- Global city
A global city (also called world city) is a city deemed to be an important node point in the global economic system. The concept comes from
geographyand urban studies and rests on the idea that globalizationcan be understood as largely created, facilitated and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade. The most complex of these entities is the "global city," whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic means.Sassen, Saskia - " [http://www.india-seminar.com/2001/503/503%20saskia%20sassen.htm The global city: strategic site/new frontier] "] The terminology of "global city", as opposed to megacity, is thought to have been first coined by Saskia Sassenin reference to London, New York and Tokyo in her 1991 work "The Global City", [Sassen, Saskia - " [http://pup.princeton.edu/titles/6943.html The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo.] " (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6] though the term "world city" to describe cities which control a disproportionate amount of global business dates to at least Patrick Geddes' use of the term in 1915. Doel,M. & Hubbard, P., (2002), "Taking World Cities Literally: Marketing the City in a Global Space of flows",City, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 351-368. Subscription required ]
Global City or world city status is seen as beneficial, and because of this many groups have tried to classify and rank which cities are seen as 'world cities' or 'non-world cities'. ] Although there is a general consensus upon leading world cities, [http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb5.html GaWC Research Bulletin 5] , GaWC,
Loughborough University, 28 July 1999] the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included. The criteria for identification tend either to be based on a "yardstick value" ("e.g. if the producer-service sector is the largestsector, then city X is a world city") ] or on an "imminent determination" ("if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the producer-service sector of N other cities, then city X is a world city"). ]
The characteristics sometimes chosen include
* International, first-name familiarity; whereby a city is recognized without the need for a political subdivision. For example, although there are numerous cities and other political entities with the name London or variations on it, one would say "
London", not "London, United Kingdom".
* Active influence on and participation in international events and world affairs; for example, Washington,
Berlin, Brusselsare major capitals of influential nations or unions.
* A fairly large population (the centre of a
metropolitan areawith a population of at least one million, typically several million).
* A major international
airportthat serves as an established hub for several international airlines.
* An advanced transportation system that includes several
highways and/or a large mass transitnetwork offering multiple modes of transportation ( rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, ferry, or bus).
* In the West, several international cultures and communities (such as a
Chinatown, a Little Italy, a Tehrangelesor other immigrant communities); for example, New York City, Toronto, Chicago, San Francisco, São Pauloand Vancouver. In other parts of the world, cities which attract large foreign businesses and related expatriate communities; for example, Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Moscow.
financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters, international conglomerates, and stock exchanges (for example the World Bank, or the New York Stock Exchange) that have influence over the world economy.
* An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern trans-national corporations rely, such as
fiberoptics, Wi-Finetworks, cellular phoneservices, and other high-speed lines of communications.
* World-renowned cultural institutions, such as
museums and universities.
* A lively cultural scene, including
film festivals (such as the Berlinaleor the Toronto International Film Festival), premieres, a thriving musicor theatrescene (for example, West End theatreand Broadway); an orchestra, an opera company, art galleries, and street performers.
* Several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach, such as the
BBC, Reuters, " The New York Times", or " Agence France-Presse".
* A strong
sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, Football World Cup, or Grand Slam tennisevents.
One attempt to define, categorize, and rank global cities was made in 1999 by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) based at the geography department of
Loughborough University. The roster was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance, and law. ] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks. This roster generally denotes cities in which there are offices of certain multinational corporations providing financial and consulting services rather than denoting other cultural, political, and economic centres.
An attempt to redefine and re-categorise leading global cities was made by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) in 2004. This new roster acknowledged several new indicators but still retained a stark focus on economics rather than on political or cultural importance. The roster is reproduced below:
Global Cities [ [http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb146.html Leading World Cities] , GaWC,
:"Well rounded global cities" :#Very large contribution:
Londonand New York City.:#:Smaller contribution and with cultural bias: Los Angeles, Paris, and San Francisco:#Incipient global cities: Amsterdam, Boston, Chicago, Madrid, Milan, Moscow, Toronto.
:"Global niche cities - specialised global contributions" :#Financial:
Hong Kong, Singaporeand Tokyo.:#Political and social: Brussels, Genevaand Washington, D.C.
World Cities :"Subnet articulator cities" :#Cultural:
Berlin, Copenhagen, Melbourne, Munich, Oslo, Rome, Stockholm.
Bangkok, Beijing, Vienna.:#Social: Manila, Nairobi, Ottawa.
:"Worldwide leading cities" :#Primarily economic global contributions:
Frankfurt, Miami, Munich, Osaka, Singapore, Sydney, Zurich:#Primarily non-economic global contributions: Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Atlanta, Basel, Barcelona, Cairo, Denver, Harare, Lyon, Manila, Mexico City, Mumbai, New Delhi, Shanghai.
The GaWC list is based on specific criteria and, thus, may not include other cities of global significance or elsewhere on the spectrum. For example, cities with the following:
List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees
* [http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/geography/urban.html Repository of Links Relating to Urban Places]
* [http://hsc.csu.edu.au/geography/urban/cities/worldcities/World_Cities.html World Cities] article by Jennifer Curtis of Charles Sturt University
* [http://www.irows.ucr.edu/conferences/globgis/papers/Smith.htm The World-System’s City System: A Research Agenda] by Jeffrey Kentor and Michael Timberlake of the University of Utah and David Smith of University of California, Irvine
* [http://ww2.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5/statereport.htm "The State of the World's Cities, 2001"] , UN Human Settlements Programme
* [http://www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20050222_worldcities.htm "U.S. Cities in the 'World City Network'"] , by Peter J. Taylor and Robert E. Lang, February 2005 ( [http://www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20050222_worldcities.pdf Full Report in PDF] )
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