Climate of Russia


Climate of Russia
Russia Koppen Map.png

The climate of Russia is formed under the influence of several determining factors. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean and the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.[1][2]

Due to the moderating influence of the Atlantic or Pacific, the most populous areas of the country in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East, including the cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, experience a humid continental climate. (Köppen's Dfb, Dfa, Dwb, Dwa types). Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia between the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd) in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −68 °C/−90.4 °F), and more moderate (Dwc, Dfc) elsewhere. The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Arctic islands, have a polar climate (extreme polar climate (EF) on some of the islands and tundra climate (ET) elsewhere). A small portion of the Black Sea coast, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate (Köppen's Cfa) with unusually wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East (Dwa, Dwb, Dwc, Dwd types), while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate (BSk).

About 65% of the Russian territory is underlined by permafrost.

Averages and records by city

Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1971–2000, records 1879 – the present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.3
(46.9)
17.5
(63.5)
28.0
(82.4)
33.2
(91.8)
34.9
(94.8)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
24.0
(75.2)
14.5
(58.1)
9.6
(49.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) −4.9
(23.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
2.2
(36.0)
10.8
(51.4)
18.2
(64.8)
22.1
(71.8)
23.2
(73.8)
21.3
(70.3)
15.1
(59.2)
8.1
(46.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
9.2
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.5
(18.5)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
6.3
(43.3)
12.8
(55.0)
17.1
(62.8)
18.4
(65.1)
16.4
(61.5)
10.8
(51.4)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.6
(29.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
5.4
Average low °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4.7
(23.5)
2.1
(35.8)
7.4
(45.3)
12.0
(53.6)
13.8
(56.8)
12.0
(53.6)
7.0
(44.6)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
−7.9
(17.8)
1.7
Record low °C (°F) −42.2
(−44)
−38.2
(−37)
−32.4
(−26)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−16.1
(3.0)
−32.8
(−27)
−38.8
(−38)
−42.2
(−44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 52
(2.05)
41
(1.61)
35
(1.38)
37
(1.46)
51
(2.01)
80
(3.15)
85
(3.35)
82
(3.23)
68
(2.68)
71
(2.8)
54
(2.13)
51
(2.01)
707
(27.83)
humidity 83 80 74 67 64 70 74 77 81 81 84 85 76.7
Avg. rainy days 0.8 0.7 3 9 13 14 15 15 15 12 6 2 105.5
Avg. snowy days 18 15 9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 2 10 17 72.2
Sunshine hours 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1,731
Source: [10] [11] [12][13]
Climate data for Saint Petersburg (1971 - 2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
10.2
(50.4)
14.9
(58.8)
25.3
(77.5)
30.9
(87.6)
34.6
(94.3)
35.3
(95.5)
37.1
(98.8)
30.4
(86.7)
21.0
(69.8)
12.3
(54.1)
10.9
(51.6)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.8
(35.2)
8.5
(47.3)
15.6
(60.1)
20.2
(68.4)
22.2
(72.0)
20.2
(68.4)
14.4
(57.9)
8.1
(46.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
8.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−6
(21.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.4
(39.9)
10.9
(51.6)
15.8
(60.4)
18.1
(64.6)
16.4
(61.5)
11.0
(51.8)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
5.4
Average low °C (°F) −8.8
(16.2)
−8.8
(16.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.0
(33.8)
6.6
(43.9)
11.8
(53.2)
14.4
(57.9)
13.0
(55.4)
8.1
(46.6)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
2.4
Record low °C (°F) −35.9
(−32.6)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−6.6
(20.1)
0.1
(32.2)
4.9
(40.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
−12.9
(8.8)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−35.9
(−32.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
31
(1.22)
35
(1.38)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
64
(2.52)
78
(3.07)
77
(3.03)
67
(2.64)
65
(2.56)
56
(2.2)
49
(1.93)
633
(24.92)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[16]
Climate data for Sochi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
23.5
(74.3)
30.0
(86.0)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
39.0
(102.2)
38.5
(101.3)
36.0
(96.8)
32.3
(90.1)
29.1
(84.4)
23.1
(73.6)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
9.9
(49.8)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.4
(68.7)
24.0
(75.2)
26.6
(79.9)
27.1
(80.8)
24.2
(75.6)
20.0
(68.0)
15.7
(60.3)
11.8
(53.2)
18.1
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.2
(37.8)
5.0
(41.0)
8.5
(47.3)
12.7
(54.9)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
16.1
(61.0)
12.3
(54.1)
8.5
(47.3)
5.4
(41.7)
10.8
Record low °C (°F) −13.4
(7.9)
−15
(5.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.7
(35.1)
7.1
(44.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.4
(50.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−15
(5.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 183
(7.2)
120
(4.72)
115
(4.53)
122
(4.8)
89
(3.5)
99
(3.9)
93
(3.66)
111
(4.37)
133
(5.24)
135
(5.31)
182
(7.17)
202
(7.95)
1,584
(62.36)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Climate data for Yakutsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.1
(95.2)
38.3
(100.9)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
20.5
(68.9)
3.1
(37.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F) −39.5
(−39.1)
−31.4
(−24.5)
−14.1
(6.6)
0.0
(32.0)
12.1
(53.8)
21.7
(71.1)
25.1
(77.2)
21.5
(70.7)
11.9
(53.4)
−3.5
(25.7)
−24.4
(−11.9)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−5.5
Average low °C (°F) −45.9
(−50.6)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−14.3
(6.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
8.3
(46.9)
11.7
(53.1)
8.5
(47.3)
0.7
(33.3)
−12.3
(9.9)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−43.2
(−45.8)
−15.8
Record low °C (°F) −63
(−81.4)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41
(−41.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 9
(0.35)
7
(0.28)
6
(0.24)
10
(0.39)
18
(0.71)
37
(1.46)
39
(1.54)
37
(1.46)
29
(1.14)
20
(0.79)
16
(0.63)
12
(0.47)
240
(9.45)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[20]

See also

  • Climate
  • The Northern Hemisphere Summer heat wave of 2010
  • Global storm activity of 2009
  • Global storm activity of 2010

References

  1. ^ "Russia::Climate and vegetation". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-207542. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  2. ^ "Climate". Library Of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/russia/24.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  3. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://www.pogoda.ru.net/monitor.php. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/22550.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  5. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/30758.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  6. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/30791.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/26702.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/31735.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  9. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/29570.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  10. ^ "Thermograph.ru averages". http://thermograph.ru/mon/st_27612.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  11. ^ "Pogoda & Climate (Weather & Climate)" (in Russian). http://www.pogoda.ru.net/climate/27612.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  12. ^ "Climate monitor 2005-2011" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/monitor.php?id=27612. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  13. ^ "Average monthly Sunshine hours" (in Russian). Meteoweb.ru. http://meteoweb.ru/cl006-7.php. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  14. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/22113.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  15. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/27459.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  16. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/26063.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  17. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/28807.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  18. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/37171.htm. Retrieved September 7, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/31960.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  20. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/24959.htm. Retrieved September 8, 2007. 

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