- Islam in Romania
Islam in Romania is followed by only 0.3 percent of population, but has 700 years of tradition in
Northern Dobruja, a region on the Black Seacoast which was part of the Ottoman Empirefor almost five centuries (ca. 1420-1878). In present-day Romania, most adherents to Islambelong to the Tatar and Turkish ethnic communities and follow the Sunni doctrine. The Islamic religion is one of the 16 rites awarded state recognition.
First established locally around legendary
Sufileader Sari Saltikduring the Byzantine epoch, the Islamic presence in Northern Dobruja was invigorated by Ottoman overseeing and successive waves of immigration, but has been in steady decline since the late 19th century. In Wallachiaand Moldavia, the two Danubian Principalities, the era of Ottoman suzeraintywas not accompanied by a growth in the number of Muslims, whose presence there was always marginal. Also linked to the Ottoman Empire, groups of Islamic colonists in other parts of present-day Romania were relocated by the Habsburg expansion or by various other political changes.
After Northern Dobruja became part of Romania following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the community preserved its self-determining status. This changed during the communist regime, when Romanian Muslims were subject to a measure of repressive supervision by the state, but the group again emancipated itself after the
Romanian Revolution of 1989. Its interests are represented by the Muftiyat ("Muftiyatul Cultului Musulman din România"), which was created as the reunion of two separate such institutions.
Demographics and organization
According to the 2002 census, 67,566 people, approx. 0.3 of the total population, indicated that their religion was Islam. [ro icon [http://www.recensamant.ro/pagini/rezultate.html# "Recensământ 2002. Rezultate: Populaţia după religie"] at the [http://www.recensamant.ro/ 2002 Census official site] ; retrieved
February 26, 2008] The vast majority of Romania's believers in Islam are Sunnis who adhere to the Hanafischool. Ethnically, they are mostly Tatars (Crimean Tatars and a number of Nogais), followed by Turks, as well as Muslim Roma(as much as 15,000 people in one estimate),Ana Oprişan, George Grigore, [http://www.isim.nl/files/newsl_8.pdf "The Muslim Gypsies in Romania"] , in International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) Newsletter 8, September 2001, p.32; retrieved June 2, 2007] Albanians (as many as 3,000), George Grigore, [http://www.isim.nl/files/newsl_3.pdf "Muslims in Romania"] , in International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) Newsletter 3, July 1999, p.34; retrieved June 2, 2007] and groups of Middle Eastern immigrants. Members of the Muslim community inside the Roma minority are colloquially known as "Turkish Romani". Traditionally, they are less religious then people belonging to other Islamic communities, and their culture mixes Islamic customs with Roma social norms.
Ninety-seven percent of the Romanian Muslims are residents of the two counties forming Northern Dobruja: eighty-five percent live in
Constanţa County, and twelve percent in Tulcea County. [ro icon Adina Şuteu, [http://www.adevarul.ro/articole/europa-merge-pe-sarma-intre-islamizare-si-radicalizare/338915 "Europa merge pe sârmă între islamizare şi radicalizare"] , in " Adevărul", January 24, 2008] The rest mainly inhabit urban centers such as Bucharest, Brăila, Călăraşi, Galaţi, Giurgiu, and Drobeta-Turnu Severin.ro icon [http://www.culte.ro/DocumenteHtml.aspx?id=1745 "Cultul islamic (musulman)"] , at the Romanian Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs' [http://www.culte.ro/ State Secretariat for Religious Affairs] ; retrieved February 28, 2008]
In all, Romania has as many as eighty
mosques, or, according to records kept by the Romanian Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs, seventy-seven. The city of Constanţa, with its Carol I Mosqueand the location of the Muftiyat, is the center of Romanian Islam; Mangalia, near Constanţa, is the site of a monumental mosque, built in 1525 ("see Mangalia Mosque"). [ Thede Kahl, "Die muslimische Gemeinschaft Rumäniens. Der Weg einer Elite zur marginalisierten Minderheit", in "Europa Regional", 3-4/2005, Leipzig, p.94-101] The two mosques are state-recognized historical monuments, as are the ones in Hârşova, Amzacea, Babadagand Tulcea, together with the Babadag tombs of two popularly revered Sufi " sheikhs"—the supposed tomb of " dervish" Sari Saltikand that of Gazi Ali Paşa. There are also 108 Islamic cemeteries in Romania.
The nation-wide Islamic community is internally divided into 50 local groups of Muslims, each of whom elects its own leadership committee. Members provide funding for the religious institution, which is supplemented by state donations and subsidies, as well by assistance from international Islamic organizations.
The Muslim clergy in Romania includes "
imams", "imam-hatips", and " muezzins". As of 2008, the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs recognizes 35 "imams". The Constanţa Mufti, who is the community's main representative, is elected by a secret ballot from among the "imams". He is assisted by a synodal body, the "Sura Islam", which comprises 23 members and offers advice on matters of administration and discipline. The current Mufti is Murat Iusuf.
The first significant numbers of Muslims arrived in Romania with the
Pechenegsand Cumans. Around 1061, when the Pechenegs ruled in Wallachiaand Moldavia, there was a Muslim minority among them, as was among the Cumans.ro icon Dan Toma Dulciu, [http://www.sud-est.md/numere/20020709/article_15/ "Prezenţe musulmane în spaţiul românesc"] , in "Revista Sud-Est", 2002/2/48; retrieved June 2, 2007] The Cumans followed the Pechenegs in 1171, while the Hungarian kings settled the Pechenegs in Transylvaniaand other parts of their kingdom.
Muslim presence is traditional in
Dobruja, and partly predates both Ottoman rule and the creation of the neighboring Danubian Principalities. Both the Pechengs and Cumans were present in the area, where they probably established a number of small communities.ro icon Constantin Rezachevici, [http://www.itcnet.ro/history/archive/mi1997/current5/mi60.htm "Găgăuzii" (part I)] , in " Magazin Istoric", May 1997] Around 1260, two Rûm Seljuq community leaders, the deposed Sultan Kaykaus IIand the mystic Sari Saltik, were allowed to settle the region during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Kaykaus, who arrived in Dobruja with his brother and co-ruler Kilij Arslan IV, was reportedly followed by as many as 12,000 of his subjects. Researchers such as Franz Babingerand Gheorghe I. Brătianuendorse the view that Saltuk and his followers were in fact crypto-Shiite Alevis who were regarded as apostates by the dominant Sunni group of central Anatolia, and who sought refuge from persecution.
The exact location of their earliest area of settlement is disputed: a group of historians proposes that the group was probably tasked with defending the Byzantine border to the north, and settled in and around what later became known as Babadag, while another one centers this presence on the
Southern Dobrujan strip of land known as Kaliakra(presently in Bulgaria). In addition, various historians argue that this Seljuq migration was the decisive contributor to the ethnogenesisof the Gagauz people, which, some of them believe, could also have involved the Cumans, Pechenegs, Oghuz and other Turkic peoples. The Gagauz, few of whom have endured in Dobruja, are majority Eastern Orthodox, a fact which was attributed to a process of religious conversionfrom Islam.
The presence of
Tatarswas notably attested through the works of Berber traveler Ibn Battuta, who passed through the area in 1334. In Ibn Battuta's time, the region was regarded as a westernmost possession of the Tatar Golden Horde, a khanatecentered on the Eurasian Steppe. Archeology has uncovered that another Tatar group, belonging to the Golden Horde, came to Dobruja during the rule of Nogai Khan, and were probably closely related to the present-day Nogais. Following Timur's offensives, the troops of Aktai Khanvisited the region in the mid-14th century and around 100,000 Tatars settled there.
Before and after the Golden Horde fell, Dobrujan Muslims, like the
Crimean Tatars, were recipients of its cultural influences, and the language in use was Kipchak. The extension of Ottoman rule, effected under Sultans Bayezid Iand Mehmed I, brought the influence of Medieval Turkish, as Dobruja was added to the "Beylerbeylik" of Rumelia.
The grave of Sari Saltik, reportedly first erected into a monument by Sultan Bayezid, has since endured as a major shrine in Romanian Islam. The shrine, which has been described as a
cenotaph, is one of many places where the "Sheikh" is supposed to be buried: a similar tradition is held by various local communities throughout the Balkans, who argue that his tomb is located in Kaliakra, Babaeski, Blagaj, Edirne, the Has District, Krujë, or Sveti Naum.Alexandre Popovic, "Morts de saints et tombeaux miraculeux", in Gilles Veinstein (ed.), "Les Ottomans et la Mort: Permanences et mutations", Brill Publishers, Leiden, New York & Köln, 1996, p.98-99. ISBN 9004105050] Other accounts hold that Saltuk was buried in the Anatolian city of İznik, [ [http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=3021 "Sari Saltuk Tomb"] , on ArchNet; retrieved February 29, 2008] in Buzău, Wallachia, or even as far south as the Mediterranean island of Corfuor as far north as the Polish city of Gdańsk. The toponym "Babadağ" (Turkish for "Old Man's Mountain", later adapted into Romanian as "Babadag") is a probable reference to Sari Saltik, and a Dobrujan Muslim account recorded by chronicler Evliya Çelebiin the late 15th century has it that the name surfaced soon after a Christian attack partly destroyed the tomb.
The oldest "
madrasah" in Dobruja and Romania as a whole was set up in Babadag, on orders from Bayezid (1484); it was moved to Medgidiain 1903. From the same period onwards, groups of Muslim Tatars and Oghuz Turks from Anatoliawere settled into Dobruja at various intervals; in 1525, a sizable group of these, originating from the ports of Samsunand Sinop, moved to Babadag. Bayezid also asked Volga Tatarsto resettle into northern Dobruja.
In late medieval Wallachia and Moldavia
In the two
Danubian Principalities, Ottoman suzeraintyhad an overall reduced impact on the local population, and the impact of Islam was itself much reduced. Wallachia and Moldaviaenjoyed a large degree of autonomy, and their history was punctuated by episodes of revolt and momentary independence. After 1417, when Ottoman domination over Wallachia first became effective, the towns of Turnu and Giurgiuwere annexed as " kazas", a rule enforced until the Treaty of Adrianoplein 1829 (the status was briefly extended to Brăilain 1542).
For the following centuries, three conversions in the ranks of acting or former local "
hospodars" are documented: Wallachian Princes Radu cel Frumos(1462-1475) and Mihnea Turcitul(1577-1591), and Moldavian Prince Ilie II Rareş(1546-1551). At the other end of the social spectrum, Moldavia held a sizable population of Tatar slaves, who shared this status with all local Roma people ("see Slavery in Romania"). While Roma slavery also existed in Wallachia, the presence of Tatar slaves there has not been documented, and is only theorized.Viorel Achim, "The Roma in Romanian History", Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004, p.28. ISBN 9639241849] The population may have foremost comprised Muslim Nogais from the Bujakwho were captured in skirmishes, although, according to one theory, the first of them may have been Cumanscaptured long before the first Ottoman and Tatar incursions.
The issue of Muslim presence on the territory of the two countries is often viewed in relation to the relations between the Ottoman Sultans and local Princes. Romanian historiography has generally claimed that the latter two were bound by bilateral treaties with the
Porte. One of the main issues was that of "Capitulations" (Ottoman Turkish: "ahdnâme"), which were supposedly agreed between the two states and the Ottoman Empire at some point in the Middle Ages. Such documents have not been preserved: modern Romanian historians have revealed that "Capitulations", as invoked in the 18th and 19th centuries to invoke Romanian rights vis à vis the Ottomans, and as reclaimed by nationalist discourse in the 20th century, were forgeries. [Boia, p.79]
Traditionally, Ottoman documents referring to Wallachia and Moldavia were unilateral decrees issued by the Sultan. [Boia, p.79] In one compromise version published in 1993, Romanian historian Mihai Maxim argues that, although these were unilateral acts, they were viewed as treaties by the Wallachian and Moldavian rulers. [Boia, p.245] Research carried out in the 2000s claims to have discovered genuine "Capitulations" and other documentsro icon Anton Caragea, [http://www.unibuc.ro/eBooks/istorie/Anton_Caragea/main.html "Epoca Renaşterii Naţionale"] , at the
University of Bucharest, 2004; retrieved June 2, 2007] taken as proof that the relations between the Danubian Principalities and the Porte did indeed have a contractual character. [Ileana Cazan, Eugen Denize, "Marile puteri şi spaţiul românesc în secolele XV-XVI", University of Bucharest, 2002]
Provisions toward Muslim-Christian relations have traditionally been assessed by taking in view later policies. According to one prominent interpretation, this would mean that the Principalities were regarded by the Ottomans as belonging to the "Dâr al ahd'" ("Home of Peace"), a status granted to them in exchange for material gains. [Feodorov, p.302-304; Angela Jianu, "Women, Fashion and Europeanization: The Romanian Principalities, 1750-1830", in Amila Buturovic, Irvin Cemil Schick, "Women in the Ottoman Balkans: Gender, Culture and History",
I.B. Tauris, London & New York, 2007, p.202. ISBN 1845115058] Therefore, the Ottoman Empire did not maintain troops or garrisons or build military facilities. [Ştefan Gorovei, "Moldova în Casa Păcii, pe marginea izvoarelor privind primul secol de relaţii moldo-otomane", in "Anuarul Institutului de Istorie şi Arheologie A. D. Xenopol", XVII, 1980] Instead, as it happened in several instances, Ottoman Sultans allowed their Tatar subjects to raid Moldavia or Wallachia as a means to punish the dissent of local Princes. [Feodorov, p.304] Literary historian Ioana Feodorov notes that the relations between the two smaller states and the Ottoman suzerain were based on a set of principles and rules to which the Ottoman Empire adhered, and indicates that, early in the 17th century, this system drew admiration from the Arabic-speaking Christian traveler Paul of Aleppo. [Feodorov, p.300-304]
By the 17th century, according to the notes of traveler
Evliya Çelebi, Dobruja was also home to a distinct community of people of mixed Turkish and Wallachian heritage. Additionally, a part of the Dobrujan Roma community has traditionally adhered to Islam; it is believed that it originated with groups of Romani people serving in the Ottoman Army during the 16th century, and has probably incorporated various ethnic Turks who had not settled down in the cities or villages. Alongside Dobruja, a part of present-day Romania under direct Ottoman rule in 1551-1718 was the Eyalet of Temeşvar (the Banatregion of western Romania), which extended as far as Arad (1551-1699) and Oradea(1661-1699). The few thousand Muslims settled there were, however, driven out by Habsburg conquest.
The presence of Muslims in the two Danubian Principalities was also attested, centering on Turkish traders [Feodorov, p.301-302]
Constantin C. Giurescu, "Istoria Bucureştilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre", Editura pentru literatură, Bucharest, 1966, p.273] and small communities of Muslim Roma. It is also attested that, during later Phanarioterules and the frequent Russo-Turkish Wars, Ottoman troops were stationed on Wallachia's territory. [ Neagu Djuvara, "Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne", Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995, p.283 (mention of an Ottoman garrison stationed near Bucharest in 1802, one which intervened in the city to restore order after widespread panic over a rumored attack by Osman Pazvantoğlu's troops)]
Crimean Khanate's conquest by the Russian Empire(1783), many Tatars there took refuge in Dobruja, especially around Medgidia. At the time, Crimean Tatars had become the largest community in the region. Nogais in the Budjakbegan to arrive upon the close of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, when the Budjak and Bessarabiawere ceded to Russia (they settled in northern Tulcea County- Isacceaand Babadag). Khotyn, once part of Moldavia, was the birthplace of Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, who was the Ottoman Grand Vizier until 1808. Two more Grand Viziers between 1821 and 1828 came from Bender (a once Moldavian city), as Benderli Pashas.
Over the same period, large groups of
Circassians(as many as 200,000), refugees from the Caucasian War, were resettled in the Dobruja and northern Bulgariaby the Ottomans (localities with large Circassian populace included Isaccea, Slava Cercheză, Crucea, Horia, and Nicolae Bălcescu). During the 1860s, a significant number of Nogais, also fleeing Russian conquest, left their homes in the Caucasusand joined in the exodus to Dobruja. [ James S. Olson, "An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires", Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport & London, 1994, entry for "Nogai", p.514. ISBN 0313274975] Members of other Muslim communities which joined in the colonization included Arabs(a group of 150 families of " fellahin" from Syria Province, brought over in 1831-1833), Kurds, and Persians—all of these three communities were quickly integrated into the Tatar-Turkish mainstream.
Kingdom of Romania
Tatars in Tulcea County were driven out by Russian troops during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 ("see
Muhajir Balkan"). Following the conflict and the Berlin Congress, the Romanian government of Ion Brătianuagreed to extend civil rightsto non-Christians. [Irwin, p.402] In 1923 a monument in the shape of a small mosque was built in Bucharest's Carol Park, as sign of reconciliation after World War I. A small Muslim community resided on Ada Kalehisland in the Danube, south of the Banat, an Ottoman enclave and later part of Austria-Hungary, which was transferred to Romania in 1878.
At the end of the
Second Balkan Warin 1913, the Kingdom of Romaniacame to include Southern Dobruja, whose population was over 50% Turkish (the region was ceded to Bulgariain 1940). [Irwin, p.402] As recorded after World War I, Romania had a population of 200,000 Muslims from a total of 7 million, the majority of which were Turks who lived in the two areas of Dobruja (as many as 178,000). [Irwin, p.402] Since 1877, the community was led by four separate muftiyats. Their number was reduced during the interwar period, when the cities of Constanţa and Tulceaeach housed a muftiyat. In 1943, the two institutions were again unified around the mufi in Constanţa. Outside Dobruja, the relatively small presence of Albanian Muslims also left a cultural imprint: in 1921, the first translation of the " Qur'an" into the Albanian languagewas completed by Ilo Mitke Qafëzeziin the Wallachian city of Ploieşti.
World War II, the overall religiously conservative and apolitical Muslim population reportedly enjoyed a notable degree of religious tolerance. [Irwin, p.402, 404] Nevertheless, after 1910, the community was subject to a steady decline, and many predominantly-Muslim villages were abandoned.
Communism and post-Revolution period
The Dobrujan Muslim community was exposed to cultural repression during
Communist Romania. After 1948, all property of the Islamic institutions became state-owned. [Irwin, p.402] The following year, the state-run and secular compulsory education system set aside special classes for Tatar and Turkish children. [Irwin, p.402] According to Irwin, this was part of an attempt to create a separate Tatar literary language, intended as a means to assimilate the Tatar community. [Irwin, p.407] A reported decline in standards led to the separate education agenda being ceased in 1957. [Irwin, p.402] As a consequence, education in Tatar dialects and Turkish was eliminated in stages after 1959, becoming optional, while the " madrasah" in Medgidia was shut down in the 1960s. The population of Ada Kaleh relocated to Anatoliashortly before the 1968 construction of the Đerdapdam by a joint Yugoslav-Romanian venture, which resulted in the island being flooded. At the same time, Sufi tradition was frowned upon by Communist officials—as a result of their policies, the Sufi groups became almost completely inactive. [Nathalie Clayer, Alexandre Popovic, [http://www.isim.nl/files/newsl_3.pdf "A New Era for Sufi Trends in the Balkans"] , in International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) Newsletter 3, July 1999, p.32; retrieved June 2, 2007]
However, according to historian Zachary T. Irwin, the degree to which the Muslim community was repressed and dispersed was lower in Romania than in other countries of
Eastern Europe, and the measures were less severe than, for instance, those taken against Romanian Roman Catholics and Protestants. [Irwin, p.402-403] The state sponsored an edition of the "Qur'an", and top clerics such as Mufti Iacub Mehmetand Bucharest " Imam" Regep Sali, represented the community in the Great National Assemblyduring Nicolae Ceauşescu's years in office. [Irwin, p.403] In the 1980s, a delegation of Romanian Muslims visited Iranafter the Islamic Revolution succeeded in that country. [Irwin, p.403] They also adhered to international bodies sponsored by Libyaand Saudi Arabia. [Irwin, p.403] These gestures, according to Irwin, brought only a few objections from the regime. [Irwin, p.403]
Romanian Revolution of 1989, Tatar and Turkish were again added to the curriculum for members of the respective communities, and, in 1993, the Medgidia "madrasah" was reopened as a Theological and Pedagogic High School named after Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The school was later elevated to National College status, and is known in Romanian as "Colegiul Naţional Kemal Atatürk". Since the 1990s, the official representatives of the Muslim community maintain close relations with international non-governmental organizations such as the Muslim World League.
Lucian Boia, "History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness", Central European University Press, Budapest, 2001. ISBN 9639116963
*Ioana Feodorov, "Ottoman Authority in the Romanian Principalities as Witnessed by a Christian Arab Traveler of the 17th Century", in B. Michalak-Pikulska, A. Pikulski (eds.), "Authority, Privacy and Public Order in Islam: Proceedings of the 22nd Congress of L'Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants", Peeters Publishers, Leuven, 2006, p.295-303. ISBN 9042917369
*Zachary T. Irwin, "The Fate of Islam in the Balkans: A Comparison of Four State Policies", in Pedro Ramet (ed.), "Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics",
Duke University Press, Durham & London, 1989, p.378-407. ISBN 0822308916
*ro icon tr icon [http://www.muftiyat.ro The Romanian Muftiyat]
* [http://rural.edu.ro/harta/unitate.html?idUnitateInvatamant=11049026&limba=en The Kemal Atatürk National College in Medgidia] , [http://rural.edu.ro/harta/?limba=en "School Map"] entry; hosted by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Youth
*ro icon [http://www.islam.ro/ "Liga Islamică şi Culturală din România" (The Islamic and Cultural League of Romania), a non-governmental organization of Muslim students in Romania]
*ro icon [http://www.asociatiamusulmanilor.ro/ "Asociaţia Musulmanilor din România" (The Muslim Association of Romania), a non-governmental organization of Romanian Muslims]
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