- Amur River
p= Hēilóng Jiāng
l="Black Dragon River"
Khabarovsk Bridgeacross the Amur used to be the longest in Imperial Russiaand Eurasia.)The Amur River ( _ru. река Амур) or Heilong Jiang ( _zh. 黑龙江) is the world's ninth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far Eastand Northeastern China.
History and context
In many historical references these two geopolitical entities are known as
Outer Manchuria( Russian Manchuria) and Inner Manchuria, respectively. The Chinese province of Heilongjiangon the south bank of the river is named after it, as is the Russian Amur Oblaston the north bank. The name Black Riverwas used by the Manchuand the Qing Dynastywho always regarded this river as sacred.
The Amur River is a very important symbol of — and an important geopolitical factor in — Chinese-Russian relations. The Amur was especially important in the period of time following the Sino-Soviet political split in the 1960s.
River Steamers plied the Amur in the first years of the century. Mining dredges were imported from America to work the placer gold of the river. Barge and river traffic was greatly hindered by the Civil War of 1918-22. The ex-German Yangtse gunboats Vaterland and Otter, on Chinese Nationalist Navy service, patrolled the Amur in the 1920s.
The economy of the Amur Basin includes manufacturing,
metallurgy, ironmining, non-ferrous metals, gold, coal, hydroelectricity, wheat, millet, soybeans, fishing, timberand Chinese-Russian trade. The Daqingoilfield, which is the world's 4th-largest oilfield, is located near Daqing City in Heilongjiang, a few hundred kilometers from the river.
Infobox River | river_name = Amur
caption = Amur watershed
origin = The
mountains of Northeastern China
mouth = The
Pacific Ocean, through the Tartar Strait
China, Russia, Mongolia
length = 4,444 km (2,761 mi)
watershed = 1,855,000 km² (716,200 mi²)Flowing across northeast
Asiafor over 4,444 km (2,700 mi), from the mountains of northeastern Chinato the Sea of Okhotsk(near Nikolayevsk-na-Amure), it drains a remarkable watershed that includes diverse landscapes of desert, steppe, tundra, and taiga, eventually emptying into the Pacific Ocean through the Strait of Tartary, where the mouth of the river faces the northern end of the island of Sakhalin.
The Amur has always been closely associated with Sakhalin, and most names for the island, even in the languages of the indigenous peoples of the region, are derived from the name of the river: "Sakhalin" derives from a Tungusic dialectal form cognate with Manchu "sahaliyan" ("black," as in "sahaliyan ula", "Black River") , while Ainu and Japanese "Karaputo" or "
Karafuto" is derived from the Ainu name of the Amur or its mouth. Anton Chekhovvividly described the Amur River in writings about his journey to Sakhalin Island in 1890.
The average annual discharge varies from 6000 m³/s (1980) - 12000 m³/s (1957), leading to an average 9819 m³/s or 310 km³ per year. The maximum runoff measured occurred in Oct 1951 with 30700 m³/s whereas the minimum discharge was recorded in March 1946 with a mere 514 m³/s. [cite web |url=http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/db/shiklomanov/part'4/FORMER%20USSR/RUSSIA/Amur%20at%20Komsomolsk.html |title=Amur at Komsomolsk |accessdate=2008-08-14 |publisher=
The Amur proper is 2,874 km long after the junction of two rivers:
* Northern tributary: the Shilka, originating from the eastern slopes of the
Khentii Mountainsin Mongolia.
* Southern tributary: the Argun, originating on the western slopes of the
Great KhinganRange (大興安嶺) in northeast China.
The Amur is bordered by
Heilongjiangprovince of China in the south, and Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and Khabarovsk Kraiof Russia in the north. The final stretch of the Amur passes through Khabarovsk Krai. It passes by the following cities:
* Huma (China, south bank)
Blagoveshchensk(Russia, north bank)
Heihe(China, south bank)
Jiayin(China, south bank)
Tongjiang(China, south bank)
* Fuyuan (China, south bank)
Khabarovsk(Russia, south bank)
Komsomolsk-na-Amure(Russia, north bank)
Nikolayevsk-na-Amure(Russia, north bank)
Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, government vice-chairman of Russia’s Jewish Autonomous Oblastsaid that China and Russia started construction of the Amur Bridge Projectat the end of 2007. The bridge will link Nizhneleninskoyein the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with Tongjiangin Heilongjiang Province. The 2,197-meter-long bridge, with an estimated investment of nearly US$230 million, is expected to be finished by the end of 2010, Gurevich said. [cite web |url=http://www.china.org.cn/english/BAT/214252.htm |title=China-Russia Trade to Top US$40b |accessdate=2008-08-14 |publisher=China Daily |date=2007-06-18] Gurevich said that the proposal to construct a bridge across the river was actually made by Russia, in view of growing cargo transportation demands. "The bridge, in the bold estimate, will be finished in three years," Gurevich said. [cite web |url=http://en.bcnq.com/bizchina/2007-06/28/content_5421141.htm |title=Cross-border bridge on Heilong River to bring Russia closer |accessdate=2008-08-14 |publisher=China Daily |date=2007-06-28]
Amuri, a Tamperedistrict named after battles at river Amur during the Russo-Japanese war.
Amur cork tree
Geography of China
Geography of Russia
Sino-Soviet border conflict
Jilin chemical plant explosions 2005
*Home of the Kaluga (
* [http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=344&theme=2 Information and a map of the Amur’s watershed]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Amur River — Chinese Heilong Jiang or Hei lung Chiang River, northeastern Asia. The Amur proper begins at the confluence of the Shilka and Argun rivers and is 1,755 mi (2,824 km) long. It flows east southeast along the Russian Chinese border to Khabarovsk,… … Universalium
Amur River — noun an Asian river between China and Russia; flows into the Sea of Okhotsk • Syn: ↑Amur, ↑Heilong Jiang, ↑Heilong • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑China, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
amur river — n. river in Asia that flows between China and Russia … English contemporary dictionary
amur river privet — noun see amur privet … Useful english dictionary
Amur Military Flotilla — (AMF) ( ru. Амурская военная флотилия) was a military flotilla on the Amur river in the Far East region of Russia.In 1900, the Russians formed a temporary flotilla on the Amur river out of private steamers and barges. Initially, it served… … Wikipedia
Amur (disambiguation) — Amur River is a river serving as a border between Russia and People s Republic of China.Amur may also refer to: *Amur Oblast, a federal subject of Russia *Amur Khabarovsk, a Russian ice hockey team *Golden Amur, a defunct Russian ice hockey team… … Wikipedia
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Amur stickleback — (Pungitius sinensis) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia … Wikipedia
River of the Black Dragon — Amur River on the Sino Soviet frontier … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
Amur Oblast — Infobox Russian federal subject EnglishName=Amur Oblast RussianName=Амурская область Locator LocatorMap CoatOfArmsLink=Coat of arms of Amur Oblast FlagLink=Flag of Amur Oblast AnthemLink= none AdmCtrOrCapital=Administrative center… … Wikipedia