Climate of the Philippines


Climate of the Philippines
Philippine Climate Map

The Climate of the Philippines is either tropical rainforest, tropical savanna or tropical monsoon, or humid subtropical (in higher-altitude areas) characterized by relatively high temperature, oppressive humidity and plenty of rainfall. There are two seasons in the country, the wet season and the dry season, based upon the amount of rainfall.[1] This is dependent as well on your location in the country as some areas experience rain all throughout the year (see Climate Types). Based on temperature, the seven warmest months of the year are from April to October; the winter monsoon brings cooler air from November to March. May is the warmest month, and January, the coolest.[2]

Weather in the Philippines is monitored and managed by the government agency known locally by its acronym, PAGASA or the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration.

Contents

Temperature

The average year-round temperature measured from all the weather stations in the Philippines, excepting Baguio City, is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). Cooler days are usually felt in the month of January with temperature averaging at 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) and the warmest days, in the month of May with a mean of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F).[1]

Elevation factors significantly in the variation of temperature in the Philippines. In Baguio City, with an elevation of 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above sea level, the mean average is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) or cooler by about 4.3 °C (15 °F). In 1915, a one-year study was conducted by William H. Brown of the Philippine Journal of Science on top of Mount Banahaw at 2,100 m. (6,900 ft) elevation. The mean temperature measured was 18.6 °C (65.5 °F), a difference of 10 °C (21.6 °F) from the lowland mean temperature.[3]

In Manila and most of the lowland areas, temperatures rarely rise above 37 °C (98.6 °F). The highest temperature recorded in the country was 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) in Tuguegarao Cagayan Valley on April 29,1912 and again on May 11, 1969. The absolute minimum temperature of 3 °C (37.4 °F) was recorded in January of 1903 in Baguio.

Rainfall

The summer monsoon brings heavy rains to most of the archipelago from May to October. Annual average rainfall ranges from as much as 5,000 millimetres (196.9 in) in the mountainous east coast section of the country, to less than 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. Monsoon rains, although hard and drenching, are not normally associated with high winds and waves.

At least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines can be traced to tropical cyclones, while the southern islands receiving less than 10 percent of their annual rainfall from tropical cyclones. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimetres (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City.[4]

Climate types

There are four recognized climate types in the Philippines, and they are based on the distribution of rainfall (See the Philippine Climate Map). They are described as follows: [1]

  • Type I. Two pronounced season: dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year.
  • Type II. No dry season with a pronounced rainfall from November to January.
  • Type III. Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year.
  • Type IV. Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

Representative cities

Type I: Metro Manila

Climate data for Metro Manila
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35
(95)
35
(95)
36
(97)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
38
(100)
36
(97)
35
(95)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
Record low °C (°F) 18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
18
(64)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
23
(0.91)
13
(0.51)
18
(0.71)
33
(1.3)
130
(5.12)
254
(10)
432
(17.01)
422
(16.61)
356
(14.02)
193
(7.6)
145
(5.71)
2,042
(80.39)
Source: BBC

Type II: Borongan

Climate data for Borongan, Eastern Samar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
31
(88)
33
(91)
32
(90)
35
(95)
36
(97)
35
(95)
37
(99)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
33
(91)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
28
(82)
29
(84)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
Average low °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
Record low °C (°F) 14
(57)
14
(57)
16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
Precipitation mm (inches) 640
(25.2)
430
(16.93)
320
(12.6)
260
(10.24)
240
(9.45)
230
(9.06)
180
(7.09)
140
(5.51)
180
(7.09)
330
(12.99)
530
(20.87)
640
(25.2)
4,170
(164.17)
Source: Weatherbase

Type III: Cebu City

Climate data for Cebu City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35
(95)
33
(91)
99
(210)
38
(100)
38
(100)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
37
(99)
37
(99)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
31
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
25
Record low °C (°F) 21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
20
(68)
22
(72)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
17
(63)
17
(63)
20
(68)
21
(70)
17
(63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 180
(7.09)
170
(6.69)
90
(3.54)
200
(7.87)
200
(7.87)
360
(14.17)
280
(11.02)
300
(11.81)
330
(12.99)
370
(14.57)
180
(7.09)
260
(10.24)
1,840
(72.44)
Source: Weatherbase

Type IV: General Santos

Climate data for General Santos
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40
(104)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
40
(104)
42
(108)
40
(104)
37
(99)
40
(104)
38
(100)
38
(100)
37
(99)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
Record low °C (°F) 18
(64)
18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
17
(63)
21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
17
(63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 750
(29.53)
500
(19.69)
110
(4.33)
160
(6.3)
280
(11.02)
400
(15.75)
390
(15.35)
310
(12.2)
260
(10.24)
340
(13.39)
260
(10.24)
460
(18.11)
2,130
(83.86)
Source: Weatherbase

Special: Baguio

Climate data for Baguio
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26
(79)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
28
(82)
Average high °C (°F) 22
(72)
22
(72)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
Average low °C (°F) 12
(54)
13
(55)
14
(57)
15
(59)
16
(61)
16
(61)
16
(61)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
13
(55)
15
Record low °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
11
(52)
10
(50)
13
(55)
11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
13
(55)
11
(52)
9
(48)
7
(45)
7
(45)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
40
(1.57)
100
(3.94)
400
(15.75)
430
(16.93)
1070
(42.13)
1160
(45.67)
710
(27.95)
380
(14.96)
120
(4.72)
50
(1.97)
1,160
(45.67)
Source: Weatherbase

Humidity

Relative humidity is high in the Philippines. A high amount of moisture or vapor in the air makes hot temperatures feel hotter. This quantity of moisture is due to different factors - the extraordinary evaporation from the seas that surrounds the country on all sides, to the different prevailing winds in the different seasons of the year, and finally, to the abundant rains so common in a tropical country. The first may be considered as general causes of the great humidity, which is generally observed in all our islands throughout the year. The last two may influence the different degree of humidity for the different months of the year and for the different regions of the Archipelago.[5]

In the cooler months, even though the rains are more abundant in the eastern part of the Philippines, owing to the prevailing northeasterly winds, the humidity is lesser than in the western part where a dry season prevails. From June to October, although the rains are quite general throughout the Archipelago, the rains are more abundant in the western part of the Philippines, which is more exposed to the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds; hence the humidity of the air is greater there than in the eastern part of the Archipelago.

The most uncomfortable months are from March to May where temperature and humidity attain their maximum levels.

Typhoons

Tropical Storm Thelma (1991)

The Philippines sit astride the typhoon belt, and the country suffers an annual onslaught of dangerous storms from July through October. These are especially hazardous for northern and eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas regions, but Manila gets devastated periodically as well.

Bagyo is the local term to any tropical cyclone in the Philippine Islands.[4] From the statistics gathered by PAGASA from 1948 to 2004, around an average of 20 storms and/or typhoons per year enter the PAR (Philippine Area of Responsibility) - the designated area assigned to PAGASA to monitor during weather disturbances. Those that made landfall or crossed the Philippines, the average was nine per year. In 1993, a record 19 typhoons made landfall in the country making it the most in one year. The least amount per year were 4 during the years 1955, 1958, 1992 and 1997.[6]

Typhoons are categorized into four types according to its wind speed by the PAGASA. All tropical cyclones, regardless of strength, are named by PAGASA.[7]

  • Tropical Depressions have maximum sustained winds of between 55 kilometres per hour (30 kn) and 64 kilometres per hour (35 kn) near its center.
  • Tropical Storms have maximum sustained winds of 65 kilometres per hour (35 kn) and 119 kilometres per hour (64 kn).
  • Typhoons achieve maximum sustained winds of 120 kilometres per hour (65 kn) to 185 kilometres per hour (100 kn),[8]
  • Super typhoons having maximum winds exceeding 185 kilometres per hour (100 kn).[9]

Deadliest storm

The deadliest typhoon to impact the Philippines was Typhoon Uring (Thelma) in November, 1991, in which 5,080 lives were lost from its resultant flooding and over 1,200 went missing.[10][6]

Strongest Typhoons

The highest wind velocity recorded for a typhoon that crossed the Philippines was recorded in Virac on November 30, 2006 when Typhoon Reming (Durian) had a peak gust of 320 km/h (198 mph).[6]

Seasons

PAGASA divides the climate of the country into two seasons, using rainfall and temperature as basis:[11]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rainfall
Temperature

Key:

  • Blue: Rainy
  • Yellow: Dry
  • Cool: Green
  • Hot: Red

Furthermore, the months where the dry and hot seasons are experienced are popularly known as the "summer" season.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. "Climate of the Philippines". Retrieved on 2010-06-26.
  2. ^ "Meteorology of the Philippines". Nature, Vol.107. Retrieved on 2010-06-26.
  3. ^ Coronas, Rev. Jose, "The Climate and Weather of the Philippines, 1903 to 1918", p.53. Manila Bureau of Printing, 1920.
  4. ^ a b Glossary of Meteorology. Baguio. Retrieved on 2008-06-11.
  5. ^ Coronas, Rev. Jose, "The Climate and Weather of the Philippines, 1903 to 1918", p.125. Manila Bureau of Printing, 1920.
  6. ^ a b c Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. "Tropical Cyclone Statistics". Retrieved on 2010-06-26.
  7. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names?". NOAA. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  8. ^ National Weather Service (September 2006). "Hurricanes... Unleashing Nature's Fury: A Preparedness Guide" (PDF). NOAA. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/fwd/wcm/hurric.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  9. ^ Bouchard, R. H. (April 1990). "A Climatology of Very Intense Typhoons: Or Where Have All the Super Typhoons Gone?" (PPT). http://metocph.nmci.navy.mil/jtwc/pubref/References/where_have_all_the_super_typhoons_gone.ppt. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  10. ^ Leoncio A. Amadore, Ph.D. Socio-Economic Impacts of Extreme Climatic Events in the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  11. ^ "Climate of the Philippines". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/statfram.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-28. 

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