Scottish National Party


Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba
Scottis Naitional Pairtie
Leader Alex Salmond MSP
Deputy Leader Nicola Sturgeon MSP
SNP Westminster Group Leader Angus Robertson MP
Founded 1934
Headquarters Gordon Lamb House
3 Jackson's Entry
Edinburgh
EH8 8PJ
Scotland
Student wing Federation of Student Nationalists
Youth wing Young Scots for Independence
Membership 18,000[1]
Ideology

Scottish Independence[2][3]
, Scottish nationalism,
Social democracy,
Left-wing nationalism

Internal Factions:
 • Pro-Europeanism
 • Scottish republicanism
 • Civic nationalism
 • Liberalism[citation needed]
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation None
European affiliation European Free Alliance
European Parliament Group The Greens–European Free Alliance
Official colours Yellow and Heather
Scottish seats in the House of Commons
6 / 59
Scottish seats in the European Parliament
2 / 6
Scottish Parliament
69 / 129
Local government in Scotland[4]
362 / 1,222
Website
http://www.snp.org/
Politics of Scotland
Political parties
Elections

The Scottish National Party (SNP; Scottish Gaelic: Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba; Scots: Scottis Naitional Pairtie) is a social-democratic[5][6] political party in Scotland which campaigns for Scottish independence from the United Kingdom.

The SNP was founded in 1934, and has had continuous parliamentary representation since Winnie Ewing's groundbreaking victory at the 1967 Hamilton by-election.[7]

In the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary election, the SNP became the largest political party in the Scottish Parliament for the first time, governing as a minority administration, with party leader Alex Salmond as First Minister of Scotland. At the 2011 Scottish Parliamentary election, the SNP won a landslide victory[8] and became the first party to form a majority government in the Scottish Parliament since its resumption in 1999.[9]

The SNP currently holds 6 of 59 Scottish seats in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom and 2 of 6 Scottish seats in the European Parliament. The SNP is also currently the largest group in Scottish local government and, in coalition, forms 12 out of 32 local administrations.

Contents

History

The SNP was formed in 1934 from the merger of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party. Professor Douglas Young, who was the leader of the Scottish National Party from 1942 to 1945 fought for the Scottish people to refuse conscription and his activities were popularly vilified as undermining the British war effort against the Axis powers. Young was imprisoned for refusing to be conscripted.

The SNP first won a parliamentary seat at the Motherwell by-election in 1945, but Dr Robert McIntyre MP lost the seat at the general election three months later. They next won a seat in 1967, when Winnie Ewing was the surprise winner of a by-election in the previously safe Labour seat of Hamilton. This brought the SNP to national prominence, leading to the establishment of the Kilbrandon Commission.

The high point in a British General Elections thus far was when the SNP polled almost a third of all votes in Scotland at the October 1974 general election and returned 11 MPs to Westminster, to date the most MPs it has had. In the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary election the SNP emerged as the largest party with 47 seats, narrowly ousting the Scottish Labour Party with 46 seats and Alex Salmond became Scottish First Minister. Between 2007 and 2011, the Scottish Green Party supported the appointment of the SNP government under an agreement which also specified areas of common policy and gave the Greens input to the budget process and convenorship of the parliamentary committee on transport, infrastructure and climate change.

In May 2011 the SNP won an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament with 69 seats. Overall majorities are unusual in the Additional Member system that is used for elections to the Scottish Parliament, which was specially designed by the Labour UK government in 1999 to prevent any party gaining overall control of the parliament."[10]

Party leaders

Party presidents

Scottish parliamentary leaders

Westminster parliamentary leaders

Party organisation

The SNP consists of local branches of party members. Those branches then form an association in the constituency they represent (unless there is only one branch in the constituency, in which case it forms a constituency branch rather than a constituency association). There are also eight regional associations, to which the branches and constituency associations can send delegates.

The SNP's policy structure is developed at its annual national conference and its regular national council meetings. There are also regular meetings of its national assembly, at which detailed discussion (but not finalising) of party policy takes place.

The party has an active youth wing, the Young Scots for Independence, as well as a student wing, the Federation of Student Nationalists. There is also an SNP Trade Union Group. There is an independently-owned monthly newspaper, The Scots Independent, which is highly supportive of the party.

The SNP's leadership is vested in its National Executive Committee (NEC) which is made up of the party's elected office bearers and six elected members (voted for at conference). The SNP parliamentarians (Scottish, Westminster and European) and councillors have representation on the NEC, as do the Trade Union Group, the youth wing and the student wing.

According to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission for the year ending 2010, the party had a membership of 16232,[11] up from 15,097 in 2008 and 9,450 in 2003.[12] In 2004 the party had income of approximately £1,300,000 (including bequests of just under £300,000) and expenditure of about £1,000,000.[citation needed]

Policy platform

The SNP's policy base is mostly in the mainstream European social-democratic mould. For example, among its policies are a commitment to unilateral nuclear disarmament, progressive personal taxation, the eradication of poverty, free state education including support grants for higher education students and a pay increase for nurses. It is also committed to an independent Scotland being a full member state of the European Union, to the country joining the Euro currency at the appropriate exchange rate and is against membership of NATO (however this remains controversial).

Contrary to the expectations of many outside the party, the SNP is not expressly republican, and its general view is that this is an issue secondary to that of Scottish independence. Many SNP members are republicans, however, and both the party student and youth wings are expressly so.[citation needed]

In August 2009 as part of its third legislative term in the Scottish Parliament, the Government proposes to debate the Scottish referendum bill 2010, which would set out a planned referendum for 30th[13] November 2010 on the issue of Scottish independence. It was not however expected to pass, due to opposition from all the major opposition parties in the Parliament.[14][15]

Party ideology

Although the SNP has a representative majority of centre-left politicians, this has not always been the case. Almost from the party's foundation there have been internal ideological tensions. This was largely a product of the way in which the centre-left National Party of Scotland amalgamated with the centre-right Scottish Party. Nowadays, ideological tensions within the SNP have been partially resolved.

However, by the 1960s, the party was starting to become defined ideologically. It had by then established a National Assembly which allowed for discussion of policy and was producing papers on a host of policy issues that could be described as based on social democracy. Also, the emergence of William Wolfe (universally known as Billy) as a leading figure played a huge role in the SNP defining itself as a left-of-centre and social-democratic party. He recognised the need to do this to challenge the dominant political position of the Scottish Labour Party.

He achieved this in a number of ways: establishing the SNP Trade Union Group; promoting centre-left policies; and identifying the SNP with labour campaigns (such as the Upper-Clyde Shipbuilders Work-in and the attempt of the workers at the Scottish Daily Express to run as a cooperative). It was during Wolfe's period as SNP leader in the 1970s that the SNP became clearly identified as a social-democratic political party.

There were some ideological tensions in the 1970s SNP. The party leadership under Wolfe was determined to stay on the left of the Scottish political spectrum and be in a position to challenge the Labour Party. However, the party's MPs, mostly representing seats won from the Scottish Conservatives, were less keen to have the SNP viewed as a centre-left alternative to Labour, for fear of losing their seats back to the Conservatives.

There were further ideological and internal struggles after 1979 with the 79 Group attempting to move the SNP further to the left, away from being what could be described a 'social-democratic' party, to an expressly 'socialist' party. 79 Group members including current leader, Alex Salmond, were expelled from the party. This produced a response in the shape of the Campaign for Nationalism in Scotland from those who wanted the SNP to remain a 'broad church', apart from arguments of left vs. right.

The 1980s saw the SNP further define itself as a party of the political left, for example running campaigns against the poll tax. It developed this platform to the stage it is at now: a clear, moderate, centre-left political party. This has itself not gone without internal criticism from the left of the party who believe that in modern years the party has become too moderate.

The ideological tensions inside the SNP are further complicated by the arguments between the so-called SNP gradualists and SNP fundamentalists. In essence, gradualists seek to advance Scotland to independence through further devolution, in a 'step-by-step' strategy. They tend to be in the moderate left grouping, although much of the 79 Group was gradualist in approach. However, this 79 Group gradualism was as much a reaction against the fundamentalists of the day, many of whom believed the SNP should not take a clear left or right position.

This grouping of "neo-fundamentalists" have their roots within the camp of the former high-profile Labour Party MP Jim Sillars who left Labour to form the short-lived Scottish Labour Party in 1976 (the party had no connection with the UK Labour Party or the current Scottish Labour group in the Scottish Parliament). Sillars eventually joined the SNP, winning the Govan, Glasgow, by-election in 1988 to become an SNP MP. He lost the Westminster seat at the 1992 general election and expressed his disappointment by calling the Scottish people 'Ninety minute patriots'.

European affiliation

The SNP retains close links with Plaid Cymru, its counterpart in Wales. MPs of both parties co-operate closely with each other. They work as a single group within the House of Commons, and were involved in joint campaigning during the 2005 General Election campaign. Both the SNP and Plaid Cymru are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA), a European political party for regionalist national-level political parties. The EFA co-operates with the larger European Green Party to form the Group of The Greens–European Free Alliance in the European Parliament.

Prior to its affiliation with The Greens–European Free Alliance, the SNP had previously been allied with the European Progressive Democrats (until 1984), Rainbow Group (1989-1994) and European Radical Alliance (1994-1999).

Ministers and spokespeople

Scottish Parliament

See also: Government of the 4th Scottish Parliament, Scottish Government, Members of the 4th Scottish Parliament
Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
Leader of the Scottish National Party
First Minister of Scotland
Rt Hon Alex Salmond MSP
Deputy Leader of the Scottish National Party
Deputy First Minister of Scotland, Cabinet Secretary for Health, Wellbeing and Cities Strategy
Nicola Sturgeon MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Parliamentary Business and Government Strategy Bruce Crawford MSP
Minister for Public Health Michael Matheson MSP
Minister for Commonwealth Games and Sport Shona Robison MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Parliamentary Business and Government Strategy Bruce Crawford MSP
Minister for Parliamentary Business Brian Adam MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth John Swinney MSP
Minister for Enterprise, Energy and Tourism Fergus Ewing MSP
Minister for Local Government and Planning Aileen Campbell MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning Michael Russell MSP
Minister for Skills and Lifelong Learning Alasdair Allan MSP
Minister for Children and Young People Angela Constance MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure and Capital Investment Alex Neil MSP
Minister for Housing and Transport Keith Brown MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Justice Kenny MacAskill MSP
Minister for Community Safety Roseanna Cunningham MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment Richard Lochhead MSP
Minister for the Environment and Climate Change Stewart Stevenson MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs Fiona Hyslop MSP

Westminster Parliament

Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
Westminster Group Leader
Defence and Foreign Affairs
Angus Robertson MP
Deputy Group Leader and Chief Whip
HM Treasury and Economic Affairs
Stewart Hosie MP
Culture and Sport; Constitution Peter Wishart MP
Business; Energy and Climate Change Michael Weir MP
Transport; Constitutional Reform Angus MacNeil MP
Fisheries; International Development; Women; Work and Pensions Eilidh Whiteford MP

European Parliament

Portfolio SNP Spokesperson
President of the Scottish National Party
Fisheries; Regional Development
Ian Hudghton MEP
Agriculture and Rural Development Alyn Smith MEP

Elected representatives (current)

Members of the Scottish Parliament

MSP Constituency or Region First elected Notes
Brian Adam Aberdeen Donside 1999 Member for North East Scotland 1999-2003, Aberdeen North 2003-2011, Aberdeen Donside 2011-
George Adam Paisley 2011
Clare Adamson Central Scotland 2011
Alasdair Allan Western Isles 2007
Colin Beattie Midlothian North and Musselburgh 2011
Marco Biagi Edinburgh Central 2011
Chic Brodie South of Scotland 2011
Keith Brown Clackmannanshire and Dunblane 2007 Member for Ochil 2007-2011, Clackmannanshire and Dunblane 2011-
Margaret Burgess Cunninghame South 2011
Aileen Campbell Clydesdale 2007 Member for South of Scotland 2007-2011, Clydesdale 2011-
Roderick Campbell North East Fife 2011
Willie Coffey Kilmarnock and Irvine Valley 2007 Member for Kilmarnock and Loudoun 2007-2011, Kilmarnock and Irvine Valley 2011-
Angela Constance Almond Valley 2007 Member for Livingston 2007-2011, Almond Valley 2011-
Bruce Crawford Stirling 1999 Member for Mid Scotland and Fife 1999-2007, Stirling 2007-
Roseanna Cunningham Perthshire South and Kinross-shire 1999 MP for Perth and Kinross 1995-1997, Perth 1997-2001, Member for Perth 1999-2011, Perthshire South and Kinross-shire 2011-
Graeme Dey Angus South 2011
Nigel Don Angus North and Mearns 2007 Member for North East Scotland 2007-2011, Angus North and Mearns 2011-
Bob Doris Glasgow 2007
James Dornan Glasgow Cathcart 2011
Jim Eadie Edinburgh Southern 2011
Annabelle Ewing Mid Scotland and Fife 2011 MP for Perth 2001-2005
Fergus Ewing Inverness and Nairn 1999 Member for Inverness East, Nairn and Lochaber 1999-2011, Inverness and Nairn 2011-
Linda Fabiani East Kilbride 1999 Member for Central Scotland 1999-2011, East Kilbride 2011-
John Finnie Highlands and Islands 2011
Joe FitzPatrick Dundee City West 2007 Member for Dundee West 2007-2011, Dundee City West 2011-
Kenneth Gibson Cunninghame North 1999 Member for Glasgow 1999-2003, Cunninghame North 2007-2011
Rob Gibson Caithness, Sutherland and Ross 2003 Member for Highlands and Islands 2003-2011, Caithness, Sutherland and Ross 2011-
Christine Grahame Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale 1999 Member for South of Scotland 1999-2011, Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale 2011-
Jamie Hepburn Cumbernauld and Kilsyth 2007 Member for Central Scotland 2007-2011, Cumbernauld and Kilsyth 2011-
Fiona Hyslop Linlithgow 1999 Member for Lothians 1999-2011, Linlithgow 2011-
Adam Ingram Carrick, Cumnock and Doon Valley 1999 Member for South of Scotland 1999-2011, Carrick, Cumnock and Doon Valley 2011-
Colin Keir Edinburgh Western 2011
Bill Kidd Glasgow Anniesland 2007 Member for Glasgow 2007-2011, Glasgow Anniesland 2011-
Richard Lochhead Moray 1999 Member for North East Scotland 1999-2006, Moray 2006-
Richard Lyle Central Scotland 2011
Kenny MacAskill Edinburgh Eastern 1999 Member for Lothians 1999-2007, Edinburgh East and Mussleburgh 2007-2011, Edinburgh Eastern 2011-
Angus MacDonald Falkirk East 2011
Gordon MacDonald Edinburgh Pentlands 2011
Derek MacKay Renfrewshire North and West 2011
Mike MacKenzie Highlands and Islands 2011
Tricia Marwick Mid Fife and Glenrothes 1999 Member for Mid Scotland and Fife 1999-2007, Central Fife 2007-2011, Mid Fife and Glenrothes 2011- . Resigned from SNP in 2011 to become Presiding Officer.
John Mason Glasgow Shettleston 2011 MP for Glasgow East 2008-2010. Member for Glasgow Shettleston 2011-
Michael Matheson Falkirk West 1999 Member for Central Scotland 1999-2007, Falkirk West 2007-
Stewart Maxwell West of Scotland 2003
Joan McAlpine South of Scotland 2011
Mark McDonald North East Scotland 2011
Christina McKelvie Hamilton, Larkhall and Stonehouse 2007 Member for Central Scotland 2007-2011, Hamilton, Larkhall and Stonehouse 2011-
Aileen McLeod South of Scotland 2011
Fiona McLeod Strathkelvin and Bearsden 1999 Member for West of Scotland 1999-2003, Strathkelvin and Bearsden 2011-
Stuart McMillan West of Scotland 2007
Alex Neil Airdrie and Shotts 1999 Member for Central Scotland 1999-2011, Airdrie and Shotts 2011-
Gil Paterson Clydebank and Milngavie 1999 Member for Central Scotland 1999-2003, West of Scotland 2007-2011, Clydebank and Milngavie 2011-
Dennis Robertson Aberdeenshire West 2011
Shona Robison Dundee City East 1999 Member for North East Scotland 1999-2003, Dundee East 2003-2011, Dundee City East 2011-
Michael Russell Argyll and Bute 1999 Member for South of Scotland 1999-2003 and 2007-2011, Argyll and Bute 2011-
Alex Salmond Aberdeenshire East 1999 MP for Banff and Buchan 1987-2010, Member for Banff and Buchan 1999-2001, Gordon 2007-2011, Aberdeenshire East 2011-
Stewart Stevenson Banffshire and Buchan Coast 2001 Banff and Buchan 2001-2011, Banffshire and Buchan Coast 2011-
Kevin Stewart Aberdeen Central 2011
Nicola Sturgeon Glasgow Southside 1999 Member for Glasgow 1999-2007, Glasgow Govan 2007-2011, Glasgow Southside 2011-
John Swinney Perthshire North 1999 MP for Tayside North 1997-2001, Member for Tayside North 1999-2011, Perthshire North 2011-
Dave Thompson Skye, Lochaber and Badenoch 2007 Member for Highlands and Islands 2007-2011, Skye, Lochaber and Badenoch 2011-
David Torrance Kirkcaldy 2011
Jean Urquhart Highlands and Islands 2011
Bill Walker Dunfermline 2011
Maureen Watt Aberdeen South and North Kincardine 2006 Member for North East Scotland 2006-2011, Aberdeen South and North Kincardine 2011-
Paul Wheelhouse South of Scotland 2011
Sandra White Glasgow Kelvin 1999 Member for Glasgow 1999-2011, Glasgow Kelvin 2011-
John Wilson Central Scotland 2007
Humza Yousaf Glasgow 2011

Members of Parliament

Member of Parliament Surname, Firstname Constituency First elected Notes
Stewart Hosie Hosie, Stewart Dundee East 2005
Angus MacNeil MacNeil, Angus Na h-Eileanan an Iar (Western Isles) 2005
Angus Robertson Robertson, Angus Moray 2001
Mike Weir Weir, Mike Angus 2001
Eilidh Whiteford Whiteford, Eilidh Banff and Buchan 2010
Pete Wishart Wishart, Pete Perth and North Perthshire 2001

Members of the European Parliament

Constituency MEP First elected
Scotland Ian Hudghton 1998
Alyn Smith 2004

Councillors

The SNP has more than 360 councillors in Local Government elected from the Scottish local elections, 2007.[16]

Electoral performance

Election[17] ! Percentage of Scottish vote Seats won Additional Information
1935 General Election 1.1% 0 seats
1945 General Election 1.2% 0 seats
1950 General Election 0.4% 0 seats
1951 General Election 0.3% 0 seats
1955 General Election 0.5% 0 seats
1959 General Election 0.5% 0 seats
1964 General Election 2.4% 0 seats
1966 General Election 5.0% 0 seats
1970 General Election 11.4% 1 seat
1974 General Election (Feb) 21.9% 7 seats
1974 General Election (Oct) 30.4% 11 seats High water mark, until 2007. Increased presence contributed to Labour holding a devolution referendum in 1979.
1974 Regional Council Election 12.6% 18 seats
1974 District Council Election 12.4% 62 seats
1977 District Council Election 24.2% 170 seats
1978 Regional Council Election 20.9% 18 seats
1979 General Election 17.3% 2 seats Poor performance compared to the two 1974 elections caused internal ructions during the 1980s.
1979 European Parliament Election 19.4% 1 seat
1980 District Council Election 15.5% 54 seats
1982 Regional Council Election 13.4% 23 seats
1983 General Election 11.7% 2 seats
1984 District Council Election 11.7% 59 seats
1984 European Parliament Election 17.8% 1 seat
1986 Regional Council Election 18.2 % 36 seats
1987 General Election 14.0% 3 seats
1988 District Council Election 21.3% 113 seats
1989 European Parliament Election 25.6% 1 seat
1990 Regional Council Election 21.8% 42 seats
1992 General Election 21.5% 3 seats
1992 District Council Election 24.3% 150 seats
1994 European Parliament Election 32.6% 2 seats
1994 Regional Council Election 26.8% 73 seats
1995 Council Areas Election 26.1% 181 seats
1997 General Election 22.1% 6 seats
1999 Scottish Parliament Election 28.7% 35 seats (including 7 First Past the Post seats) First election to the re-constituted Scottish Parliament. Finished second to Labour and became the official opposition to the coalition of Labour and Liberal Democrats.
1999 Council Areas Election 28.9% 201 seats
1999 European Parliament Election 27.2% 2 seats
2001 General Election 20.1% 5 seats
2003 Scottish Parliament Election 23.8% 27 seats (including 9 First Past the Post seats)
2003 Council Areas Election 24.1% 181 seats
2004 European Parliament Election 19.7% 2 seats
2005 General Election 17.7% 6 seats
2007 Scottish Parliament Election 32.9% 47 seats (including 21 First Past the Post seats) Largest party in the Scottish Parliament; formed the Scottish Government.
2007 Council Areas Election 29.7% (of seats) 363 seats Largest party in local government (first ever Scottish local elections to be held under the Single Transferable Vote).
2009 European Parliament Election 29.1% 2 seats The first European Parliament elections in which the SNP won the most votes within Scotland[18]
2010 General Election 19.9% 6 seats
2011 Scottish Parliament Election 45.4% 69 seats (including 53 First Past the Post seats) Formed the first majority Scottish Government.

Criticism

Accusations of Anglophobia

The SNP have been charged with being Anglophobic. In 2000, the Labour Party said that two SNP members of the Scottish Parliament were anti-English after they "registered their support for Germany's (2006 Football World Cup) bid on its official website".[19] The SNP responded that they "have no position on where the World Cup is held" and that it was "silly to describe the website entry as anti-English".[19]

Prominent figures in Scottish politics such as Labour's George Foulkes, Baron Foulkes of Cumnock[citation needed] and the Liberal Democrats' Jamie Stone[20] (and subsequently Danny Alexander[citation needed] - the current Chief Secretary to the Treasury) have publicly apologised for calling the SNP "xenophobic". SNP MSP Ian McKee has by contrast pointed out his own status in the Scottish Parliament chamber as an Englishman[21] as evidence of there being no such anti-English feeling. Indeed, McKee is one of six SNP MSPs born in England, along with other prominent figures such as Christine Grahame and Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning Mike Russell.

Accusations of "cash for policies"

The party has been criticised over a £500,000 donation from the socially conservative transport businessman Brian Souter. One month later, in April 2007, the SNP's commitment (made at the party's 2006 conference) to re-regulate the bus network was not included in their 2007 manifesto, although the SNP denies any direct link.[22] Opposition politicians suggested that the donation and policy shift were linked and that it was a case of "cash for policies", although no official accusations have been made.[23]

Brian Souter went on to make a further donation of £125,000 to the SNP, making him their single biggest donor.[24] Souter made approaches to the SNP government for a £3 million subsidy for his company, Stagecoach, to develop a hovercraft service between Kirkcaldy and Portobello in Scotland.[25] The service had already received subsidy from the previous Labour administration for the pilot scheme, but was put on hold pending "clarification" of the public sector's involvement.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Top poet Edwin Morgan stuns SNP party bosses after leaving them £1m fortune". Daily Record. 19 June 2011. http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/politics-news/2011/06/19/top-poet-edwin-morgan-stuns-snp-party-bosses-after-leaving-them-1m-fortune-86908-23211927/. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  2. ^ http://www.heraldscotland.com/sport/spl/aberdeen/snp-pours-scorn-on-critic-nationalists-ridicule-claims-of-dangerous-links-to-white-supremacists-in-the-united-states-1.311054
  3. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-13874842
  4. ^ "http://www.gwydir.demon.co.uk/uklocalgov/makeup.htm". Gwydir.demon.co.uk. http://www.gwydir.demon.co.uk/uklocalgov/makeup.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  5. ^ SNP social democracy pledge | SNP - Scottish National Party
  6. ^ Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  7. ^ "About SNP". Snp.org. http://www.snp.org/about. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  8. ^ Barnes, Eddie (21 August 2011). "Salmond's Government in focus: 100 days is a long time in politics". The Scotsman. http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/features/Salmond39s-Government-in-focus-100.6822242.jp. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  9. ^ "MSPs sworn in at Holyrood after SNP landslide". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/may/11/scottish-msps-sworn-in-holyrood. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  10. ^ "alex-salmonds-snp-wins-majority-in-scottish-elections". channel4.com. http://www.channel4.com/news/alex-salmonds-snp-wins-majority-in-scottish-elections. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  11. ^ http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/119450/Scottish-National-Party-SoA-2010.pdf
  12. ^ SNP's membership surges by 60%, The Scotsman, 1 January 2009
  13. ^ "Plans for special body to run independence referendum". BBC News. 21 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/8526938.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  14. ^ "Referendum Bill". Official website, About > Programme for Government > 2009-10 > Summaries of Bills > Referendum Bill. Scottish Government. 2 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5jggEjHoR. Retrieved 10 September 2009. 
  15. ^ MacLeod, Angus (3 September 2009). "Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill". London: The Times. Archived from the original on 10 September 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5jgoTKBiL. Retrieved 10 September 2009. 
  16. ^ "Local Councillors | SNP - Scottish National Party". SNP. http://www.snp.org/people/councillors. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  17. ^ "The Scottish National Party". Historylearningsite.co.uk. 30 March 2007. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/scottish_national_party.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  18. ^ "Salmond hails 'historic' Euro win". BBC. 8 June 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/8088358.stm. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "SNP's German support condemned". BBC News. 30 January 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/625090.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  20. ^ "Lib Dem MSP Jamie Stone to quit Holyrood at election". BBC News Online (British Broadcasting Corporation). 2 June 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/10213416.stm. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  21. ^ "The Scottish Parliament - Official Report". Scottish.parliament.uk. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/officialReports/meetingsParliament/or-07/sor1206-02.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  22. ^ "SNP under attack after bus U-turn". Business.scotsman.com. http://business.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=539&id=621242007. Retrieved 20 April 2010. [dead link]
  23. ^ "SNP accused of dumping bus plan to please millionaire backer". Sundayherald.com. 21 April 2007. http://www.sundayherald.com/news/heraldnews/display.var.1346656.0.snp_accused_of_dumping_bus_plan_to_please_millionaire_backer.php. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  24. ^ Swanson, Ian. "SNP faces hovercraft dust-up". Edinburghnews.scotsman.com. http://edinburghnews.scotsman.com/latestnews/SNP-faces-hovercraft-dustup.3719954.jp. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  25. ^ Paul Hutcheon (3 November 2007). "SNP donor in £3.3m hovercraft subsidy plea". Sundayherald.com. http://www.sundayherald.com/news/heraldnews/display.var.1807832.0.snp_donor_in_3_3m_hovercraft_subsidy_plea.php. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  26. ^ "Scotland | Edinburgh, East and Fife | Row over Forth hovercraft freeze". BBC News. 19 February 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/edinburgh_and_east/7253201.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 

Further reading

External links



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