05 Mio. Einwohner (1971: 88,4 Mio. Einwohner); größte… … Universal-Lexikon
Uttar Pradesh — [o͞ot΄ər prə desh′, prədāsh′] state of N India: 88,112 sq mi (231,254 sq km); pop. 135,800,000; cap. Lucknow … English World dictionary
Uttar Pradesh — /oot euhr preuh daysh , desh / a state in N India: a former province of British India. 97,380,000; 113,409 sq. mi. (293,730 sq. km). Cap.: Lucknow. Formerly, United Provinces. Former official name, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. * * *… … Universalium
Uttar Pradesh — 26° 51′ N 80° 55′ E / 26.85, 80.91 … Wikipédia en Français
Uttar Pradesh — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Uttar Pradesh Country and Admin Code IN.36 IN … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
Uttar Pradesh — geographical name state N India bordering on Tibet & Nepal capital Lucknow area 89,270 square miles (231,209 square kilometers), population 132,062,287 see United Provinces … New Collegiate Dictionary