People's commune


People's commune

The people's commune (zh-cp|c=人民公社|p=rénmín gōngshè) in the People's Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas during the period of 1958 to 1982-85 until they were replaced by townships. Communes, the largest collective units, were divided in turn into production brigades and production teams. The communes had governmental, political, and economic functions.

History

The People's commune was born during the Great Leap Forward, when Mao Zedong had a vision of surpassing the United Kingdom and the United States in a short period of time in terms of steel production. Mao also wanted to mobilize peasants to undertake huge water projects during the winter slack seasons in order to improve agricultural productivity.

Each commune was a combination of smaller farm collectives, consisted of 4,000-5,000 households, and larger ones could consist of up to 20,000 households.

The Peoples' commune was made official state policy in 1958 after Mao Zedong visited an unofficial commune in Henan.

Formation

In order to put this radical plan into action, Mao used the Anti-Rightist Movement to silence his political opponents so he faced virtually no opposition when he finally implemented the People's communes. Using various propaganda campaigns, Mao gained the initial support of the peasants.

The People's communes were formed in support of the Great Leap Forward campaign and remains an inseparable part of the campaign, as shown in the Three Red Banners propaganda poster.

Commune life

In the commune, everything was shared. Private kitchens became redundant, and everything in the private kitchen, such as tables, chairs, cooking utensils and pans were all contributed to the commune's kitchen. Private cooking was banned and replaced by communal dining.

Everything originally owned by the households, private animals, stored grains and other food items were also contributed to the commune. They were put to different uses as assigned by the commune. All farming activities were to be centrally assigned by cadres every morning. Even money was outlawed in some places. Furthermore, family life was abolished; communal nurseries and homes for the elderly were established, and people were not allowed to eat with their families.A work point system was used to calculate rewards, and those who earned above-average work points could be eligible for cash rewards.

ee also

*Political divisions of China

References

loc [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cntoc.html]

Yang, Dali. "Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society, and Institutional Change since the Great Leap Famine". Stanford, 1996.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • people's commune — a usually rural, Communist Chinese social and administrative unit of from 2000 to 4000 families combined for collective farming, fishing, mining, or industrial projects. Also called commune. [1970 75] * * * …   Universalium

  • people's commune — a usually rural, Communist Chinese social and administrative unit of from 2000 to 4000 families combined for collective farming, fishing, mining, or industrial projects. Also called commune. [1970 75] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Shanghai People's Commune — The Shanghai People s Commune was originally established during the Cultural Revolution in the late 1960 s.The Commune was modeled on the Paris Commune. Control was supposed to fall into the hands of the workers thus establishing a grassroots… …   Wikipedia

  • Commune — For other uses, see Commune (disambiguation). A commune is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work and income. In addition to the communal economy …   Wikipedia

  • commune — commune1 communer, n. v. /keuh myoohn /; n. /kom yoohn/, v., communed, communing, n. v.i. 1. to converse or talk together, usually with profound intensity, intimacy, etc.; interchange thoughts or feelings. 2. to be in intimate communication or… …   Universalium

  • Commune populaire — Demande de traduction People s commune → …   Wikipédia en Français

  • commune — com‧mune [ˈkɒmjuːn ǁ ˈkɑː , kəˈmjuːn] noun [countable] 1. COMMERCE a group of people who live and work together and share what they produce 2. FARMING a group of people who work together on a farm owned by the state, and give what they produce to …   Financial and business terms

  • Commune — Com mune (k[o^]m m[=u]n), n. [F., fr. commun. See {Common}.] 1. The commonalty; the common people. [Obs.] Chaucer. [1913 Webster] In this struggle to use the technical words of the time of the commune , the general mass of the inhabitants,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • commune — commune1 [kə myo͞on′; ] for n. [ käm′yo͞on΄] vi. communed, communing [ME communen < OFr comuner, to make common, share < comun (see COMMON); also < OFr communier, to administer the sacrament < L communicare, to share (LL(Ec), to… …   English World dictionary

  • Commune De Göteborg — Commune de Göteborg …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.