- Environment of China
This article documents the environment of China.
One of the serious negative consequences of the
People's Republic of China's rapid industrial development has been increased pollutionand degradation of natural resources. Much solid wasteis not properly disposed of. Water pollutionis a source of health problems across the country, and air pollutioncauses up to 750,000 premature deaths each year. China's polluted environment is largely a result of the country's rapid development and consequently a large increase in primary energyconsumption, which is primarily provided by coalpower plants. China has pursued a development model which prioritizes exports-led growth (similar to many other East Asian countries). Forbes Magazine reports that all 10 of the 10 most polluted cities in the world are in China. [ http://www.forbes.com/logistics/2006/03/21/americas-most-polluted-cities-cx_rm_0321pollute.html]
Efforts to control China's pollution problem have become a top priority of the Chinese leadership. In March 1998, the
State Environmental Protection Administration(SEPA) was officially upgraded to a ministry-level agency, reflecting the growing importance the PRC Government places on environmental protection.Beginning in 2006, the government greatly expanded expenses into environmental protection, and a series of new laws have been passed. Enforcement of these laws is also being expanded. The PRC has strengthened its environmental legislation and made some progress in stemming environmental deterioration. During the 11th 5-Year Plan (2006-2010), the PRC plans to reduce total emissions by 10% and bring China's energy efficiency up by 20%. Beijing in particular is investing heavily in pollution control as part of its campaign to host a successful Olympiad in 2008. Some cities have seen improvement in air qualityin recent years. In the first half of 2007, China's total energy consumption per unit of output improved by 2.8% and China's sulfur dioxideemissions fell by 0.6%, showing that these new measures have the potential to slow down pollution growth. [ cite news
title=China says energy efficiency slowly improving
Since 2002, the number of complaints to the environmental authorities has increased by 30% every year, reaching 600,000 in 2004; while the number of mass protests caused by environmental issues has grown by 29% every year. [ cite news
title= How participation can help China's ailing environment
publisher= chinadialogueFUGU BANANA MALL
Xinhua News Agencyhas quoted an environmental official, Wang Jinnan, as saying that more than 410,000 Chinese die as a result of pollution each year. [ cite news
title= Environmental Activists Detained in Hangzhou
publisher= Human Rights in China (
accessdate= ] The
Financial Timessaid a World Bank report, entitled "Cost of Pollution in China", (prepared with the cooperation of the State Environmental Protection Agency) [ [http://www.npr.org/blogs/chengdu/2008/04/grey_chengdu_ii.html NPR: The 'Fresh' Gray Skies of Chengdu ] ] found up to 760,000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air and water pollution. High levels of air pollution in China's cities leads to 350,000-400,000 premature deaths, it said. Another 300,000 die because of indoor air of poor quality. The newspaper article, quoting World Bank advisers and Chinese officials, also said that the report omitted research showing that there are 60,000 premature deaths each year because of water of poor quality. [ cite news
title= China 'buried smog death finding'
The Chinese government has placed a greater concern on
environmental issuessince the early 21st century. In 2004, the central government instituted the Green Gross Domestic Productproject, in order to determine the true gross domestic product, adjusted to compensate for negative environmental effects. The results were so much worse than projected that the program was suspended entirely in 2007. In 2005, the eleventh five-year plan contained special emphasis on the nation's environmental degradation. In his annual address in 2007, premier Wen Jiabaomade 48 references to "environment," "pollution," or " environmental protection." [cite web | last = Kahn | first = Joseph | authorlink =Joseph Kahn (journalist) | coauthors = Yardley, Jim | title = As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes | work = The New York Times| date = 2007-08-26 | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/world/asia/26china.html | accessdate = 2007-09-21 ] In addition, the Chinese government attempted to hold national " No Car Days" throughout nearly 100 cities, including Beijing, in which cars would be banned on central roads. However, it was largely ignored. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7007893.stm Beijing drivers ignore No Car Day] . BBC: September 21, 2007.]
Industrial pollution has its most severe impact on the poor and in China, pollution incidents have been so serious as to be the cause of
rioting in recent years. The lack of democracyand the level of corruption in development of factories and plants is a source of tension.
oil problems and river cessation
Approximately 30% of China's surface area is desert. China's rapid industrialization could cause this area to drastically increase. The
Gobi Desertin the north currently expands by about convert|950|sqmi|km2 per year. The vast plains in northern China used to be regularly flooded by the Yellow River. However, overgrazingand the expansion of agricultural land could cause this area to increase, in a process known as desertification. In the past 50 years, exploitation in the form of dams and other irrigation infrastructurehave all but halted the river's natural course, threatening to dry up the entire river valley. The cessation of river flows, or flow stoppages, has surged since the 1980s due to increased water usage and waste. In 1997, the lower Yellow River did not flow 230 days out of the year, an increase of over 2000% since 1988. Increased erosionand sedimentation, especially on the Loess Plateau, has made the river much less navigableby ship. [Diamond, Jared: "Collapse," pp.364-5. Penguin Books, 2005]
In 2001, China initiated a "great green wall" project. It is a project to create a convert|2800|mi|km|sing=on "green belt" to hold back the encroaching desert. The first phase of the project, to restore 9 million acres (36,000 km²) of forest, will be completed by 2010 at an estimated cost of $8 billion. The Chinese government believes that, by 2050, it can restore most desertified land back to forest. The great green wall project is possibly the largest ecological project in history. [ cite news
title= The Green Wall Of China
date= April 2003
accessdate= ] Starting in 2006, the Chinese government expanded protection for forests, banning
loggingand restricting the size of cities and golf courses to enhance land usage efficiency.
In many cases, local government officials have failed to enforce, or simply ignored environmental edicts made by the central government.
Almost all of the nation's rivers are considered polluted to some degree, and half of the population lacks access to clean
drinking water. Ninety percent of urban water bodies are severely polluted. China grades its water quality in five levels, from Grade I to Grade V, with Grade V being the most highly polluted. [http://wepa-db.net/policies/state/china/river.htm] Water scarcity also is an issue; for example, severe water scarcity in Northern China is a serious threat to sustained economic growth and has forced the government to begin implementing a large-scale diversion of water from the Yangtze Riverto northern cities, including Beijingand Tianjin.
An explosion at a petrochemical plant in
Jilin Cityon November 13, 2005caused a large discharge of nitrobenzeneinto the Songhua River. Levels of the carcinogenwere so high that the entire water supply to Harbincity (pop 3.8M) was cut off for five days between November 21, 2005and November 26, 2005, though it was only on November 23that officials admitted that a severe pollution incident was the reason for the cutoff. [ cite news
title= China city water supply to resume
The responsibility for dealing with water is split between several agencies within the government. Water pollution is the responsibility of the environmental authorities, but the water itself is managed by the Ministry of Water Resources. Sewage is dealt with by the Ministry of Construction, but groundwater falls within the realm of the Ministry of Land and Resources. [ cite news
title= China's environmental governance
According to the People's Republic of China's own evaluation, two-thirds of the 338 cities for which air-quality data are available are considered polluted-- two-thirds of them moderately or severely so. Respiratory and
heart diseases related to air pollutionare the leading cause of death in China. Acid rainfalls on 30% of the country. China's environmental laws are among the strictest in the worldFact|date=January 2008, but enforcing these laws has been difficult in China. The World Health Organizationhas found that about 750,000 people die prematurely each year from respiratory problems in China.
According to the World Bank, the cities with the highest levels of
particulate matterin the PRC in 2004 were Tianjin, Chongqing, and Shenyang. These were among the ten most polluted cities in the world by this measure. [http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/table3_13.pdf]
2008 Olympic Gamesin Beijing, air pollution was more closely monitored and (especially in Beijing itself) more and stricter measures were being taken. The monitoring of the air quality was done by the European Space Agencyand the Ministry of Science and Technology, in their " [http://dragon2.esa.int Dragon Programme] ". In this programme, data from the SCIAMACHY-spectrometer aboard the ENVISATwas combined with the AURORA-airqualitymodel. [Science connection 22 (july 2008)]
Carbon emissions and global warming
The People's Republic of China is an active participant in the
climate changetalks and other multilateral environmental negotiations, and claims to take environmental challenges seriously but is pushing for the developed worldto help developing countries to a greater extent. It is a signatory to the Basel Conventiongoverning the transport and disposal of hazardous wasteand the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, as well as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Speciesand the Kyoto Protocol, although China is not required to reduce its carbon emissions under the terms of the present agreement. On June 19, 2007, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agencyannounced, on the basis of an analysis of fossil fuelconsumption (including especially the coal power plants [ [http://www.platts.com/Coal/Resources/News%20Features/ctl/index.xml Coal power plants in China Map +oil use] ] ) and cementproduction data, that China surpassed the United States as the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide, putting out 6,200 million tons, in comparison with America's 5,800 million. [ cite web
title= China now no. 1 in CO2 emissions; USA in second position
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
China can suffer some of the effects of
global warming, including sea level riseand glacier retreat.
The quality of the environment has not at all improved, even though there have been years of increased pollution control. According to some national plan targets which were released before 2005, by the end of 2005, discharge amounts of main pollutants would be 10 percent less than in the year 2000. However, this has not happened, according to a survey of air, land and water carried out in the year 2006.
Protection of forests and control of desertification
Although China's forest cover is only 18%, [Liu, Jianguo and Jared Diamond. [http://www.scidev.net/pdffiles/nature/4351179a.pdf "China's environment in a globalizing world"] , "Nature, Vol. 434, pp. 1179-1186, June 30, 2005." Accessed April 2, 2008.] the country has some of the largest expanses of forested land in the world, making it a top target for forest preservation efforts. In 2001, the
United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) listed China among the top 15 countries with the most "closed forest," i.e., virgin, old growth forestor naturally regrown woods. [ [http://www.unep.org/download_file.multilingual.asp?FileID=71 "International Effort To Save Forests Should Target 15 Countries,"] "United Nations Environment Program, August 20, 2001." Accessed April 2, 2008.] 12% of China's land area, or more than 111 million hectares, is closed forest. However, the UNEP also estimates that 36% of China's closed forests are facing pressure from high population densities, making preservation efforts that much more crucial.
According to the Chinese government website, the Central Government invested more than 40 billion
yuanbetween 1998 and 2001 on protection of vegetation, farm subsidiesand conversion of farm to forests. [ [http://www.gov.cn/english/2006-02/08/content_182514.htm “Protection of forests and control of desertification”] Accessed April 2, 2008] Between 1999 and 2002, China converted 7.7 million hectares of farmland into forest. [Li, Zhiyong. [http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae537e/ae537e0j.htm ”A policy review on watershed protection and poverty alleviation by the Grain for Green Programme in China”] . Accessed April 2, 2008.] Desertificationremains a serious problem, consuming an area greater than that taken by farmlands. Although desertification has been curbed in some areas, it still is expanding at a rate of more than 6,700 km² every year. 90% of China's desertification occurs in the west of the country. [HAN, Jun. [http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/33/57/36921383.pdf "EFFECTS OF INTEGRATED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT ON LAND DEGRADATION CONTROL AND POVERTY REDUCTION."] "Workshop on Environment, Resources and Agricultural Policies in China", June 19, 2006. Accessed March 26, 2008.]
Plastic bag ban
Beginning on June 1, 2008, for the entire country of China, all supermarkets, department stores and shops are prohibited from giving out free plastic bags. Stores must clearly mark the price of plastic shopping bags and are banned from adding that price onto the price of products. The production, sale and use of ultra-thin plastic bags - those less than 0.025 millimeters, or 0.00098 inches, thick - are also banned. The State Council calls for "a return to cloth bags and shopping baskets." [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/01/09/asia/plastic.php "China bans free plastic shopping bags"] , AP Press via the "
International Herald Tribune", January 9, 2008]
The top five environmentally friendly cities:Fact|date=April 2008 [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/15/content_348397.htm]
The top five cities with most effective
pollutioncontrols:Fact|date=April 2008 [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/15/content_348397.htm]
The 10 cities with worst
air quality:Fact|date=April 2008 [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/15/content_348397.htm]
Bioenergy in China
China water crisis
Coal power in China
Debate over China's economic responsibilities for climate change mitigation
Dongtan, Chinese ecocity
Energy policy of China
Geography of China
Green Gross Domestic Product
Guiyu(town in China) (largest e-waste site on Earth)
Nuclear power in China
Public health in mainland China
Renewable energy in China
Wildlife of China
Wind power in China
State Environmental Protection Administration
World Health Organizationand the United Nations Development Programme, [http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/FD5E0957-DC76-41F2-B207-21113406AE55/0/CHNEnvironmentalHealth.pdf "Environment and People’s Health in China"] , 2001
*World Health Organization and the
United Nations Environment Programme, [http://www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/databases_china/en/ "Indoor air pollution database for China"] , Human Exposure Assessment Series, 1995.
* [http://english.sepa.gov.cn/ State Environmental Protection Agency] - Part of the PRC national government
* [http://chinadigitaltimes.net/environmental_crisis/ China's Environmental Crisis] — News collections on China's environment.
* [http://www.chinacp.com/ Cleaner Production in China] —Current and comprehensive information source on China's campaign to reduce pollution.
* [http://www.opendemocracy.net/democracy-climate_change_debate/article_2407.jsp 2005 Interview with Pan Yue, China' deputy environment minister]
* [http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-climate_change_debate/article_2520.jsp#one Chinese environmental activist on climate change]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/china-environment-series-9-2007.html "China Environment Series 9"]
* [http://www.stephenvoss.com/stories/ChinaRiverPollution/index.html Photo essay on water pollution in Huai River Basin]
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/7770/chinas_environmental_movement.html?breadcrumb=default China’s Environmental Movement]
* [http://www.chinadialogue.net Chinadialogue, bilingual environmental views and discussion website]
* [http://www.erenlai.com/index.php?aid=566&lan=3 Air Pollution in China] A flash animation assessing air degree of pollution in China.
* [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/43137/story.htm OECD Decries China Enforcement of Environment Rules] .
* [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/43135/story.htm A Short History of China's Fragile Environment] .
* [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/42271/story.htm Green Group Warns China of Glacier Retreat Threat]
* [http://www.library.utoronto.ca/pcs/state/chinaeco/wetlands.htm An Assessment of the Economic Losses Resulting from Various Forms of Environmental Degradation in China]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org/china/en/about/china-environment Coming of Age: China’s Environmental Awareness Gains Momentum - Greenpeace China]
* [http://www.iges.or.jp/en/ue/activity/mega-city/article/htm/far41.htm Comparative Study] of
Beijing, Seoul, Tokyoand Shanghai
* [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/15/content_348397.htm Most polluted cities in China]
* [http://www.greenpeace.org/china/en/campaigns/toxics/water-pollution China water pollution - Greenpeace China]
* [http://www.asiasociety.org/beijingair Clearing the Air: China's Environmental Challenge - Asia Society] - Overview on China air pollution problem + daily photo blog of Beijing air quality.
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