- Constitution of Romania
Constitution of Romania Created 21 November 1991 Ratified 8 December 1991 Authors Antonie Iorgovan et al. Purpose Replace the 1965 Constitution Romania
This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
The 1991 Constitution of Romania, adopted on 21 November 1991, voted in the referendum of 8 December 1991 and introduced on the same day, is the current fundamental law that establishes the structure of the government of Romania, the rights and obligations of the country's citizens, and its mode of passing laws. It stands as the basis of the legitimacy of the Romanian government.
The constitution was most recently revised by a national referendum on 18–19 October 2003. The new text took effect on 29 October 2003.
The Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003, contains 156 articles, divided into 8 titles:
- Title I - General principles
- Title II - Fundamental rights, liberties, and duties
- Title III - Public authorities
- Title IV - The economy and public finance
- Title V - Constitutional Court
- Title VI - Euro-Atlantic integration
- Title VII - Revising the Constitution
- Title VIII - Final and transitional provisions
The organic regulation, voted by the respective Assemblies of Moldavia and Wallachia under Imperial Russian occupation in 1831-1832, was the first organic law resembling a constitution ever awarded to the Danubian Principalities. It remained in place until 1858, when the Crimean War removed the two countries from Russian influence and confirmed the rule by several European powers first established by the Treaty of Paris; the Paris Convention of 1858 remained the governing document following the election of Alexander John Cuza as Domnitor over the united countries (1859), but was replaced by Cuza's own organic law, entitled Statutul dezvoltător al Convenţiei de la Paris ("Statute expanding the Paris Convention"), in 1864.
The first constitution of the United Principality (later Kingdom) of Romania was adopted 1 July 1866. After the extension of national territory in 1918, a new constitution was approved 29 March 1923. It was repealed by King Carol II in 1938, when an authoritarian regime formed around the National Renaissance Front adopted a new, corporatist constitution on 27 February this document was, in turn, cancelled in 1940 by the Iron Guard's National Legionary State government. The 1923 constitution was reinstated after the fall of the Ion Antonescu dictatorship in 1944 (see Romania during World War II).
The new constitution of Communist Romania was adopted in 1948 following the Soviet model, with subsequent variants appearing in 1952 and 1965 (the former "building the socialism", the latter announcing the "socialism has won" and notably making the change from a People's Republic to a Socialist Republic). The Communist regime fell in 1989, after which large portions of the 1965 document were suspended, and the present document was adopted in 1991.
The 1991 Constitution enshrined the return to democracy after the fall of the Communist regime. The draft was composed by a committee of parliamentarians and constitutional law specialists; was approved by Parliament, meeting as a Constituent Assembly, by a vote of 414 to 95 on 21 November 1991, being published in Monitorul Oficial the same day; and was approved by referendum on 8 December 1991, with 77.3% voting in favour. The 1991 Constitution contains 7 titles and 152 articles. Romania is defined as a “national, sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible state”. The form of government is the republic, the president having up to two four-year terms. He represents the Romanian state in domestic and foreign relations, ensures obedience to the constitution and the proper functioning of state institutions, and is the guarantor of the state’s independence, unity and integrity. Parliament is “the supreme representative organ of the Romanian people and the sole lawmaking authority”; it is bicameral (Chamber of Deputies and Senate) and elected for four years. After the prime minister is named by the president, Parliament validates the composition and programme of the Government and can dismiss it following a motion of censure. The constitution provides for fundamental civic rights and freedoms, and creates the office of Romanian Ombudsman to ensure these are respected.
The 1991 Constitution has been amended one time, in 2003. Articles were introduced on “Integration into the European Union” and “NATO Accession”, bringing the total to 156 in 8 titles. These specified that both could take place by parliamentary vote alone, and that EU citizens living in Romania can vote and run in local elections. The new document grants minorities the right to use their native language when dealing with local administration and the courts, improves the functioning of the legislative chambers (better specifying their attributes) and restricts the privilege of parliamentary immunity to political declarations, extends the president’s term to five years, explicitly “guarantees” rather than “protects” the right to private property and removes the constitutional obligation for conscription (which ended in 2006). The revised document was adopted by referendum on 18–19 October 2003; turnout was slightly above the 50%+1 threshold needed for it to be valid, with 55.7% of 17,842,103 eligible voters showing up. The opposition and NGOs alleged serious irregularities. 89.70% voted yes and 8.81%, no. It came into force ten days later.
- ^ a b Mihaela Cristina Verzea, "Constituţia RPR din 27 septembrie 1952" ("1952: The Constitution of People's Republic of Romania"), Dosarele Istoriei, 8/2003, pp. 22-26
- ^ a b Stoica
- ^ Mirela Luca, “Opozitia acuza ca referendumul pentru Constitutie a fost fraudat” (“The Opposition Charges that the Constitutional Referendum was Rigged”), Ziarul Financiar, October 21, 2003.
- ^ “Grave incalcari ale legii si nereguli organizatorice, produse la scara nationala, cu ocazia referendumului din 18 - 19 octombrie” (“Serious violations of the law and organisational irregularities, produced on a nationwide scale, on the occasion of the referendum of 18 - 19 October 2003”)
- Stoica, Stan (coordinator). Dicţionar de Istorie a României, p. 94-5. Bucharest: Editura Merona, 2007.
- (English) The Constitution of Romania at the Chamber of Deputies' website
- (Romanian) Text in Romanian
- (Romanian) 1991 version
Constitutions of Romania Constitutions of Europe Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Vatican City
States with limited
and other territories
- European Union
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Romania topicsBasic topics · Alphabetical index of topics History Geography Economy GovernmentConstitution · Parliament (Senate · Chamber of Deputies) · President · Prime Minister · Elections · Political parties · Foreign relations · Government Agencies · Law enforcement · History · Land Forces · Air Force · Naval Forces · Military Police · Administrative divisions · Counties · Cities · Human rights · CultureOrthodox Christianity · Holy Synod · Judaism · Islam · Postal codes · Languages · Religion · Minorities · Immigration · Romanians · List of Romanians · Academy · Architecture · Art · Cinema (Actors) · Music (Composers) · Cuisine · Romanian language · Literature (Writers • Poets) · List of Romanians · Philosophy · Folklore (Dress) · Humour · Media · Sport · Public holidays · Society · Crime
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
1948 Constitution of Romania — Constitution of Romania Postage stamps commemorating the constitution Ratified 13 April 1948 … Wikipedia
1866 Constitution of Romania — Constitution of Romania Created 1 June 1866 Ratified 1 June 1866 Signatories Carol I … Wikipedia
1952 Constitution of Romania — The 1952 Constitution of Romania, also called the constitution of building socialism , expressed the consolidation of Communist power, featuring greater ideological content than its 1948 predecessor. A draft was written by a commission elected by … Wikipedia
1923 Constitution of Romania — The 1923 Constitution of Romania, also called the Constitution of Union, was intended to align the organisation of the state on the basis of universal male suffrage and the new realities that arose after the Great Union of 1918. Four draft… … Wikipedia
1965 Constitution of Romania — The 1965 Constitution of Romania, Communist Romania s third, was drafted by a committee of the Great National Assembly (MAN) and approved by a plenary session of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party on June 28, 1965. It was then… … Wikipedia
1938 Constitution of Romania — The 1938 Constitution of Romania was the fundamental law that established the authoritarian monarchic regime of King Carol II. It was drafted by a university professor, Istrate Micescu, based on suggestions given by the king, and made public on… … Wikipedia
Romania — This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see Romania (disambiguation). Romania România … Wikipedia
ROMANIA — ROMANIA, country in East Central and South East Europe, in the Carpatho Danubian region, north of the Balkan Peninsula, partly on the littoral of the Black Sea. The territory comprising Romania was known as Dacia in antiquity; Jewish tombstones,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Constitution of Russia — Presidential copy of the Constitution. Ratified 12 December 1993 … Wikipedia
Constitution of Georgia (country) — Constitution of Georgia Constitution of Georgia Created July 2, 1995 … Wikipedia