- Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing nationalism is a political movement geared to overcoming the losses and disadvantages experienced by a country due to economic pressure or
deep integrationwith another country, often also referring to hostility towards supranational organizations such as the European Union, and free-trade agreements. Left-wing nationalism can also refer to any nationalism emphasizing a working-class populist agenda attempting to overcome economic exploitation or national oppression claimed to be imposed by other nations or by states.
Historically, left-wing nationalism has had a significant influence in the political affairs of
India, Italy South Africa, and South American countries, among others. In South America, Simon Bolivar utilized left-wing nationalism to promote independence from colonial rule of Spain and Portugal. In India, the politics of Jawaharlal Nehrudemonstrated a left-wing nationalist agenda. In Italy, authoritarian and radical left-wing nationalism breaking away from pacifist socialism by pressuring Italy to join World War I, one major left-wing nationalist at the time of the war was future Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, who eventually abandoned most of his left-wing influences upon rising to power and repressed leftists when in power.
In Africa, the
African National Congresshas been seen as a symbol of the democratic black civil rights movement and black nationalismin South Africa. The ANC is associated with Socialist International. Authoritarian left-wing nationalism in Africa exists in countries like Zimbabweunder the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Frontof Robert Mugabewhich fought against minority white rule in the former Rhodesia.
In Europe, a number of left-wing nationalist movements exist. In
Northern Ireland, Sinn Feinand the Social Democratic and Labour Partyadvocate Northern Ireland's integration into the Republic of Irelandwhile supporting social democracy. The Communist Party of the Basque Homelandspromotes Basque independence from Spain. The Socialist Party of Serbia, the successor to the League of Communists of Serbia, endorsed the self-determination of Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovinaand Croatiaduring the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s and their right to remain in Yugoslavia (though the party has been criticized for supporting violent nationalism), while recognizing Montenegroas a constituent republic within the Federal Republic of Yugoslaviaand later Serbia and Montenegroand recognizing the Republic of Macedonia's independence while right-wing nationalists claimed that Macedonia and Montenegro were historical parts of Serbia.
In the Middle East, the
Fatahmovement in the Palestinian National Authoritysupports the independence of a Palestinian state, but also endorses socialismand secularismin contrast to other nationalist movements in the PNA. The Republican Turkish Partyin Turkish-held Cyprus endorses the independence of the Turkish regions of Cyprus while endorsing a left-wing economic agenda. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Partyin Syria, and formerly in Iraq endorsed Pan-Arab nationalism while endorsing a socialist economy and secular society. The Israeli Labor Partysupports a nationalist concept called Labour Zionism.
In North America, left-wing nationalism is a strong phenomenon in Canada. Left-wing nationalism in Canada as a whole emerged in the 1960s, as many Canadians wished to distance their country both from the United Kingdom and from the
United Statesas it fought the controversial Vietnam War. The Liberal Party of Canadaendorsed left-wing nationalist views during the 1960s to the 1980s under Prime Ministers Lester B. Pearsonand Pierre Elliot Trudeau, who sought to distance Canada economically and culturally from the United States by advocating degrees of protectionism and a high degree of state intervention into economic and cultural affairs of the country. Left-wing nationalist influence in the Liberal Party diminished under the leadership of Jean Chrétienand Paul Martinin favour of neoliberalism. Left-wing nationalism was directly associated with the Waffle movement of the New Democratic Partywhich called for a self-sufficient, socialist Canada before being purged from the party in the 1970s. During the 1980s, Canadian left-wing nationalists opposed the implementation of free trade agreements between Canada and the United States, claiming that Canada would be overtaken by the U.S. corporate culture and economically annexed by the United States. The Canadian Action Partyis a left-wing nationalist party in Canada which opposes globalization and U.S. influence in Canada. In the French-speaking province of Quebec, left-wing nationalist movements have called for independence of Quebec from Canada to escape anglophone capitalist dominance. Radical Quebec left-wing nationalists included the " Front de libération du Québec" (FLQ) which advocated political violence against the Canadian government to form an independent, socialist Quebec. The FLQ collapsed after the October Crisisin 1970 and since then, democratic left-wing nationalism has become very influential in Quebec. This movement is represented by the " Parti Québécois" in the province and the " Bloc Québécois" in Canada's federal parliament.
In South America, left-wing nationalism is a factor in the founding of the
United Socialist Party of Venezuelawhich promotes Bolivarianism, which advocates the integration of all of Latin America to defend it from imperialism, as Venezuelan national hero Simon Bolivarhad attempted to do.
List of the left-wing nationalist parties and movements
Canadian Action Party
**Province of Quebec
Bloc Québécois" (represents Quebec nationalist interests in Canada's federal parliament)
Communal Democracy Party
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Irish Republican Socialist Party
Republican Sinn Fein
Israeli Labor Party
Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro
People's Socialist Party of Montenegro(promotes nationalism while at the same time promotes union with Serbia)
*Palestinian National Authority
Peruvian Nationalist Party
Communist Party of Russia
Socialist Party of Serbia
African National Congress
Communist Party of the Basque Homelands
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
Candidatura d'Unitat Popular
Partit Socialista de Mallorca
Bloque Nacionalista Galego
Republican People's Party (Turkey)
Democratic Left Party (Turkey)
Workers' Party (Turkey)
Arab Socialist Ba'th Party
Social Democratic and Labour Partyof Northern Ireland
Scottish National Party
Scottish Socialist Party
Solidarity - Scotland's Socialist Movement
United Socialist Party of Venezuela
Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front
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