- Brajendra Nath Seal
Sir Dr. Brajendra Nath Seal ( _bn. ব্রজেন্দ্র নাথ শীল) , (1864-1938) Ph.D, D.Sc , was a renowned Bengali
Indian humanist philosopher. He was one of the greatest original thinkers of the Brahmo Samajand did work in comparative religionand on the philosophy of science. He systematized the humanismof the Brahmo philosophical thought. In his work, he underscored the tectonic shift in Brahmo theologyin the late eighteenth century from liberal theismto secular humanism. Like his better known ideological precursor Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Seal was an educator, a firm believer in the cause of rationalismand scientific enquiry , a polymathin his own right and yet at the same time a preacher of humanism as a religious doctrine (as opposed to organized religion).
He was born in
Calcuttain 1864. His father Mohendranath Seal was one of the earliest followers of Comtean positivismin Bengal. As a student of philosophy at the General Assembly's Institution (now Scottish Church College, Calcutta), he became attracted to Brahmo theology. And along with his better known classmate and friend Narendranath Dutta, the future Swami Vivekananda, he regularly attended meetings of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj. Later they would part ways with Dutta aligning himself with Keshub Chunder Sen's New Dispensation (and later on to found his own religious movement, the Ramakrishna Mission) and Seal staying on as an initiated member. During this time spent together, both Seal and Dutta sought to understand the intricacies of faith, progress and spiritual insight into the works of John Stuart Mill, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencerand G.W.F. Hegel. Seal had a natural aptitude for mathematics and logic.
He earned his M.A. degree in philosophy from the
University of Calcuttain 1884 and started out as a lecturer at the City College in Calcutta.
Although he had started out as college lecturer, his deep insatiable thirst for knowledge, coupled with financial constraints made him shift from one college to another (the colleges where Seal taught include Morris College,
Nagpurand Krishnanath College, Berhampur). During the time period 1883 to 1907, he composed his first major work "New Essays in Criticism", in which he applied Hegelian dialecticsto literary criticism. Although he was an ardent admirer of English Romanticismand Romantic literaturein particular, his work reveals him to be an early precursor of the school of logical positivism. In 1915, he earned his doctorate from the University of Calcutta on the subject of "The Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus".
MaharajaNripendra Narayan Bhupa Bahadur, the son-in-law of Keshub Chunder Senoffered him the post of a principal of the newly established Victoria College in Cooch Behar. With a certain level of financial security assured, Seal finished his "New Essays in Criticism" and also composed an epic poem called "Quest Eternal" that traced his intellectual and philosophical odyssey. His further studies on ancient Hindu scientific philosophy led him to contribute a chapter in Prafulla Chandra Roy's "History of Chemistry in Ancient India". His publications were noticed abroad and in 1902, his candidacy was seriously considered for a professorship in philosophy at the University of Cambridge.
The financial support provided by the Maharaja helped Seal to visit Europe in 1899, 1906 and 1911. In 1906, Seal addressed the International Congress of Orientalists in
Romeand in 1911, the First Universal Race Congress in London. In 1911, while in London, the sudden death of his patron, the Maharaja, and subsequent withdrawal of financial support for his culturaland comparative-historicalstudies forced him to quit his job and reconsider his philosophical beliefs. During this phase, he underwent a transformation from being a believer of Brahmo rationalist doctrine to being a spiritual humanist. His analysis on the "Comparative Studies in Vaishnavism and Christianity" (1912) expresses the urge to break free from the hegemony of method as applicable in Eurocentricacademic enquiry (as in disciplines like Indologyand anthropology) and instead focus on comparative methodology, that would be largely immune to any possible colonialistbias. In this, Seal was motivated not merely as a recipient of orientalisthegemony in the academia, or as a counter culturalor for that matter, as a cultural nationalist response to imperialist discourse, as he was due so a more profound love for rationalist spirit of enquiry, albeit in a colonial context. For he was a rational humanist first, and a cultural nationalist much later.
After his resignation from Victoria College, he was offered the most prestigious chair of philosophy in India, the King George V professorship of
philosophyat the University of Calcutta(other holders of this chair include Professor Sarvepalli Radhakrishnanamong others). He used this period (1913-1921) to travel extensively, give lectures, publish books and philosophical tracts and support the efforts of Vice ChancellorSir Ashutosh Mukherjeeto make the University of Calcutta one of the best known seats of learning to the east of Suez. His scholarly contribution was recognized again with the award of an Honorary doctorate( Doctor of Science) from the University of Calcutta, on Dec 17, 1921.
Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagorein founding the Visva-Bharati Universityon December 22, 1921. By virtue of being India's leading scholar on philosophy and comparative-historical studies and its first Western visiting scholar, Seal was honored as the first Chancellor of that university. During the same time, he was also appointed the Vice Chancellorof the University of Mysore, a position he held till 1930, when ill health forced him to retire. In 1926, the government of British Indiaknighted him. During his stay in Mysore, he authored a textbook of Indian philosophy and a biography of Raja Rammohun Roy.
After retirement, and notwithstanding his general physical deterioration and failing eyesight, he achieved the grand finale of his long philosophical journey. In 1936, when he was bedridden and blind , he finished his magnum opus called "Quest Eternal", which is one of the few modern Indian epics on the theme of the
Faustian man in search of the reasonfor human existence. The conditions in which he wrote parallels that of the English poet John Miltonwhen he wrote his Paradise Lost. The Faustian urge of this brilliant mind to find the meaning of life is at once an existentialquest as a Modernistone. Although Seal was writing as a subject of the imperialist enterprise, and not as a party to it, it could be argued that he was a Modernist and an existentialist without his knowing it.
Although he was initially inspired by the
Hegelian philosophy of the unilinearlity of history, one that resonated well with the official Sadharan Brahmo Samaj doctrine, Seal eventually rejected the Hegelian thesis of the linear flow of historical progress from Eastto Westas being too narrow and parochial. The logical culmination of the Hegelian idea envisioned all human races as being surrogates and appendages to the dominant Greco-Roman-Gothic type, which in its wake resonated perfectly well with the Orientalistdoctrine. Seal saw this discourse as being dangerously Eurocentric that in effect precluded the possibility of an equitable cultural dialogue. As he saw it, the philosophy of the subaltern societies or those relegated to the periphery would be seen as being in a state of primitivism when compared to the philosophy of the dominant societies. As he saw it, the Orientalist bias espoused by Hegelianism:Seal was an early postcolonialist without his knowing it. As contrary to colonial discourse, he argued that in any proper comparative-historical analysis, all societies should be seen as being in similar stages in the development of culture. All cultural traditions could be relatively seen as they evolved parallel patterns whereinAs distinct from the Hegelian world view, Seal espoused that the idea of Western civilization as being the focal point or the culmination of world civilization was fundamentally erroneous, that failed to take into account the myriad richness and complex mosaic of cultural continuum that manifested themselves in Hindu, Islamic, and Chinese civilizations. Human civilization, far from being a centripetal order where the West was to be considered as the center around which other (non Western) cultures revolved was for Seal, Thus, as he saw it (in "Comparative Studies in Vaishnavism and Christianity"), Vaishnavismand Christianitywere two distinct religious traditions, each with its own uniquely rich tradition of historical exegesis that spanned two millennia and could in no way be seen as being phases in the development of (a Eurocentric) human civilization, as one leading to another in a pattern of cause and effect. Seal's philosophical insights were to be developed by his latter day successor from his college A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupadaof the ISKCONmovement.
His epic poem "Quest Eternal" is rich in the application of symbolism of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. It stands out as a very sophisticated cross-cultural analysis of the dilemma of the modern
Everymanin search of meaning in life. For Seal, this search for meaning has two dimensions: firstly, the historical dimension that explores how a world viewor a zeitgeistis shaped by the continuum of the ancient, medieval and the modern, and secondly the cultural dimension which spells out how specific patterns of human configurations shape a world view in the mode of causality. Seal's hero is on an adventure on a scale far more grandiose, magnificent, world-encompassing and demanding than Goethe's Faust. The hero is the prototype of the modern cosmopolitan man in search of an ever elusive unity in the pluralistic universe:cquote|The human mysteries,
They dance of Love,
They dance of Death,
Thy Graces, Pities, Charities,
Are as the desert Sphinx impressive
Implacable as Fate!
O World-drift cyclical!
It is interesting to note here that Seal's hero (in the initial stages) is not merely the man who is trapped within the confines of ancient social order where he is merely a hapless victim of circumstances beyond his control but the hero who undergoes a spiritual transformation to a medieval wizard knight (who closely resembles the modern scientific man) who seeks out scientific rationalism in nature. He seeks the truth in the "Magician Commonwealth of Reason" and eventually wins the ever elusive trophy of the "Zodiac shield of the Sun for his victories over Untruth". However like all well intended adventures, his quest is ultimately Promethean and
Sisypheanand must end in failure: cquote|But all quest of knowledge blest
Himself it cannot save!
O mercy! from illusion free
This knowledge loses life!
For Beauty and Love, Pity and Alone,
Are Still with illusion rife.
The modern man of science, much like
Dr. Faustus, (and not unlike Christian, an Everymancharacter) is an eternally homeless wanderer, "... in search of a Wisdom that is able to master Death". Death is not merely physical, but a metaphor for "the dark power in life who frustrates our goals and strivings" who assists the victory of "brute Matter and blind Sense" over "realms of Soul, of Nature, and of Man in History". In despair, the hero expostulates:cquote|Is this Man's kingdom?
Man, bound, manacled.
Sold in the mart
And flattened for the yoke.
Seal's hero is not proletarian, and does not take recourse to
rationalism, scientism, Marxismor any salvationtheology, but a universal redeemer whose task, like Prometheus, is to "redeem humanity from the bondage of the Gods":cquote|Oh come, Prometheus, come out of the shadow
Of ages, out of the Deep,
The dark, dark Deep!
Arise and lead from Darkness to Light,
Arise and lead from Death to Deathlessness!
Arise and lead from Untruth's snares to truth.
Seal's epic redeems collective suffering as a means to redeem humanity . His belief in the religion of universal humanity found parallel reflection in
Rabindranath Tagore's concept of the "Vishwa Manav" of the Universal Man, who would rise from the ashes like a phoenix to redeem the depravities of humanity. And yet like Prometheus, he would be eternally trapped by the vicissitudes of existence.
*"A Memoir on the Co-efficient of Numbers: A Chapter on the Theory of Numbers" (1891)
*"Neo-Romantic Movement in Bengali Literature" (1890-91)
*"A Comparative Study of Christianity and Vaishnavism" (1899)
*"New Essays in Criticism" (1903)
*"Introduction to Hindu Chemistry" (1911)
*"Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus" (1915)
*"Syllabus of Indian Philosophy" (1924)
*"Rammohan Roy: The Universal Man" (1933)
*"The Quest Eternal" (1936).
Journals in which his articles were published
Modern Review (Calcutta)"
*"Bulletin of Mathematical Society"
British Medical Journal"
*Kopf, David. 1979. "The Brahmo Samaj and the Shaping of the Modern Indian Mind". Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press
*Scottish Church College Magazine(Year - 1999,2000 and 2001.Volume - 87,88 and 89).
* [http://people.stfx.ca/wsweet/seal.html About Brajendra Nath Seal]
* [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/S_0169.htm On Banglapedia]
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