Geography of Burma


Geography of Burma
Geography of Myanmar
Myanmar
Continent Asia
Region Southeast Asia
Coordinates 22°00′N 98°00′E / 22°N 98°E / 22; 98Coordinates: 22°00′N 98°00′E / 22°N 98°E / 22; 98
Area Ranked 39th
676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi)
96.94% land
3.06 % water
Borders Total land borders:
5876 km (3651.18 miles)
Bangladesh:
193 km (120 mi)
People's Republic of China:
2,185 km (1,358 mi)
India:
1,463 km (909 mi)
Laos
235 km (146 mi)
Thailand:
1,800 km (1,100 mi)
Highest point Hkakabo Razi
5881 m (19,294.62 ft)
Lowest point Andaman Sea
0 m (0 ft)
(sea level)
Longest river Ayeyarwady River
Largest lake Indawgyi Lake
Hundreds of active fires burning across the hills and valleys of Myanmar Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam (labelled with red dots).

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (also known as Burma) is the northwestern-most country on the mainland of southeast Asia. It is strategically located near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes.

Contents

Maritime claims

contiguous zone: 24 nmi (27.6 mi; 44.4 km)
continental shelf: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km) or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km)

Climate

Tropical monsoon in the lowlands below 2,000 m (6,562 ft); cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April). Climate varies in the highlands depending on elevation; subtropical temperate climate at around 2,500 m (8,202 ft), temperate at 3,000 m (9,843 ft), cool, alpine at 3,500 m (11,483 ft) and above the alpine zone, cold, harsh tundra and Arctic climate. The higher elevations are subject to heavy snowfall and bad weather.

Terrain

Mountains

Central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands, with the country's highest point at the 5,881 m (19,295 ft) Hkakabo Razi located in the northern end of the country. This mountain is part of a series of parallel ranges that run from the foothills of the Himalaya through the border areas with Assam, Nagaland and Mizoram. The Arakan Mountains in the west run from Manipur into western Burma southwards through Rakhine State almost to Cape Negrais in the shores of the Bay of Bengal. The Arakan Range includes the Naga Hills, the Chin Hills, and the Patkai range which includes the Lushai Hills.[1] Mountain ranges in the southern end of the Hengduan system form the border between Burma and China.

The Pegu Range is a relatively low mountain chain between the Irrawaddy and the Sittaung River in central Burma. The Shan Hills form, together with the Tenasserim Hills, a natural border with Thailand. Southern Burma consists largely of the western slopes of the Bilauktaung, the highest part of the Tenasserim Range, which constitutes the northern base of the Malay Peninsula.[2]

Rivers

The Irrawaddy, the main river of Burma, flows from north to south through the Central Burma Basin and ends in a wide delta. The Mekong runs from the Tibetan Plateau through China's Yunnan province entering Northeastern Burma into Laos. The Salween runs along the western side of the Shan Hills and the northern end of the Tenasserim Range.

Natural resources

Burma has petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, and hydropower.

Land use

Arable land 14.92%
Permanent crops 1.31%
Other land 83.77% (2005)
Irrigated land 18,700 km² (2003)
Total renewable water resources: 1,045.6 km3 (251 cu mi) (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal, total (domestic/industrial/agricultural) total: 33.23 km3/a (7.97 cu mi/a) (1%/1%/98%)
Freshwater withdrawal, per capita 658 km3/a (158 cu mi/a) (2000)

Natural hazards

Destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

Deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Islands of Myanmar

See also

  • Zomia (geography)

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.


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