- People's Republic of China
native_name = _zh. 中华人民共和国
Simplified Chinese characters) _zh. 中華人民共和國 ( Traditional Chinese characters) "Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó"
conventional_long_name = People's Republic of China
common_name = People's Republic of China
symbol_type = National Emblem
national_anthem = "
March of the Volunteers" ( _zh. 义勇军进行曲)
official_languages = "see below"
regional_languages = collapsible list |title=ListRef num|language|a| |Chinese languages |· Cantonese (Yue) |· Gan |· Hakka (Kejia) |· Hui |· Jin |· Mandarin (Guan) |· Min |·
Pinghua|· Wu |· Xiang |English | Hmong-Mien languages|Kazakh |Korean |Kyrgyz | Mon-Khmer languages| Mongolic languages|Portuguese |Tai |Tajik |Tibetan | Tungusic languages|Uyghur |Zhuang
latd=39 |latm=55 |latNS=N |longd=116 |longm=23 |longEW=E
demonym = Chinese
Single-party state, Socialist republicRef num|politics|b|
leader_title1 = President
leader_title2 = Premier
leader_title3 = Chairman of the NPCSC
leader_title4 = Chairman of the CPPCC
sovereignty_type = Establishment
established_event1 = People's Republic of China proclaimed.
established_date1 = 1 October 1949
area_footnote =Ref num|territory|d| or 9,671,018 km²Ref num|territory|d|
area_km2 = 9,640,821
area_sq_mi = 3704427
area_rank = 3rd
area_magnitude = 1 E12
percent_water = 2.8Ref num|mainland|c|
population_estimate = 1,321,851,888Ref num|mainland|c|
population_estimate_year = 2007
population_estimate_rank = 1st
population_census = 1,242,612,226
population_census_year = 2000
population_density_km2 = 140
population_density_sq_mi = 363
population_density_rank = 53rd
GDP_nominal = $3.25 trillion
GDP_nominal_rank = 4th
GDP_nominal_year = 2007
GDP_nominal_per_capita = $2,800
GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 105th
GDP_PPP_year = 2007
GDP_PPP = $7.043 trillion [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html CIA World Factbook] [GDP PPP Rankings] ]
GDP_PPP_rank = 2nd
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $5,300 [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html CIA World Factbook] [GDP PPP Per capita Rankings] ]
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 99th
Gini = 47.0 [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html CIA World Factbook] [Gini rankings] ]
Gini_year = 2007
HDI_year = 2007
HDI = increase 0.777
HDI_rank = 81st
HDI_category = medium
currency = YuanRef num|mainland|c|
currency_code = CNY
utc_offset = +8
time_zone_DST = not observed
utc_offset_DST = +9
calling_code = 86
calling_code_note = Ref num|mainland|c|
footnotes = a. [http://www.chinatoday.com/general/a.htm General Information of the People's Republic of China] , ChinaToday. Retrieved 21 February 2007. In addition to
Standard Mandarin, Cantoneseis co-official in both Hong Kongand Macau. English is co-official in Hong Kong(SAR); correspondingly, Portuguese in Macau(SAR). Similarly, several minority languages are also co-official with Chinese (Mandarin) in minority areas, viz. Zhuang in Guangxi, Uyghur in Xinjiang, Mongolian in the classical alphabet in Inner Mongolia, Tibetan in Tibet, etc.
b. [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-71005/China The role of the government, China] , Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved on 21-02-2007.
c. Information for mainland China only. The Special Administrative Regions of the PRC:
Hong Kong, Macauare excluded. In addition, the territories under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, are also excluded.
d. 9,598,086 km² Excludes all disputed territories.
9,640,821 km² Includes PRC-administered area (
Aksai Chinand Trans-Karakoram Tract, both territories claimed by India), Taiwan is not included.
[http://www.chinadaily.net/china/2008-01/24/content_6418067.htm China Daily website] The People's Republic of China (zh-stp|s=linktext|中|华|人|民|共|和|国|t=linktext|中|華|人|民|共|和|國|p=Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Audio|Zh-Zhonghua renmin gongheguo.ogg|listen), commonly known as China, is the largest
countryin East Asiaand the most populous in the world with over 1.3 billion people, approprimately a fifth of the world's population. It is a socialist republic that is ruled by the Communist Party of Chinaunder a single-party system and has jurisdiction over twenty-two provinces , five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. Beijinghas been its capital since 1949.
At 9.6 million km2, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the world's third largest country by area [Area rank is disputed with the United States and is either ranked third. See
List of countries and outlying territories by areafor more information.] and endowed with a diverse landscape. In the north, near the PRC's borders with Mongoliaand Russia's Siberia, the Gobi Desertand forest steppes dominate the dry expanse while lush subtropicalforests grow along its southern borders with Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. The terrain in the west is rugged and high altitude with the Himalayasand the Tian Shanmountain ranges forming the PRC's natural borders with India and Central Asia. In contrast, the PRC's eastern seaboard is low-lying and has a 14,500-km long coastline bounded on the southeast by the South China Seaand on the east by the East China Seabeyond which lies Koreaand Japan.
Ancient Chinese civilization - one of the world's earliest - flourished in the fertile basin of the
Yellow Riverthat flows through the North China Plain. For the past 4000 years, China had been ruled by hereditary monarchs or dynasties beginning with the Xia until the Qing that finally ended in 1911 with the founding of the Republic of China(ROC). The first half of the 20th century saw China plunged into a period of disunity and civil wars that divided the country into two main political camps - the Nationalist Kuomintang(KMT) and the Communist Party of China(CPC). Major hostilities ended in 1949 with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in mainland Chinaby the victorious Communists while the Nationalists led Republic of Chinagovernment retreating to Taipeiand its jurisdiction limiting to Taiwan. Even today, the PRC is still involved in potentially bloody disputes with the ROC over issues of sovereignty and the political status of Taiwan.
The PRC is considered to be a major power, [cite web |url=http://www.asianreviewofbooks.com/arb/article.php?article=693 |title=Review of "China: The Balance Sheet -- What the World Needs to Know Now About the Emerging Superpower" |accessdate=2007-12-24 |last=Gordon |first=Peter |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=The Asia Review of Books] cite web |url=http://www.stanford.edu/group/sjir/6.1.03_miller.html |title=China an Emerging Superpower? |accessdate=2007-12-24 |last=Miller |first=Lyman |publisher=Stanford Journal of International Relations] holding a permanent seat on the UN Security Council and memberships in APEC,
East Asia Summit, and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. China is a nuclear state and has the world's largest standing army and fourth largest defense budget. It is a fast-growing economic power [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A40192-2005Jan26.html China Passes U.S. In Trade With Japan] ] [ [http://www.ifans.go.kr/ICSFiles/afieldfile/2005/07/05/policybrief05_3.pdf Trade Policy Outlook for Second-term Bush Administration] ] [ [http://www.econstrat.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=97&Itemid=59 China - Taiwan Economic Ties] ] [ [http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=408&issue_id=3322&article_id=2369703 Beijing's Growing Politico-Economic Leverage Over Ulaanbaatar] ] having the world's fourth largest GDP in nominal terms or second largest in purchasing power and consuming as much as a third of the world's steeland over a half of its concrete. [ [http://www.cintrafor.org/CONFERENCE_TAB/China%20Conf%202006/Boardman%202006.pdf Center for International Trade in Forest Products] China’s Building Boom. Retrieved 2 December 2006.] The PRC is also the world's second largest exporter [ The World Factbook, [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html Rank Order - Exports] .] and the third largest importer. [ The World Factbook, [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2087rank.html Rank Order - Imports] .] Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1978, the poverty rate in the PRC has gone down from 53% to 8% in 2001. [ [http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:20634060~pagePK:64165401~piPK:64165026~theSitePK:469382,00.html Fighting Poverty: Findings and Lessons from China’s Success] (World Bank). Retrieved 10 August 2006.] However, the PRC is now faced with a number of other economic problems including a rapidly ageing population, a widening rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/29/world/asia/29china.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Beijing’s Olympic Quest: Turn Smoggy Sky Blue - New York Times ] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6247119.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | China fails environment targets ] ] Currently the PRC is one of five remaining communist states, along with Vietnam, North Korea, Laosand Cuba. [ [http://www.americanthinker.com/2007/11/inordinate_fear.html Randall Hoven, 7 November 2007 American Thinker]
Major combat in the
Chinese Civil Warended in 1949 with the Communist Party of China in control of the mainland, and the Kuomintang(KMT) retreating to Taiwan. On 1 October 1949 Mao Zedongproclaimed the People's Republic of China. [ [http://www.isop.ucla.edu/eas/documents/mao490921.htm The Chinese people have stood up] . UCLA Center for East Asian Studies. Retrieved 16 April 2006.] "Red China" was a frequent appellation for the PRC (generally within the Western Bloc) used from the time of Communist ascendance until the mid-late 1970s with the improvement of relations between China and the West. [ Justin Raimondo. [http://www.antiwar.com/justin/justinchina1.html|"China and the New Cold War"] . 17 June 1999. Accessed 19 March 2007.]
Following a series of dramatic economic failures caused by the
Great Leap Forward, Mao stepped down from his position as chairman in 1959, with Liu Shaoqias successor. Mao still had much influence over the Party, but was removed from day-to-day management of economic affairs, which came under the control of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the
Cultural Revolution, which would last until Mao's death a decade later. The Cultural Revolution, motivated by power struggles within the Party and a fear of the Soviet Union, led to a major upheaval in Chinese society. In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split, Mao and Zhou Enlaimet Richard Nixonin Beijing to establish relations with the United States. In the same year, the PRC was admitted to the United Nations, replacing the Republic of Chinafor China's membership of the United Nations, and permanent membership of the Security Council.
After Mao's death in 1976 and the arrest of the
Gang of Four, blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping quickly wrestled power from Mao's anointed successor Hua Guofeng. Although Deng never became the head of the Party or State himself, his influence within the Party led the country to economic reforms of significant magnitude. The Communist Party subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded with many peasants receiving multiple land leases, which greatly increased incentives and agricultural production. This turn of events marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economywith an increasingly open market environment, a system termed by manywho " market socialism". The PRC adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982.
In 1989, the death of pro-reform official,
Hu Yaobang, helped to spark the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, during which students and others campaigned for several months for more democratic rights and freedom of speech. However, they were eventually put down on 4 June when PLA troops and vehicles entered and forcibly cleared the square, resulting in numerous casualties. This event was widely reported and famously videotaped, which brought worldwide condemnation and sanctions against the government.
Jiang Zeminand Premier Zhu Rongji, both former mayors of Shanghai, led post-Tiananmen PRC in the 1990s. Under Jiang Zemin's ten years of administration, the PRC's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual GDP growth rate of 11.2%. [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-07/11/content_244499.htm Nation bucks trend of global poverty] (11 July 2003). China Daily.] [ [http://english.people.com.cn/english/200003/01/eng20000301X115.html China's Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World] (1 March 2000). People's Daily Online.] The country formally joined the World Trade Organizationin 2001.
Although the PRC needs economic growth to spur its development, the government has begun to worry that rapid economic growth has negatively impacted the country's resources and environment. Another concern is that certain sectors of society are not sufficiently benefiting from the PRC's economic development. As a result, under current President
Hu Jintaoand Premier Wen Jiabao, the PRC have initiated policies to address these issues of equitable distribution of resources, but the outcome remains to be seen. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4913622.stm "China worried over pace of growth"] . BBC. Accessed 16 April 2006.] For much of the PRC's population, living standards have seen extremely large improvements, and freedom continues to expand, but political controls remain tight.
While the PRC is regarded as a
Communist stateby many political scientists, simple characterizations of PRC's political structuresince the 1980s are no longer possible. [Boum, Aomar (1999). [http://jpe.library.arizona.edu/volume_6/goodmanonoivol6.htm Journal of Political Ecology: Case Studies in History and Society] . Retrieved 5 May 2007.] The PRC government has been variously described as authoritarian, communist, and socialist, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably in the Internet and in the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, and freedom of religion. However, compared to its closed door policies until the mid-1970s, the liberalization of the PRC is such that the administrative climate is much less restrictive than before, though the PRC is still far from the full-fledged democracypracticed in most of Europe or North America, according to most observers internationally. The PRC's incumbent President is Hu Jintaoand its premieris Wen Jiabao.
The country is run by the
Communist Party of China(CPC), which is guaranteed power by the Constitution. [ [http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html Constitution Of The People'S Republic Of China ] ] There are other political parties in the PRC, referred to in China as "democratic parties", which participate in the People's Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels,Cite web|url=http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-12/08/content_288018.htm|title=Beijingers Get Greater Poll Choices|accessdate = 2007-02-18|publisher=China Daily|year=2003|author=Unknown Author|format=Web] [ [http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib775/aib775n.pdf "Does China’s Land-Tenure System Discourage Structural Adjustment?" by Bryan Lohmar and Agapi Somwaru] . 1 May 2006. USDA Economic Research Service. "URL accessed 3 May 2006."] and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time. However, the Party retains effective control over governmental appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in the PRC include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government leadership. [ [http://www.mindfully.org/WTO/China-Wealth-Gap11may02.htm China sounds alarm over fast-growing gap between rich and poor] . Retrieved 16 April 2006.] The level of support that the Communist Party of China has among the the PRC population in general is unclear since there are no consistently contested national elections. [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-12/08/content_288018.htm Beijingers get greater poll choices ] ] According to a survey conducted in Hong Kong, where a relatively high level of freedom is enjoyed, the current CPC leaders have received substantial votes of support when residents were asked to rank their favorite leaders from mainland China and Taiwan. [ [http://hkupop.hku.hk/english/release/release361.html University of Hong Kong releases the latest ratings of the top 10 political figures in Mainland China and Taiwan as well as people's appraisal of past Chinese leaders"] . 4 April 2006. accessed 3 May 2006.]
The People's Republic of China maintains diplomatic relations with most major countries in the world.
Swedenwas the first western country to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic on the ninth of May 1950. [ [http://www.chinaembassy.se/eng/zrgx/t100751.htm China and Sweden ] ] In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of Chinaas the sole representative of China in the United Nationsand as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. [Eddy Chang (22 August 2004). [http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2004/08/22/2003199768 Perseverance will pay off at the UN] The Taipei Times.] It is considered a founding member of the UN, though the PRC was not in control of China at the time. The PRC was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Under its interpretation of the
One-China policy, the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwanand severs official ties with the Republic of Chinagovernment. The government opposes publicized foreign travels by former and present ROC officials promoting Taiwan's independence, such as Lee Teng-huiand Chen Shui-bian, and other politically controversial figures, such as Tenzin Gyatso, the Dalai Lamaof Tibetan Buddhism, in an official context.
The PRC has been playing an increasing role in calling for
free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbors. In 2004, the PRC proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit(EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues that pointedly excluded the United States. [Dillon, Dana and John Tkacik Jr, [http://www.policyreview.org/134/dillon.html "China’s Quest for Asia"] , "Policy Review", December 2005 and January 2006, Issue No. 134. Accessed 22 April 2006.] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. The PRC is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation(SCO), with Russia and the Central Asian republics.
Much of the current foreign policy is based on the concept of
China's peaceful rise. Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; e.g., the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgradeduring the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U.S.-China spy plane incident in April 2001. Its foreign relations with many Western nations suffered for a time following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, though they have since recovered. The relationship between China and Japan has been strained at times by Japan's refusal to acknowledge its war-time past to the satisfaction of the PRC, e.g. revisionist comments made by prominent Japanese officials and in some Japanese history textbooks. Another point of conflict between the two countries is the frequent visits by Japanese government officials to the Yasukuni Shrine. However, Sino-Japanese relations have warmed considerably since Shinzo Abebecame the new Japanese Prime Minister in September 2006. A joint historical study to be completed by 2008 of WWII atrocities is being conducted by the PRC and Japan.
Equally bordering the most countries in the world alongside Russia, the PRC was in a number of international territorial disputes. China's territorial disputes have led to localized wars in the last 50 years, including the
Sino-Indian Warin 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflictin 1969 and the Sino-Vietnamese Warin 1979. In 2001, the PRC and Russia signed the Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship, [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-03/21/content_548330.htm Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation] (21 March 2006). Retrieved 16 April 2006.] which paved the way in 2004 for Russia to transfer Yinlong Islandas well as one-half of Heixiazito China, ending a long-standing Sino-Russian border dispute. Other territorial disputes include islands in the East and South China Seas, and undefined or disputed borders with India, Tajikistanand North Korea.
While accompanying a rapid economic rise, the PRC since the 1990s seeks to maintain a policy of quiet diplomacy with its neighbors. Steadying its economic growth and participating in regional organizations and cultivating bi-lateral relations will ease suspicion over China's burgeoning military capabilities. The PRC has started a policy of wooing African nations for trade and bilateral co-operations. [http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0330/p01s01-woaf.html. Abraham McLaughlin, "A rising China counters US clout in Africa", "The Christian Science Monitor", 30 March 2005 edition. [http://www.cfr.org/publication/8436/ Princeton N. Lyman. "China’s Rising Role in Africa", 21 July 2005 Council of Foreign Relations] . Retrieved 26 June 2007.]
With a population of over 1.3 billion, the PRC is very concerned about its
population growthand has attempted, with mixed results, [ [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/353/11/1171 The New England Journal of Medicine, September 2005] ] to implement a strict family planningpolicy. The government's goal is one child per family, with exceptions for ethnic minorities and flexibility in rural areas, where a family can have a second child if the first is a girl or physically disabled. The government's goal is to stabilize population growth early in the twenty-first century, though some projections estimate a population of anywhere ranging from 1.4 billion to 1.6 billion by 2025. Hence the country's family planning minister has indicated that China will maintain its one-child policy until at least the year 2018. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/10/china.onechild/index.html China to keep one-child policy - CNN.com ] ]
The policy is resisted, particularly in rural areas, because of the need for agricultural labor and a traditional preference for boys (who can later serve as male
heirs). Families who breach the policy often lie during the census. [ [http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/fertl2b.htm http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/fertl2b.htm, ] ] Official government policy opposes forced sterilization or abortion, but allegations of coercion continue as local officials, who are faced with penalties for failing to curb population growth, may resort to forced abortion or sterilization, or manipulation of census figures.
The decreasing reliability of PRC population statistics since family planning began in the late 1970s has made evaluating the effectiveness of the policy difficult. [ [http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/fertl2b.htm http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/fertl2b.htm] ] Estimates by Chinese demographers of the average number of children for a Chinese woman vary from 1.5 to 2.0. The government is particularly concerned with the large imbalance in the sex ratio at birth, apparently the result of a combination of traditional preference for boys, and family planning pressure, which led to the ban of using
ultrasounddevices for the purpose of preventing sex-selective abortion.
While economic and social controls have been greatly relaxed in China since the 1960s, political freedom is still tightly controlled by both central and local governments. The
Constitution of the People's Republic of Chinastates that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. However, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the State.
Censorship of political speech and information is openly and routinely used to silence criticism of government and the ruling Chinese Communist Party. [http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sdc/hr_facts.html China Human Rights Fact Sheet] (March 1995). Retrieved 16 April 2006.] In particular, press control is notoriously tight:
Reporters Without Bordersconsiders the PRC one of the least free countries in the world for the press. [http://www.rsf.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=554 Reporters sans frontières - Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index - 2005 ] ] The government has a policy of limiting groups, organizations, and beliefs that it considers a potential threat to "social stability" and control, as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Communist Party has had mixed success in controlling information: a very strong media control system faces very strong market forces, an increasingly educated citizenry and cultural change that are making China more open, especially on environmental issues. [ [http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/chplca.htm 1998 U.S. Embassy Beijing report "The Fading of Environmental Secrecy"] . Accessed 4 February 2007] [ [http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/ngo3.htm 1997 U.S. Embassy Beijing report "Environmental NGOs in China: Green is Good, But Don't Openly Oppose the Party"] , Accessed 4 February 2007]
A number of foreign governments and NGOs routinely criticize the PRC, alleging widespread human rights violations including systematic use of lengthy detention without trial, forced confessions, torture, mistreatment of prisoners, restrictions of freedom of speech, assembly, association, religion, the press, and
labor rights. [http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sdc/hr_facts.html China Human Rights Fact Sheet] (March 1995).] China leads the world in capital punishment, accounting for roughly 90% of total executions in 2004. [http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0405-07.htm 5 April 2005. Accessed 23 June 2006. "The Independent/UK" article, republished.] Human rights issues are one of the factors driving independence movements in Tibetand Xinjiang.Fact|date=October 2008 In the Reporters Without Borders' Annual World Press Freedom Index of 2005, the PRC ranked 159 out of 167 places. PRC journalist He Qinglianin her 2004 book "Media Control in China" [ [http://hrichina.org/public/contents/article?revision%5fid=29582&item%5fid=29576 Media Control in China] published 2004 by Human Rights in China, New York. Revised edition 2006 published by Liming Cultural Enterprises of Taiwan] documents government controls on the Internetand other media in China.
The PRC government has responded by arguing that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of
economic development, and focus more on the people's rights to subsistence and development in poorer countries. [http://english.gov.cn/official/2005-07/28/content_18115.htm "China's Progress in Human Rights"] July 2005, Accessed: 18 April 2008.] The rise in the standard of living, literacyand life expectancyfor the average Chinese in the last three decades is seen by the government as tangible progress made in human rights. [ [http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/first%20beginning/t56058.htm "China's reform and opening-up promotes human rights, says premier"] . 11 December 2003. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States. Accessed 28 April 2006.] Efforts in the past decade to combat deadly natural disasters, such as the perennial Yangtze Riverfloods, and work-related accidents are also portrayed in China as progress in human rights for a still largely poor country.
The People's Republic of China has administrative control over twenty-two provinces and considers Taiwan to be its twenty-third province. [Gwillim Law (2 April 2005). [http://www.statoids.com/ucn.html Provinces of China] . Retrieved 15 April 2006.] There are also five autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions that enjoy considerable autonomy. The twenty-two provinces, five autonomous regions and four municipalities can be collectively referred to as "
mainland China", a term which usually excludes Hong Kong and Macau.
Geography and climate
The PRC is the second largest
countryin Asia by areaafter Russia, and is considered the third largest [ [http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1018965313021 "The People's Republic of China"] (7 September 2005). Foreign & Commonwealth Office] in the world in respect to land and sea area. The uncertainty over size is related to (a) the validity of claims by the PRC on territories such as Aksai Chinand Trans-Karakoram Tract(both territories also claimed by India), and (b) how the total size of the United States is calculated: "The World Factbook" gives 9,826,630 km², [cite web|url=http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/DYB2005/Table03.pdf|title=Population by Sex, Rate of Population Increase, Surface Area and Density|publisher=UN Statistics Division|work=Demographic Yearbook 2005|accessdate=2008-03-25] and the "Encyclopedia Britannica" gives 9,522,055 km². [cite web|url=http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:2lOa44xXcrgJ:www.britannica.com/eb/article-9111233/United-States+United+States+Area+encyclopedia+britannica&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us|title=United States|publisher=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=2008-03-25] A recent change in the method used by the United States to calculate its surface area adds to the confusion as to the actual size of the United States. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html "Rank Order — Area"] (29 March 2006). CIA World Factbook.] China borders 14 nations (counted clockwise from south): Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, [China's border with Pakistan falls in the disputed Kashmirprovince. The area under Pakistani-administration is claimed by India.] Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongoliaand North Korea. Additionally the border between PRC and ROC is located in territorial waters.
The territory of the PRC contains a large variety of landscapes. In the east, along the shores of the
Yellow Seaand the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, grasslands can be seen. Southern China is dominated by hill country and low mountain ranges. In the central-east are the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow Riverand Yangtze River(Chang Jiang). Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur.
To the west, major mountain ranges, notably the
Himalayas, with China's highest point at the eastern half of Mount Everest, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.
A major issue is the continued expansion of deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4915690.stm "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm"] . BBC news. Accessed 17 April 2006.] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged
droughtand poor agricultural practices result in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Koreaand Japan. Water, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries.
The PRC has some relevant environmental regulations: the 1979 Environmental Protection Law, which was largely modeled on U.S. legislation. But the environment continues to deteriorate. [cite book |author=Ma Xiaoying |coauthors=Leonard Ortalano |title=Environmental Regulation in China |origyear=2000 |origmonth=May |year=2002 |publisher=Rowman & Littlefield Publishers] While the regulations are fairly stringent, they are frequently disregarded by local communities while seeking economic development. Twelve years after the law, only one Chinese city was making an effort to clean up its water discharges. [Sinkule, Barbara J., "Implementing Environmental Policy in China", Praeger Publishers, 1995, ISBN 0-275-94980-X] This indicates that China is about twenty years behind the U.S. schedule of environmental regulation.
Water pollutionhas increased as an issue along with industrial production. The PRC government has chosen a discharge standard measuring the concentration of a pollutant rather than the total pollutant load (as is done in the U.S. and many Western countries). As a result many industrial dischargers in China simply dilute the effluent with river water taken from the same source as the receiving waters. Consequently the outcome has been to create considerable water pollution in many of the country's rivers.Fact|date=October 2008
With regard to carbon emissions, the PRC has ratified the
Kyoto Protocolbut it is not required to reduce carbon emissions because of its status as a developing country. However, with rapid industrialization, China is fast becoming one of the world's top emitters of carbon gases and possibly a major contributor to global warming.Fact|date=October 2008
Part of the price China is paying for increased prosperity is damage to the environment. Leading Chinese environmental campaigner Ma Jun has warned that water pollution is one of the most serious threats facing China. According to Ma the drinking water of 300 million peasants is unsafe and water quality in one fifth of the cities is not up to standard. This makes the crisis of water shortages more pressing, with 400 out of 600 cities short of water.cite web |url=http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/392-Tackling-China-s-water-crisis-online |title=Tackling China's Water Crisis Online |accessdate = 2007-02-18 |publisher=www.chinadialogue.net |year=2006 |author=Ma, Jun, Li, Naomi |format=Web]
With 2.3 million active troops, the
People's Liberation Army(PLA) is the largest military in the world. [ [http://www.iiss.org/whats-new/iiss-in-the-press/press-coverage-2005/august-2005/china-seeks-to-allay-us-fears-as-summit-nears China Seeks to Allay U.S. Fears as Summit Nears] (2006). Retrieved 15 April 2006.] The PLA consists of an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear force. The official announced budget of the PLA for 2007 was $45 billion. However, the United States claims China does not report its real military spending. The DIA estimates that the real Chinese military budget for 2007 could be anywhere from US$85 to US$125 billion. [ [http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/pdfs/070523-China-Military-Power-final.pdf U.S. Department of Defense] ]
The PRC, despite possession of
nuclear weapons and delivery systems, is widely seen by military researchers both within and outside of China as having only limited power projectioncapability; this is, among other things, because of the limited effectiveness of its navy. It is considered a major military regional powerand an emerging military superpower. [Nolt, James H. [http://www.atimes.com/china/BA27Ad01.html Analysis: The China-Taiwan military balance] . Asia Times. Retrieved 15 April 2006.]
Much progress has been made in the last decade and the PRC continues to make efforts to modernize its military. It has purchased state-of-the-art fighter jets from Russia, such as the
Sukhoi Su-30s, and has also produced its own modern fighters, specifically the Chinese J-10s and the J-11s. [ [http://sinodefence.com/airforce/fighter/default.asp SinoDefence: Fighter Aircraft] . Accessed 15 April 2006] It has also acquired and improved upon the Russian S-300 surface-to-air missilesystems, which are considered to be among the best aircraft-intercepting systems in the world, [ [http://sinodefence.com/missile/airdefence/hq9.asp SinoDefence: Surface-to-air Missile System] Dead link|url=http://sinodefence.com/missile/airdefence/hq9.asp|date=March 2008|date=May 2008 (2006). Accessed 15 April 2006.] albeit Russia has since produced the new generation S-400 Triumf. The PRC's armored and rapid-reaction forces have been updated with enhanced electronics and targeting capabilities. In recent years, much attention has been focused on building a navy with blue-water capability. [ [http://www.sinodefence.com/research/aircraft-carrier/China_Aircraft_Carrier_Ambition.pdf SinoDefence: Aircraft carrier programme] (2006). Accessed 15 April 2006]
From its founding in 1949 to late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally
planned economy. Private businesses and capitalismwere suppressed. To propel the country towards a modern, industrialized communistsociety, Mao Zedonginstituted the Great Leap Forwardwhich is now widely seen — both within China and outside - as a major economic failure and a great humanitarian disaster. His death and the end of the Cultural Revolutionallowed Deng Xiaopingand the new Chinese leadership to reform the economy and move to a market-oriented mixed economyunder one-party rule. Collectivization of the agriculture was dismantled and farmlands were privatized to increase productivity. A wide variety of small-scale enterprises were allowed to flourish while the government relaxed price controls and promoted foreign investment. Foreign trade was focused upon as a major vehicle of growth, which led to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) first in Shenzhen(near Hong Kong) and then in other Chinese cities. Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured by introducing western-style management system and the unprofitable ones were closed, resulting in massive job losses. With an average annual
GDP from 1952 to 2005.
The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" industries (such as
energyand heavy industries), but private enterprise (30 million private businesses) [ [http://www.cis.org.au/issue_analysis/IA95/ia95.html Putting Democracy in China on Hold] John Lee, The Center for Independent Studies. Retrieved 26 July 2008] now accounts for approximately 70% of China's national output, up from 1% in 1978. [cite web |url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm |title="China Is a Private-Sector Economy" |publisher=BussinessWeek |date=2005-08-22 |accessdate=2007-03-27] Its stock market in Shanghai (SSE) is raising record amounts of IPOs and its benchmark Shanghai Composite index has doubled since 2005. SSE's market capitalizationreached US$3 trillion in 2007 and is the world's fifth largest exchange. China now ranks 34th in the Global Competitiveness Index. [ [http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/gcp/Global%20Competitiveness%20Report/index.htm The Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008] World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] Twenty nine Chinese companies made the list in the 2008 Fortune Global 500. [ [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2008/countries/Australia.html GLOBAL 500] CNN Money.com. Retrieved on 27 July 2008.] Measured on market capitalization, 3 out of 10 of the world's most valuable companies are in China including #2- PetroChina, #5- China Mobile(world's most valuable telecommunications company), and #6- Industrial and Commercial Bank of China(world's most valuable bank). [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d61a3e3e-413b-11dd-9661-0000779fd2ac,dwp_uuid=4ca4e366-413b-11dd-9661-0000779fd2ac.html Global 500 2008] Financial Times.com. Retrieved on 27 July 2008.]
China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 1978. Today, about 10% of the Chinese population remains below the poverty line. 90.9% of the population is relatively literate, [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html CIA - The World Fact Book] ] compared to 20% in 1950. [Plafker, Ted, [http://www.iht.com/articles/2001/02/12/rchina.t.php China's Long — but Uneven — March to Literacy] International Herald Tribune] Urban
unemploymentdeclined to 4 percent in China by the end of 2007 (true overall unemployment might be higher at around 10%). [ [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90884/6342385.html Urban unemployment declines to 4% in China] People's Daily Online (22 January 2008). Retrieved on 27 July 2008.] Its middle class population has now reached 80-150 million. [ [http://www.euromonitor.com/Chinas_middle_class_reaches_80_million China’s middle class reaches 80 million] Euromonitor International (25 July 2007). Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] [ [http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/05/china/middle-class/leslie-chang-text/1 China's Middle Class] Leslie T. Chang, National Geographic.com (May 2008). Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] China's retail market is worth RMB4930 billion (US$700 billion) in 2007 and growing at 15% annually. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS20667+05-Mar-2008+BW20080305 China's Retail Market is Expected to Grow by About 34% Between 2008 and 2012, to...] Thomson Reuters (4 March 2008). Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] It is also now the world's third biggest consumer of luxury goods with 12% of the global share. [ [http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2006/03/21/chinas_hunger_for_luxury_goods_grows/ China's hunger for luxury goods grows] Jehangir S. Pocha, The Boston Globe (21 March 2006). Retrieved on 26 July 2008.]
However, China's growth has been uneven when comparing different geographic regions and rural and urban areas. Urban-rural income gap is getting wider in China with a
Gini coefficientof 46.9%. Development has also been mainly concentrated in the eastern coastal regions while the remainder of the country are left behind. To counter this, the government has promoted development in the western, northeastern, and central regions of China. The economy is also highly energy-intensive and inefficient - it uses 20%-100% more energy than OECDcountries for many industrial processes. [ [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/CHINAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20680895~pagePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:318950,00.html China Quick Facts] The World Bank. Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] It has now become the world's second largest energy consumer behind the US [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/China/Background.html China - Background] Energy Information Administration - U.S. government official statistics. Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] but relies on coalto supply about 70% of its energy needs. [ [http://www.ecoworld.com/home/articles2.cfm?tid=450 China's Coal] Gordon Feller, ECOworld. Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] Coupled with a lax environmental regulation, this has led to a massive water and air pollution (China has 20 of the world's 30 most polluted cities). [ [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/CHINAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20680895~pagePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:318950,00.html China Quick Facts] The World Bank. Retrieved on 26 July 2008.] Consequently, the government has promised to use more renewable energywith a target of 10% of total energy use by 2010 and 30% by 2050. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS39879+12-Mar-2008+BW20080312 China have set a Renewable Energy Target of 10% of Electric Power Capacity by 2010] Thomson Reuters (11 March 2008). Retrieved on 26 July 2008.]
cience and technology
Sino-Soviet split, China started to develop its own nuclear weapons and delivery systems, successfully detonating its first surface nuclear test in 1964 at Lop Nur. A natural outgrowth of this was a satellite launching program, which culminated in 1970 with the launching of Dong Fang Hong I, the first Chinese satellite. This made the PRC the fifth nation to independently launch a satellite. In 1992, the Shenzhou manned spaceflight program was authorized. [ [http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_aboutchina/2003-09/24/content_26079.htm China's First Man-made Satellite] (2003). Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 16 April 2006.] After four tests, " Shenzhou 5" was launched on 15 October 2003, using a Long March 2F launch vehicleand carrying Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei, making the PRC the third country to put a human being into space through its own endeavors. [Wade, Mark. [http://www.astronautix.com/craft/shenzhou.htm Shenzhou] (6 January 2006). Retrieved 16 April 2006.] With the successful completion of the second manned mission, " Shenzhou 6" in October 2005, the country plans to build a Chinese Space Station in the near future and achieve a lunar landing in the next decade. [Wade, Mark. (30 March 2005) [http://www.astronautix.com/craft/prot9212.htm Project 921-2] . Retrieved 16 April 2006.]
China has the world's second largest
research and developmentbudget, and is expected to invest over $136 billion this year after growing more than 20% in the past year. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/da4ed9f2-82fa-11db-a38a-0000779e2340.html "China overtakes Japan on R&D"] "Financial Times". Accessed 3 December 2006.] The Chinese government continues to place heavy emphasis on research and development by creating greater public awareness of innovation, and reforming financial and tax systems to promote growth in cutting-edge industries. President Hu Jintao in January 2006 called for China to make the transition from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-based one, and this year's National People's Congress has approved large increases in research funding. Stem cell research and gene therapy, which some in the Western worldsee as controversial, face minimal regulation in China. China has an estimated 926,000 researchers, second only to the United States' 1.3 million. [ [http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D8LQ0OI00.htm OECD: China to spend $136 billion on R&D] "BusinessWeek". Retrieved 3 December 2006.]
China is also actively developing its software,
semiconductorand energy industries, including renewable energies such as hydro, wind and solar power. [ [http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/mar2006/gb20060331_921612.htm "Blinding Science: China's Race to Innovate"] Bruce Einhorn, "Business Week", 31 March 2006, accessed: 16 April 2006.] In an effort to reduce pollution from coal-burning power plants, China has been pioneering the deployment of pebble bed nuclear reactors, which run cooler and safer, and have potential applications for the hydrogen economy. [ [http://daga.dhs.org/daga/readingroom/newsclips/2004/wto/41005scmp03.htm "China leading world in next generation of nuclear plants"] Robert J. Saiget. "DAGA". 5 October 2004. Accessed 16 April 2006. ]
Transportation in the mainland of the People's Republic of China has improved remarkably since the late 1990s as part of a government effort to link the entire nation through a series of expressways known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS). The total length of expressway is 45,000 km at the end of 2006, second only to the United States. [ [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200612/30/eng20061230_337130.html China to build more highways in 2007] ] [ [http://www.chinagate.com.cn/english/45626.htm Expressways Being Built at Frenetic Pace] ] Most of the expressways, however, require tolls.
Private car ownership is increasing at an annual rate of 15%, though it is still uncommon because of government policies that make car ownership expensive, such as taxes and toll roads. [ [http://www.earlywarning.com/articles/2005_06_13_china_cars_drive "China's Car Drive"] (13 June 2005). Earlywarning.] Private highway driving is becoming more common, being almost nonexistent ten years ago.
Domestic air travel has increased significantly, but remains too expensive for most. Long distance transportation is dominated by railways and charter bus systems. Railways are the vital carrier in China; they are monopolized by the state, divided into various railway bureaus in different regions. At the rates of demand it experiences, the system has historically been subject to overcrowding during travel seasons such as "
Chunyun" during the Chinese New Year.
Cities such as
Beijingand Shanghaiboth have a rapidly expanding network of subway or light railsystems, while several other cities also have running rapid transit. Numerous cities are also constructing subways. Hong Kong has one of the most developed transport systems in the world. Shanghai has a Maglev rail line connecting Shanghai's urban area to Pudong International Airport.
As of July 2006, there are 1,313,973,713 people in the PRC. About 20.8% (male 145,461,833; female 128,445,739) are 14 years old or younger, 71.4% (male 482,439,115; female 455,960,489) are between 15 and 64 years old, and 7.7% (male 48,562,635; female 53,103,902) are over 65 years old. The population growth rate for 2006 is 0.59%. The PRC officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population. [ [http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html CIA factbook] (29 March 2006). Retrieved 16 April 2006.] Large ethnic minorities include the Zhuang(16 million), Manchu(10 million), Hui (9 million), Miao (8 million), Uyghur (7 million), Yi (7 million), Tujia(5.75 million), Mongols(5 million), Tibetans (5 million), Buyei(3 million), and Koreans(2 million). [Stein, Justin J (Spring 2003). [http://www.princeton.edu/~jpia/pdf2003/Ch%208%20Xinjiang-Stein-JPIA%202003.pdf Taking the Deliberative in China] . Retrieved 16 April 2006.]
In the past decade, China's cities expanded at an average rate of 10% annually. The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 41.8% between 1978 and 2005, a scale unprecedented in human history. [Zhou Qun, Lin Yanhua. [http://www.chinanews.cn/news/2005/2005-11-18/14441.html China's urbanization encounters "urban disease"] , Chinanews.cn (中国新闻网), 11 November 2005. Accessed 21 April 2005.] 80 to 120 million
migrant workers work part-time in the major cities and return home to the countryside periodically with their earnings. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/china/migrant_p1.html China 2004 Migrant Workers] , CBC Radio One, December 2004. Accessed: 21 April 2006]
Today, the People's Republic of China has dozens of major cities with one million or more long-term residents, including the three global cities of
Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai.Major cities in China play key roles in national and regional identity, culture and economics.
The figures below are from the 2007 census, and are only estimates of the population within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large floating populations of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; [Francesco Sisci, "China's floating population a headache for census", "The Straits Times", 22 September 2000.] the figures below do not include the floating population, only long-term residents.
In 1986, China set the long-term goal of providing compulsory nine-year basic education to every child. As of 1997, there were 628,840 primary schools, 78,642 secondary schools and 1,020 higher education institutions in the PRC. [ [http://www.asia-planet.net/china/education.htm Education] (2002). Orasia co., ltd.] In February 2006, the government advanced its basic education goal by pledging to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees, in the poorer western provinces. [ [http://en.ce.cn/National/Rural/200602/21/t20060221_6154334.shtml China pledges free 9-year education in rural west] (21 February 2006). China Economic Net.] As of 2002, 90.9% (male: 95.1%; female: 86.5%) of the population over age 15 are literate. [http://travelblog.org/World/ch-ppl.html "Chinese People"] (2005). TravelBlog. ] China's youth (age 15 to 24) literacy rate is 98.9% (99.2% for males and 98.5% for females) in 2000. [ [http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/file_download.php/b44872c5f2dfd9c825236194562a2b7fRoss_China.doc Where And Who Are The World’s Illiterates: China] ] In March 2007, China announced the decision of making education a national "strategic priority", the central budget of the national scholarships will be tripled in two years and 223.5 billion Yuan (28.65 billion US dollars) of extra funding will be allocated from the central government in the next 5 years to improve the compulsory education in rural areas. [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-03/05/content_5800996.htm Premier Wen announces hefty educational investment] (2007). Retrieved 6 March 2007.]
The quality of Chinese colleges and universities varies considerably across the country. The consistently top-ranked universities in mainland China are Tsinghua and Peking in
Beijing; Fudan, Shanghai Jiao Tong Universityand East China Normal Universityin Shanghai; Xi'an Jiaotong Universityin Xi'an; Nanjing Universityin Nanjing; the University of Science and Technology of Chinain Hefei; Zhejiang Universityin Hangzhouand Wuhan Universityin Wuhan. [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-02/21/content_418027.htm 2005 Chinese University Ranking unveiled] (21 February 2005). China Daily. Retrieved 16 April 2006.] [ [http://rank2003.netbig.com/en/rnk_1_0_0.htm All-around Ranking] (2003). Retrieved 17 April 2006.]
Many parents are highly committed to their children's education, often investing large portions of the family's income on education. Private lessons and recreational activities, such as in foreign languages or music, are popular among the middle-class families who can afford them. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3693714.stm "China's graft: Tough talk, old message" by Mary Hennock] . 27 September 2004. BBC News. "Accessed 2 May 2006".]
[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/CHINAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20680895~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:318950,00.html The World Bank - China Quick Facts] ] respiratory problems have increased because of widespread air pollution.cite web |url= http://www.ft.com/cms/s/8f40e248-28c7-11dc-af78-000b5df10621.html|title= 750,000 a year killed by Chinese pollution|accessdate=2007-07-22 |publisher= "date= 2007-07-02|author= McGregor, Richard] The Ministry of Health, together with its counterparts in the provincial health bureaus, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population. [ [http://www.casy.org/Chindoc/mohprofile.htm China AIDS Survey at Yahoo] Accessed 18 April 2006.] An emphasis on
public healthand preventative treatment characterized health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitationand hygiene, as well as attacking several diseases. This has shown major results as diseases like cholera, typhoid, and scarlet fever were nearly eradicated.
With economic reform after 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition despite the disappearance, along with the People's Communes, of much of the free public health services provided in the countryside. Health care in China became largely private fee-for-service. This was widely criticised by the Islamic Hui populations of the North West, who were often unable to obtain medical support in their remote communities. By 2000, when the
World Health Organizationmade a large study of public health systems throughout the world, [http://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/ The World Health Report 2000 Health Systems: Improving Performance] the Chinese public health system ranked 144 of the 191 UN member states ranked.
The country's life expectancy at birth jumped from about 35 years in 1949 to 73.18 years in 2008, [ [http://www.globalgeografia.it/temi/Population%20Growth%20in%20China.pdf "Population Growth in China : The Basic Characteristics of China’s Demographic Transition" by Maristella Bergaglio] .] [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html "China"] . CIA World Factbook, 2008-05-16] and
infant mortalitywent down from 300 per thousand in the 1950s to about 23 per thousand in 2006. [http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#People CIA World Factbook] . 20 April 2006. "URL accessed 3 May 2006."] [ [http://www.china.org.cn/english/19012.htm China’s Infant Mortality Rate Down] . 11 September 2001. CHINA.ORG.CN. "URL accessed 3 May 2006."] Malnutritionas of 2002 stood at 12 percent of the population according to United NationsFAO sources. [cite web |url= http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/cpr-e.stm|title= Nutrition country profiles: China summary|accessdate=2007-07-22]
Despite significant improvements in health and the introduction of western style medical facilities, the PRC has several emerging
public healthproblems, which include respiratory problems as a result of widespread air pollution and millions of cigarette smokers, [ [http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/~pine/Phil110/chinasmoking.html "Smoking 'will kill one third of young Chinese men'"] . 16 August 2001. Honolulu Community College. Accessed 17 April 2006.] a possible future HIV/AIDS epidemic, and an increase in obesityamong urban youths. [ [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.50/dispatches/09.23.health/ "Serving the people?"] . 1999. Bruce Kennedy. CNN. Accessed 17 April 2006.] [ [http://english.people.com.cn/english/200008/04/eng20000804_47271.html "Obesity Sickening China's Young Hearts"] 4 August 2000. People's Daily. Accessed 17 April 2006.] Estimates of excess deaths in China from environmental pollution (apart from smoking) are placed at 760,000 people per annum from air and water pollution (including indoor air pollution). [International Herald Tribune, Tues 31 July 2007, p16] China's large population and close living quarters has led to some serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS (a pneumonia-like disease) which has since been largely contained. [ [http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_05_18a/en/index.html "China’s latest SARS outbreak has been contained, but biosafety concerns remain"] . 18 May 2004. World Health Organization. Accessed 17 April 2006.]
China does allow a limited degree of religious freedom although the state is officially atheist, in accordance with the doctrines of
Marxism. However, official tolerance is only extended to those in state-approved religious organizations and not to those who worship underground, such as house churches. An accurate number of religious adherents is hard to obtain due to a lack of official data, but there is general consensus that religion has been enjoying a resurgence over the past 20 years. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6337627.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Survey finds 300m China believers ] ] A survey by Phil Zuckerman on Adherents.comfound that in 1998, 59% (over 700 million) [ [http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_473.html Adherents.com ] ] of the population was irreligious. Meanwhile, another survey in 2007 found that there are 300 million (23% of the population) believers as opposed to an official figure of 100 million. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6337627.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Survey finds 300m China believers ] ]
Despite the surveys' varying results, most agree that China's traditional religions - Buddhism,
Taoism, and Chinese folk religions - are the dominant faiths. According to a number of sources, Buddhism in Chinaaccounts for between 660 million (~50%) and over 1 billion (~80%) [ [http://www.vipassanafoundation.com/Buddhists.html Buddhists in the world ] ] while Taoists number 400 million (~30%). [ [http://asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=468&Itemid=34 Asia Sentinel - How Now Tao? ] ] [ [http://www.arcworld.org/downloads/SCMP%20Daoism%2030%20April%202007.pdf Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC) ] ] However, the number of adherents to these religions can be overcounted because one can subscribe to one or more of these traditional beliefs simultaneously and the difficulty to clearly differentiate Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religions. In addition, subscribing to Buddhism and Taoism is not necessarily considered religious for those who follow the philosophies in principle but stop short at subscribing to any kind of divinity. [ [http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/religion Religions and Beliefs in China] ] [ [http://www.sacu.org/religion.html Society for Anglo Chinese Understanding (SACU)] ] [ [http://www.index-china.com/index-english/people-religions-s.html Index-China Chinese Philosophies and religions] ] Most Chinese Buddhists are nominal adherents because only a small proportion of the population (over 8% or over 100 million) [ [http://adherents.com/largecom/com_buddhist.html Adherents.com: Buddhism ] ] [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90133.htm International Religious Freedom Report 2007 - China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)] ] may have taken the formal step of going for refuge. [ [http://www.askasia.org/teachers/essays/essay.php?no=16 AskAsia - Buddhism in China] ] [ [http://www.globaled.org/curriculum/china/bessay1.htm TheAmericanForum For Global Education] ] Even then, it's still difficult to estimate accurately the number of Buddhists because they did not have congregational memberships and often did not participate in public ceremonies. [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm U.S. Department of States - International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)] ] Mahayana(大乘, "Dacheng") and its subsets Pure Land (Amidism), Tiantaiand Zenare the most widely practiced denominations of Buddhism. Other forms, such as Theravadaand Tibetan, are practiced largely by ethnic minorities along the geographic fringes of the Chinese mainland. [Macintosh, R. Scott. [http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0309/p01s04-woap.html China's prosperity inspires rising spirituality] (9 March 2006). Retrieved 15 April 2006.] Christianity in Chinawas first introduced during the Tang period in the 7th century with the arrival of Nestorianismin 635 CE. This was followed by Franciscanmissionaries in the 13th century, Jesuitsin the 16th century, and finally Protestants in the 19th century, during which time Christianity began to make significant foothold in China.Fact|date=May 2008 Of the minority religions, Christianityhas been particularly noted as one of the fastest growing (especially since the last 200 years) and today may number between 40 million (3%) [cite web | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,,2007690,00.html | title=Christian population in China | publisher=guardian.co.uk | accessdate=2007-08-27] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6337627.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Survey finds 300m China believers ] ] and 54 million (4%) [ [http://www.assistnews.net/STORIES/2007/s07100011.htm China Survey Reveals Fewer Christians than Some Evangelicals Want to Believe ] ] according to independent surveys, while official estimates suggested that there are only 16 million Christians. [cite web | title=Chinese government official statistics on Christian population in China | url=http://hrwf.org/religiousfreedom/news/2007PDF/China%202007.doc | publisher=hrwf.org | accessdate=2007-08-27] Islam in Chinadates to a mission in 651, eighteen years after Muhammad's death. Muslims came to China for trade, dominating the import/export industry during the Song Dynasty.BBC Islam in China (650-present) [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/china_1.shtml] ] cite web|url=http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=1656&C=1645|title=Islamic culture in China] They became influential in government circles, including Zheng He, Lan Yuand Yeheidie'erding. Nanjingbecame an important center of Islamic study. [cite web|url=http://www.hsais.org/2essay0405_4.htm|title=Looking East: The challenges and opportunities of Chinese Islam] The Qing Dynastywaged war and genocide against Muslims in the Dungan revoltand Panthay rebellion. [Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288] [Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219] [Dillon, Michael. [http://www.hsais.org/2essay0405_4.htm China’s Muslim Hui Community] . Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix] The number of Muslims in China today is estimated between 20 to 100 million while most estimates figures that there are 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population). [Counting up the number of people of traditionally Muslim nationalities who were enumerated in the 1990 census gives a total of 17.6 million, 96% of whom belong to just three nationalities: Hui 8.6 million, Uyghurs 7.2 million, and Kazakhs 1.1 million. Other nationalities that are traditionally Muslim include Kyrghyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Tatars, Salar, Bonan, and Dongxiang. See Dru C. Gladney, "Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism?", Paper presented at Symposium on Islam in Southeast Asia and China, Hong Kong, 2002. Available at http://www.islamsymposium.cityu.edu.hk. The 2000 census reported a total of 20.3 million members of Muslim nationalities, of which again 96% belonged to just three groups: Hui 9.8 million, Uyghurs 8.4 million, and Kazakhs 1.25 million.] [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#People CIA - The World Factbook - China ] ] [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet) ] ] [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-07/09/content_6831389.htm China Daily - NW China region eyes global Muslim market] ] [ [http://muslimmedianetwork.com/mmn/?p=1922 Muslim Media Network] ] [ [http://www.islamtoday.com/showme2.cfm?cat_id=38&sub_cat_id=1413 Islamtoday.com - China’s Halal Food and Muslim Commodities Festival Begins Today] ]
In July 1999,
Falun Gongwas officially proscribed and persecuted by the authorities. Xinhua, [http://english.people.com.cn/special/fagong/1999072200A101.html China Bans Falun Gong] , People's Daily, 22 July 1999] It had 50-70 million practitioners in 1998 according to official estimates, " The New York Times" said. [Joseph Kahn, [http://partners.nytimes.com/library/world/asia/042799china-protest-leader.html "Notoriety Now for Exiled Leader of Chinese Movement"] , "The New York Times", 27 April 1999] However, Falun Gong claims to have 100 million practitioners while the China's Ministry of Civil Affairs claims that there are as few as 2 million. [ Xu Jiatun, [http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/1999/09/08/1308 Cultural Revolution revisited in crackdown] , Taipai Times, 8 September 1999.] As there are no membership lists, current global numbers are unknown. There are also followers of minority religions including Hinduism, Dongbaism, Bon, and a number of new religions and sects (particularly Xiantianism).
For centuries, opportunity for economic and social advancement in China could be provided by high performance on
Imperial examinations. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy and literati painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. China's traditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianismand conservatism. A number of more authoritarian and rational strains of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism. There was often conflict between the philosophies, such as the individualistic Song Dynastyneo-Confucians, who believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. In recent years, a number of New Confucians have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values." [Bary, Theodore de. [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccba/cear/issues/fall97/graphics/special/debary/debary.htm "Constructive Engagement with Asian Values"] . Columbia University.]
The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born in the old society but were influenced by the
May Fourth Movementand reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and a Confucian education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and obedience to the state. Many observers believe that the period following 1949 is a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others say that the CPC's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution, where many aspects of traditional culture were labeled 'regressive and harmful' or 'vestiges of feudalism' by the regime and thus, were destroyed. They further argue that many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, Chinese art, literature, and performing arts like Beijing opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. One example being Chinese character simplification, since traditional characters were blamed for the country's low literacy rate at the time.Yen, Yuehping.  (2005). Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. Routledge. ISBN 0415317533] However, simplified Chinese characters are not used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.
Today, the Chinese government has accepted a great deal of traditional Chinese culture as an integral part of Chinese society, lauding it as an important achievement of the Chinese civilization and emphasizing it as vital to a Chinese national identity. Since the Cultural Revolution ended, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, [ [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+cn0133) "China: Traditional arts". Library of Congress - Country Studies.] Accessed: 26 December 2007.] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-258942/China "China: Cultural life: The arts". Encyclopædia Britannica Online] Accessed: 26 December 2007.] and folk and variety art in particular have gained a new found respectability, and sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. [ [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+cn0138) "China: Folk and Variety Arts". Library of Congress - Country Studies.] Accessed: 26 December 2007.]
ports and recreation
China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world, spanning the course of several millennia. There is, in fact, evidence that a form of
association footballwas played in China in ancient times. [ [http://athleticscholarships.net/history-of-soccer.htm Origins of the Great Game] . 2000. Athleticscholarships.net. Accessed 23 April 2006.] Besides soccer, [ [http://soccernet.espn.go.com/news/story?id=370457&cc=5901 ESPN Soccernet] . 2002. ESPN Soccernet. Accessed 26 January 2006] some of the most popular sports in the country include martial arts, table tennis, badminton, swimming, and basketball. Board games such as Go (Weiqi), and Xiangqi(Chinese chess) and recently Chessare also commonly played and have organized competitions. Physical fitnessis widely emphasized in Chinese culture. Morning exercises are a common activity and often one can find the elderly practicing qigongand tai chi chuanin parks or students doing stretches on school campuses. Young people are especially keen on basketball, especially in urban centers with limited space and grass areas. The NBA has a huge following among Chinese youths, with Yao Mingbeing the idol of many. [cite web |url=http://www.time.com/time/asia/2003/heroes/yao_ming.html |title=Yao Ming |accessdate=2007-03-30 |last=Beech |first=Hannah |year=2003 |format=HTML |work=Asian Heros |publisher=Time Magazine ] The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the "Games of the XXIX Olympiad", were held in Beijing, and as a result the country has put even more emphasis on sports.Fact|date=September 2008
Many traditional sports are also played. The popular Chinese
dragon boatracing (龙舟) occurs during the Dragon Boat Festival. In Inner Mongolia, sports such as Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racingare popular. In Tibet, archeryand equestrianismare a part of traditional festivals. [Qinfa, Ye. [http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm Sports History of China] . About.com. Retrieved 21 April 2006.]
* Chinese government
Chinese Soviet Republic
*cite book |last=Lynch |first=Michael |title=Peoples Republic Of China 1949–90 |year=1998 |publisher=
Trafalgar Square Publishing|isbn=0-340-68853-X
*cite book |last=Murphey |first=Rhoads |title=East Asia: A New History |year=1996 |publisher=
University of Michigan Press|isbn=0-321-07801-2
*cite book |author=Sang Ye |title=China Candid: The People on the People's Republic |year=2006 |publisher=
University of California Press|location= |isbn=0-520-24514-8
*cite book |last=Selden |first=Mark |title=The People's Republic of China: Documentary History of Revolutionary Change |year=1979 |publisher=Monthly Review Press |location=New York |isbn=0-853-45532-5
*cite book |last=Terrill |first=Ross |title=The New Chinese Empire, And What It Means For The United States |year=2003 |publisher=Basic Books |location=New York |isbn=0-465-08412-5
*cite book |last=Thurston |first=Anne F. |title=China Bound: A Guide to Academic Life and Work in the PRC |year=1994 |publisher=
National Academies Press|location=Washington |isbn=0-309-04932-6
*Farah, Paolo, "Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism", Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263–304, 2006. [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=916768 Abstract] .
*Heilig, Gerhard K., "China Bibliography - Online." 2006, 2007. [http://www.china-profile.com/bib/bib_start.htm] .
* [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/china/home.html People's Daily: China at a Glance]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1287798.stm BBC News — "Country Profile: China"]
*CIA World Factbook link|ch|China
* [http://www.monthlyreview.org/1105wu.htm "Rethinking ‘Capitalist Restoration’ in China"] by Yiching Wu
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/china/ "China on the Rise"] PBS Online NewsHour. October 2005.
*" [http://www.nytimes.com/specials/chinarises/intro/index.html China Rises] " a documentary co-produced by "The New York Times", "Discovery Times", CBC, ZDF, France 5 and S4C. 9 April 2006.
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/red/ "China in the Red"] , 1998–2001. PBS Frontline.
*" [http://www.pbs.org/kqed/chinainside/ China From the Inside] " A documentary series co-produced by KQED Public Television and Granada Television.
* [http://english.gov.cn/ The Central People's Government of People's Republic of China (English)]
* [http://www.china.org.cn/ China's Official Gateway for News & Information (English)]
* [http://ifri.org/files/Securite_defense/Prolif_Paper_Minxin_Pei.pdf Assertive Pragmatism: China's Economic Rise and Its Impact on Chinese Foreign Policy] - analysis by Minxin Pei, IFRI Proliferation Papers n°15, 2006
* [http://www.globalpolitician.com/articles.asp?ID=341 The Dragon's Dawn: China as a Rising Imperial Power] 11 February 2005.
* [http://www.china-profile.com/history/hist_list_1.htm History of The People's Republic of China] Timeline of Key Events since 1949.
* [http://www.danwei.org/ Media, advertising, and urban life in China.]
* [http://www.chinastudygroup.org/index.php?action=front2&type=view&id=152 China's Neoliberal Dynasty] by Peter Kwong, originally published in
The Nation2 October 2006.
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=China&ll=30.600094,103.710938&spn=64.10009,177.1875&om=1 Google Maps - China]
* [http://www.china-profile.com/maps/map_overview_1.htm Google Maps - China] Interesting locations
title = resize|105%|Geographic locale
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