Elections in Romania


Elections in Romania

Romania elects on a national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by the people. The Romanian Parliament ("Parlamentul României") has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies ("Camera Deputaţilor") has 346 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. The Senate ("Senatul") has 143 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. Romania has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

In 2007, for the first time, Romanians elected their representatives to the European Parliament. The date for these elections was 25 November. See also European Parliament election, 2007.

Electoral system

The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are elected in constituencies, by universal, equal, direct, secret, and freely expressed suffrage, on the basis of a list system and independent candidatures, according to the principle of closed party list proportional representation. The option for an identical election system of the two Chambers of Parliament confers them the same legitimacy, as both of them are the expression of the will of the same electoral body.

The two Chambers have different numbers of members: the Chamber of Deputies is composed of 332 Deputies, and the Senate of 137 Senators. This differentiation is possible owing to the legal provision of a representation norm differing from one Chamber to the other. Thus, for the election of the Chamber of Deputies the representation norm is of one Deputy to 70,000 inhabitants, and for the election of the Senate, of one Senator to 160,000 inhabitants.

The number of Deputies and Senators to be elected in each constituency is determined on the basis of the representation norm, by relating the number of inhabitants in each constituency to the representation norm. In a constituency, the number of Deputies cannot be less than four, and that of Senators, less than two. The number of inhabitants taken into account is that existing on July 1 of the previous year, published in the Statistical Yearbook of Romania. If, at least five months before the election date, a general census has taken place, the number of inhabitants taken into account is that resulting from the census.

The Constitution of Romania and the Election Law grant to legally constituted organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities, in case these could not obtain at the election at least one Deputy or Senator mandate, the right to a Deputy mandate, if they have obtained throughout the country a number of votes equal to at least 5% out of the average number of votes validly expressed throughout the country for the election of one Deputy.

The mandates assigned, under the conditions of the Election Law, to organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities are added to the Deputy mandates resulted from the representation norm.

2004 elections



legend|#a207b0|Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania



legend|#a207b0|Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania
Ballots are cast separately for the President, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Romanian electoral law requires a political party to receive 5% of the valid cast ballots in order to gain seats in the Parliament. For political alliances the percentage depends on the number of parties in the alliance. In 2004 there were three alliances, all of them composed of two parties: the "Uniunea Naţionalǎ PSD+PUR" (PSD and PUR), the "Alianţa Dreptate şi Adevǎr PNL-PD" (PNL and PD), and the "Alianţa Popular Creştin Democratǎ". The percentage required for two-party alliances is 9%. For the presidential election, if no candidate receives more than 50% of the cast ballots, a run-off between the first two candidates is organized two weeks after the election date.

President

Parliament

Past elections

Local elections

ee also

* Electoral calendar
* Electoral system

References

* [http://www.cdep.ro/pls/dic/site.page?den=introp2-a1 Official site of the Chamber of Deputies of Romania]
* Monitorul Oficial, 1864-1941
* Scânteia, newspaper of Romanian Communist Party, 1946-1989

External links

* [http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/r/romania/ Adam Carr's Election Archive]
* [http://www.parties-and-elections.de/romania.html Parties and elections]
* [http://www.thediplomat.ro/reports_0908_1.php Report on new Uninominal System]


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