- Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
F-104 Starfighter A Fokker-built, German-owned F-104G in USAF markings in August 1979 Role Interceptor aircraft, fighter-bomber National origin United States Manufacturer Lockheed First flight 4 March 1954 Introduction 20 February 1958 Retired 2004 (Italy) Primary users United States Air Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Turkish Air Force
Number built 2,578 Unit cost US$1.42 million (F-104G) Developed from Lockheed XF-104 Variants Lockheed NF-104A
CL-1200 Lancer and X-27
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft originally developed for the United States Air Force (USAF) by Lockheed. One of the Century Series of aircraft, it served with the USAF from 1958 until 1969, and continued with Air National Guard units until it was phased out in 1975. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flew a small mixed fleet of F-104 types in supersonic flight tests and spaceflight programs until they were retired in 1994.
USAF F-104Cs saw service during the Vietnam War, and F-104A aircraft were deployed by Pakistan briefly during the Indo-Pakistani wars. Republic of China Air Force (Taiwan) F-104s also engaged the People's Liberation Army Air Force (China) over the disputed island of Kinmen. The ultimate production version of the basic fighter-model F-104 was the F-104S all-weather interceptor designed by Aeritalia for the Italian Air Force, and equipped with radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. An advanced F-104 with a high-mounted wing, known as the CL-1200 Lancer, did not proceed past the mock-up stage.
A set of modifications produced the F-104G model, which won a NATO competition for a new fighter-bomber. Several two-seat trainer versions were also produced, the most numerous being the TF-104G. A total of 2,578 Starfighters were eventually produced, mostly by NATO members. The F-104 served with the air forces of over a dozen nations. The operational service of the Starfighter ended with its retirement by the Italian Air Force in May 2004, some 46 years after its introduction in 1958 by the USAF.
The poor safety record of the Starfighter brought the aircraft into the public eye, especially in Luftwaffe service. The subsequent Lockheed bribery scandals surrounding the original purchase contracts caused considerable political controversy in Europe and Japan.
Background and early development
Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, the chief engineer at Lockheed's Skunk Works, visited Korea in December 1951 and spoke with fighter pilots about what sort of aircraft they wanted. At the time, the U.S. pilots were confronting the MiG-15 with North American F-86 Sabres, and many of the American pilots felt that the MiGs were superior to the larger and more complex American design. The pilots requested a small and simple aircraft with excellent performance. Armed with this new-found information, Johnson immediately started the design of such an aircraft, following his return to the United States. In March, his team was assembled; they studied several aircraft designs, ranging from small designs at 8,000 lb (3,629 kg), to fairly large ones at 50,000 lb (23,680 kg). In order to achieve the desired performance, Lockheed chose a minimalist approach: a design that would achieve high performance by wrapping the lightest, most aerodynamically efficient airframe possible around a single powerful engine. The engine chosen was the new General Electric J79, an engine of dramatically improved performance compared to contemporary designs. The small L-246 design powered by a single J79 remained essentially identical to the L-083 Starfighter as eventually delivered.
The design was presented to the Air Force in November 1952, and they were interested enough to create a General Operating Requirement for a lightweight fighter to replace the North American F-100. Three companies replied to the requirement: the Republic AP-55, an improved version of its prototype XF-91 Thunderceptor; the North American NA-212, which would eventually evolve into the F-107; and the Northrop N-102 Fang, another J79-powered design. Although all were interesting, Lockheed had an insurmountable lead, and was granted a development contract in March 1953 for two prototypes, these were given the designation "XF-104".
Work progressed quickly, with a mock-up ready for inspection at the end of April, and work starting on two prototypes late in May. Meanwhile, the J79 engine was not ready; both prototypes were instead designed to use the Wright J65 engine, a licensed-built version of the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire. The first prototype was completed by early 1954 and first flew on 4 March at Edwards AFB. The total time from design to first flight was only about two years.
The prototype had hopped into the air on the 18 February but it was not counted as a first flight, on the first official flight it had experienced landing gear retraction problems. The second prototype was destroyed a few weeks later during gun-firing trials but in November 1955 the prototype was accepted by the USAF. The J65 with afterburner did not allow the aircraft to reach its design speed. Directional stability issues needed to be corrected and additional fuel carried.
Based on the XF-104 testing and evaluations, the next variant, the YF-104A, was lengthened to 54 ft 8 in (16.66 m) and fitted with a General Electric J79 engine, a modified landing gear and modified air intakes.
The first YF-104A flew on 17 February 1956 and with the other 16 trials aircraft were soon carrying out aircraft and equipment evaluation and tests. Modifications were made to the aircraft including airframe strengthening and a ventral fin was added. Problems were encountered with the J79 afterburner and delays were caused by the need to add Sidewinder missiles, but by January 1958 the first operational squadron was formed.
The F-104 featured a radical wing design. Most jet fighters of the period used a swept-wing or delta-wing planform. This allowed a reasonable balance between aerodynamic performance, lift, and internal space for fuel and equipment. Lockheed's tests, however, determined that the most efficient shape for high-speed, supersonic flight was a very small, straight, mid-mounted, trapezoidal wing. The new wing design was extremely thin, with a thickness-to-chord ratio of only 3.36% and an aspect ratio of 2.45. The wing's leading-edges were so thin (0.016 in/0.41 mm) and sharp that they presented a hazard to ground crews, and protective guards had to be installed during ground operations. The thinness of the wings required fuel tanks and landing gear to be placed in the fuselage. The hydraulic cylinders driving the ailerons had to be only 1 inch (25 mm) thick to fit. The wings had both leading- and trailing-edge flaps. The small, highly-loaded wing resulted in an unacceptably high landing speed, so a boundary layer control system (BLCS) of blown flaps was incorporated, bleeding engine air over the trailing-edge flaps to energize airflow over the flaps and thus improve lift. The system was a boon to safe landings, although it proved to be a maintenance problem in service, and landing without the BLCS could be a harrowing experience.
The stabilator (horizontal tail surface) was mounted atop the fin to reduce inertia coupling. Because the vertical fin was only slightly shorter than the length of each wing and nearly as aerodynamically effective, it could act as a wing on rudder application (a phenomenon known as Dutch roll). To offset this effect, the wings were canted downward, giving 10° anhedral.
The Starfighter's fuselage had a high fineness ratio, i.e., it was slender, tapering towards the sharp nose, and had a small frontal area. The fuselage was tightly packed, containing the radar, cockpit, cannon, fuel, landing gear, and engine. This fuselage and wing combination provided extremely low drag except at high angle of attack (alpha), at which point induced drag became very high. As a result, the Starfighter had excellent acceleration, rate of climb and potential top speed, but its sustained turn performance was poor. A later modification on the F-104A/B allowed use of the takeoff flap setting to M1.8/550 knots, which materially improved maneuverability. It was sensitive to control input, and extremely unforgiving to pilot error.
The F-104 was designed to use the General Electric J79 turbojet engine, fed by side-mounted intakes with fixed inlet cones optimized for supersonic speeds. Unlike some supersonic aircraft, the F-104 did not have variable-geometry inlets. Its thrust-to-drag ratio was excellent, allowing a maximum speed well in excess of Mach 2: the top speed of the Starfighter was limited more by the aluminum airframe structure and the temperature limits of the engine compressor than by thrust or drag (which gave an aerodynamic maximum speed of Mach 2.2). Later models used uprated marks of the J79, improving both thrust and fuel consumption significantly.
Early Starfighters used a downward-firing ejection seat (the Stanley C-1), out of concern over the ability of an upward-firing seat to clear the "T-tail" empennage. This presented obvious problems in low-altitude escapes, and some 21 USAF pilots failed to escape their stricken aircraft in low-level emergencies because of it. The downward-firing seat was soon replaced by the Lockheed C-2 upward-firing seat, which was capable of clearing the tail, although it still had a minimum speed limitation of 104 mph (170 km/h). Many export Starfighters were later retro-fitted with Martin-Baker zero-zero ejection seats, which had the ability to successfully eject the pilot from the aircraft even at zero altitude and zero airspeed.
The initial USAF Starfighters had a basic AN/ASG-14T ranging radar, TACAN, and an AN/ARC-34 UHF radio. The later international fighter-bomber aircraft had a much more advanced Autonetics NASARR radar, an advanced Litton LN-3 Inertial Navigation System, a simple infrared sight, and an air data computer.
In the late 1960s, Lockheed developed a more advanced version of the Starfighter, the F-104S, for use by the Italian Air Force as an all-weather interceptor. The F-104S received a NASARR R21-G with a moving-target indicator and a continuous-wave illuminator for semi-active radar homing missiles, including the AIM-7 Sparrow and Selenia Aspide. The missile-guidance avionics forced the deletion of the Starfighter's internal cannon. In the mid-1980s surviving F-104S aircraft were updated to ASA standard (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma, or Weapon Systems Update), with a much improved, more compact Fiat R21G/M1 radar.
The basic armament of the F-104 was the 20 mm (.79 in) M61 Vulcan Gatling gun. The Starfighter was the first aircraft to carry the new weapon, which had a rate of fire of 6,000 rounds per minute. The cannon, mounted in the lower part of the port fuselage, was fed by a 725-round drum behind the pilot's seat. It was omitted in all the two-seat models and some single-seat versions, including reconnaissance aircraft and the early Italian F-104S; the gun bay and ammunition tank were usually replaced by additional fuel tanks. Two AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles could be carried on the wingtip stations, which could also be used for fuel tanks. The F-104C and later models added a centerline pylon and two underwing pylons for bombs, rocket pods, or fuel tanks. The centerline pylon could carry a nuclear weapon; a "catamaran" launcher for two additional Sidewinders could be fitted under the forward fuselage, although the installation had minimal ground clearance and made the seeker heads of the missiles vulnerable to ground debris. The F-104S models added a pair of fuselage pylons beneath the intakes available for conventional bomb carriage. The F-104S had an additional pylon under each wing, allowing for a maximum of nine.
US Air Force
The F-104A initially served briefly with the USAF Air Defense Command / Aerospace Defense Command (ADC) as an interceptor, although neither its range nor armament were well-suited for that role. The first unit to become operational with the F-104A was the 83rd Fighter Interceptor Squadron on 20 February 1958, at Hamilton AFB, California. After just three months of service, the unit was grounded after a series of engine-related accidents. The aircraft were then fitted with the J79-3B engine and another three ADC units equipped with the F-104A. The USAF reduced their orders from 722 Starfighters to 155. After only one year of service these aircraft were handed over to ADC-gained units of the Air National Guard, although it should be noted that the F-104 was intended as an interim solution while the ADC waited for delivery of the Convair F-106 Delta Dart.
During the Berlin Crisis of 1961 President John F. Kennedy ordered 148,000 United States National Guard and reserve personnel to active duty on 30 August 1961, in response to Soviet moves to cut off allied access to Berlin. 21,067 individuals were from the Air National Guard (ANG), forming 18 fighter squadrons, four reconnaissance squadrons, six transport squadrons, and a tactical control group. On 1 November 1962, the USAF mobilized three more ANG fighter interceptor squadrons. In late October and early November, eight of the tactical fighter units flew to Europe with their 216 aircraft in "Operation Stair Step". Because of their short range, 60 F-104As were airlifted to Europe in late November, among them the 151st FIS and 157th FIS. The crisis ended in the summer of 1962 and the personnel returned to the United States.
The subsequent F-104C entered service with USAF Tactical Air Command as a multi-role fighter and fighter-bomber. The 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, was the first unit to equip with the type in September 1958. Although not an optimum platform for the theater, the F-104 did see limited service in the Vietnam War. Again, in 1967, these TAC aircraft were transferred to the Air National Guard.
Commencing with the Operation Rolling Thunder campaign, the Starfighter was used both in the air-superiority role and in the air support mission; although it saw little aerial combat and scored no air-to-air kills, Starfighters were successful in deterring MiG interceptors. Starfighter squadrons made two deployments to Vietnam, the first being from April 1965 to November 1965, flying 2,937 combat sorties. During that first deployment, two Starfighters were shot down by ground fire. One was shot down by a Chinese MiG-19 (Shenyang J-6) when the F-104 strayed over the border, and two F-104s were lost to a mid-air collision associated with that air-to-air battle.[page needed] The 476th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in April 1965 through July 1965, losing one Starfighter; and the 436th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Vietnam in July 1965 through October 1965, losing four.
Starfighters returned to Vietnam when the 435th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed from June 1966 until July 1967, in which time they flew a further 2,269 combat sorties, for a total of 5,206 sorties. Nine more F-104s were lost: two F-104s to ground fire, three to surface-to-air missiles, and the final four losses were operational (engine failures).[page needed] The Starfighters rotated and/or transitioned to F-4 Phantoms in July 1967, having lost a total of 14 F-104s to all causes in Vietnam. F-104s operating in Vietnam were upgraded in service with APR-25/26 radar warning receiver equipment, and one example is on display in the Air Zoo in Kalamazoo, Michigan.[page needed]
The USAF was less than satisfied with the Starfighter and procured only 296 examples in single-seat and two-seat versions. At the time, USAF doctrine placed little importance on air superiority (the fighter-to-fighter mission), and the Starfighter was deemed inadequate for either the interceptor (meaning fighter-to-bomber) or tactical fighter-bomber role, lacking both payload capability and endurance compared to other USAF aircraft. Its U.S. service was quickly wound down after 1965. The last F-104As in regular USAF service were re-engined with more powerful and more reliable J79-GE-19 engines in 1967. The last USAF Starfighters left active service in 1969. It continued in use with the Puerto Rico Air National Guard until 1975.
The last use of the Starfighter in US markings was training German pilots for the Luftwaffe, with a wing of TF-104Gs and F-104Gs based at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. Although operated in USAF markings, these aircraft (which included German-built aircraft) were owned by Germany. They continued in use until 1983.
At dawn on 6 September 1965, Flight Lieutenant Aftab Alam Khan in an F-104 claimed a Dassault Mystère IV destroyed over West Pakistan and another damaged, marking the start of aerial combat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. It is claimed as the first combat kill by any Mach 2 aircraft, and the first missile kill for the Pakistan Air Force. Indian sources dispute this claim.[page needed] The PAF lost one F-104 Starfighter during the 1965 operations, scoring two kills in return. However, one of the F-104 Starfighter's victims was a Breguet Alize aircraft which belonged to the Indian Navy, which was shot down when a Starfighter was returning home from an aborted mission.
The Starfighter was also instrumental in intercepting an Indian Air Force Folland Gnat earlier, on 3 September 1965. F-104s were vectored to intercept the Gnat flying over Pakistan, returning to its home base. The F-104s, closing in at supersonic speed, caused the Gnat pilot to lower the undercarriage and land at a nearby disused Pakistani airfield to surrender. The Indian AF claims Squadron Leader Brij Pal Singh (who later rose to be an Air Marshal) made a navigation error that led him to land on the Pakistani airstrip. Singh was taken as a POW and later released. The IAF Gnat is now displayed at the PAF Museum, Karachi.
During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, two F-104As were lost in combat against the IAF MiG-21s. One pilot successfully ejected from his F-104 over shark-infested waters, but was never found. According to Western military analysts, the Indian MiG-21s had clearly "won" the much anticipated air combat between the MiG-21 and the F-104 Starfighter.[page needed]
1967 Taiwan Strait Conflict
On 13 January 1967, four Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force F-104G aircraft engaged a formation of 12 MiG-19s of the People's Liberation Army Air Force over the disputed island of Kinmen. Maj Shih-Lin Hu and Capt Bei-Puo Shih each shot down one People's Liberation Army Air Force MiG-19. This marked the first F-104 combat victory in the world. However, one F-104 did not return to base and its pilot was claimed as MIA.
At the same time that the F-104 was falling out of U.S. favor, the Luftwaffe/Federal German Air Force was looking for a foreign-designed multi-role combat aircraft to operate in support of a missile defense system. The Starfighter was presented and reworked to convert it from a fair-weather fighter into an all-weather ground-attack, reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, as the F-104G. This was chosen over the English Electric P.1, Grumman F11F Super Tiger and Northrop N-156. The aircraft found a new market with other NATO countries, and eventually a total of 2,578 of all variants of the F-104 were built in the U.S. and abroad for various nations. Several countries received their aircraft under the U.S.-funded Military Aid Program (MAP). The American engine was retained but built under license in Europe, Canada and Japan. The Lockheed ejector seats were retained initially but were replaced later in some countries by the statistically safer Martin-Baker zero-zero ejection seat.
The so-called "Deal of the Century" produced substantial income for Lockheed. However, the resulting Lockheed bribery scandals caused considerable political controversy in Europe and Japan. In Germany, the Minister of Defence Franz Josef Strauss was accused of having received at least US$10 million for West Germany's purchase of the F-104 Starfighter in 1961. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands later confessed to having received more than US$1 million in bribes. In the 1970s it was revealed that Lockheed had engaged in an extensive campaign of bribery of foreign officials to obtain sales, a scandal that nearly led to the downfall of the ailing corporation.
The international service of the F-104 began to wind down in the late 1970s, being replaced in many cases by the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, but it remained in service with some air forces for another two decades. The last operational Starfighters served with the Italian AMI, which retired them on 31 October 2004.
Flying the F-104
The Starfighter was the first combat aircraft capable of sustained Mach 2 flight, and its speed and climb performance remain impressive even by modern standards. Equipped with razor-edged thin blade supersonic wings (visible from the cockpit only in the mirrors), it was designed for optimum performance at Mach 1.4. If used appropriately, with high-speed surprise attacks and good use of its exceptional thrust-to-weight ratio, it could be a formidable opponent. It was exceptionally stable at high speed (600+ kts) at very low level, making it a formidable tactical nuclear strike-fighter. However, when lured into a low-speed turning contest with a conventional subsonic opponents (as Pakistani pilots were with Indian Hunters in 1965) the outcome of dogfights was always doubtful. The F-104's large turn radius was due to the high speeds required for manoeuvring, and its high-alpha stalling and pitch-up behavior was known to command respect.
Takeoff speeds were in the region of 219 mph (352 km/h), with the pilot needing to swiftly raise the landing gear to avoid exceeding the limit speed of 299 mph (481 km/h). Climb and cruise performance were outstanding; unusually, a "slow" light illuminated on the instrument panel at around Mach 2 to indicate that the engine compressor was nearing its limiting temperature and the pilot needed to throttle back. Returning to the circuit, the downwind leg could be flown at 242 mph (389 km/h) with "land" flap selected, while long flat final approaches were typically flown at speeds around 207 mph (333 km/h) depending on the weight of fuel remaining. High engine power had to be maintained on the final approach to ensure adequate airflow for the BLC (Boundary Layer Control) system; consequently pilots were warned not to cut the throttle until the aircraft was actually on the ground. A drag chute and effective brakes shortened the Starfighter's landing roll.
The safety record of the F-104 Starfighter became high-profile news, especially in Germany, in the mid-1960s. Some operators lost a large proportion of their aircraft through accidents, although the accident rate varied widely depending on the user and operating conditions; the Luftwaffe lost about 30% of aircraft in accidents over its operating career, and Canada lost over 50% of its F-104s. The Spanish Air Force, however, lost none.
The Class A mishap rate (write off) of the F-104 in USAF service was 26.7 accidents per 100,000 flight hours as of June 1977, (30.63 through the end of 2007), the highest accident rate of any USAF Century Series fighter. By comparison, the rate of the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was 14.2/100,000 (13.69 through 2007), and the mishap rate for the North American F-100 Super Sabre was 16.25 accidents per 100,000 flight hours.
Notable U.S. Air Force pilots who lost their lives in F-104 accidents include Brigadier General Barnie B. McEntire, Major Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. and Captain Iven Kincheloe. Civilian (former USAAF) pilot Joe Walker died in a midair collision with an XB-70 Valkyrie while flying an F-104. Chuck Yeager was nearly killed when he lost control of an NF-104A during a high-altitude record-breaking attempt. He lost the tips of two fingers and was hospitalized for a long period with severe burns after ejecting from the aircraft.
The F-104 series all had a very high wing loading (made even higher when carrying external stores), which demanded that sufficient airspeed be maintained at all times. The high angle of attack area of flight was protected by a stick shaker system to warn the pilot of an approaching stall, and if this was ignored a stick kicker system would pitch the aircraft's nose down to a safer angle of attack; this was often overridden by the pilot despite flight manual warnings against this practice. At extremely high angles of attack the F-104 was known to "pitch-up" and enter a spin, which in most cases was impossible to recover from. Unlike the twin-engined McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II for example, the F-104 with its single engine lacked the safety margin in the case of an engine failure, and had a very poor glide ratio without thrust.
The J79 was a new engine that continued to be developed during the YF-104A test phase and in service with the F-104A. The engine featured variable incidence compressor stator blades, a design feature that altered the angle of the stator blades automatically with altitude and temperature. A condition known as "T-2 reset", a normal function that made large stator blade angle changes, caused several engine failures on takeoff. It was discovered that large and sudden temperature changes (from being parked in the sun to getting airborne) were falsely causing the engine stator blades to close and choke the compressor. The dangers presented by these engine failures were compounded by the downward ejection seat which gave the pilot little chance of a safe exit at low level. The engine systems were subsequently modified and the ejection seat changed to the more conventional upward type. Uncontrolled tip-tank oscillations sheared one wing off of an F-104B; this problem was apparent during testing of the XF-104 prototype and was eventually resolved by filling the tank compartments in a specific order.
A further engine problem was that of uncommanded opening of the variable thrust nozzle (usually through loss of engine oil); although the engine would be running normally at high power, the opening of the nozzle resulted in a drastic loss of thrust. A modification program installed a manual nozzle closure control which reduced the problem. The engine was also known to suffer from afterburner blow out on takeoff or even non-ignition resulting in a major loss of thrust, which could be detected by the pilot—the recommended action was to abandon the takeoff. The first fatal accident in German service was caused by this. Some aircrews experienced uncommanded "stick kicker" activation at low level when flying straight and level, so F-104 crews often flew with the system deactivated. Asymmetric flap deployment was another common cause of accidents, as was a persistent problem with severe nose wheel "shimmy" on landing which usually resulted in the aircraft leaving the runway and in some cases even flipping over onto its back.[page needed]
The introduction of a highly technical aircraft type to a newly reformed air force was fraught with problems. Many pilots and ground crew had settled into civilian jobs after World War II and had not kept pace with developments, with pilots being sent on short "refresher" courses in slow and benign-handling first generation jet aircraft. Ground crew were similarly employed with minimal training and experience. Operating in poor North West European weather conditions (vastly unlike the fair weather training conditions at Luke AFB in Arizona) and flying at high speed and low level over hilly terrain, a great many accidents were attributed to controlled flight into terrain or water, (CFIT). Luftwaffe losses totaled 110 pilots.
Many Canadian losses were attributed to the same cause as both air forces were primarily operating over West Germany. An additional factor was that the aircraft were parked outside in adverse weather conditions (snow, rain, etc.) where the moisture affected the delicate avionic systems. It was further noted that the Lockheed C-2 ejection seat was no guarantee of a safe escape and the Luftwaffe retro-fitted the much more capable Martin Baker GQ-7A seat from 1967, and many operators followed suit.
In 1966 Johannes Steinhoff took over command of the Luftwaffe and grounded the entire F-104 fleet until he was satisfied that problems had been resolved or at least reduced. In later years, the German safety record improved, although a new problem of structural failure of the wings emerged. Original fatigue calculations had not taken into account the high number of g-force loading cycles that the German F-104 fleet was experiencing, and many airframes were returned for depot maintenance where their wings were replaced, while other aircraft were simply retired. Towards the end of Luftwaffe service, some aircraft were modified to carry an ADR or "black box" which could give an indication of the probable cause of an accident. Erich Hartmann, who had commanded one of Germany's first jet fighter-equipped squadrons and was a former World War II fighter ace, had deemed the F-104 to be an unsafe aircraft with poor handling characteristics for aerial combat and had judged the fighter unfit for Luftwaffe use, even before its introduction, to the dismay of his superiors. They were further dismayed when he eventually resigned over the issue.
Normal operating hazards
The causes of a large number of aircraft losses were the same as for any other similar type. They included: bird strikes (particularly to the engine), lightning strikes, pilot spatial disorientation, and mid-air collisions with other aircraft. A particularly notable accident occurred on 19 June 1962 when a formation of four F-104F aircraft, practicing for the type's introduction-into-service ceremony, crashed together after descending through a cloud bank. Three Germans and one American pilot were killed, and the four aircraft destroyed. This accident was explained as probable spatial disorientation of the lead pilot, and formation aerobatic teams were consequently banned by the Luftwaffe from that day on.
The F-104 was the first aircraft to simultaneously hold the world speed and altitude records. On 7 May 1958 US Air Force Major Howard C. Johnson, flying YF-104A 55-2957, broke the world altitude record by flying to 91,243 feet at Edwards AFB. On 16 May 1958 US Air Force Capt Walter W. Irwin flying YF-104A 55-2969 set a world speed record of 1.404.19 mph over a 15/25 kilometer course at Edwards AFB. Flying F-104A 56-0762 over NAS Point Mugu, California US Air Force Lt William T. Smith and Lt Einar Enevoldson set several time-to-climb records on 13 and 14 December 1958:
- 3,000 meters in 41.85 seconds,
- 6,000 meters in 58.41 seconds
- 9,000 meters in 81.14 seconds
- 12,000 meters in 99.90 seconds
- 15,000 meters in 131.1 seconds
- 20,000 meters in 222.99 seconds
- 25.000 meters in 266.03 seconds
On 14 December 1959 US Air Force Capt "Joe" B. Jordan flying F-104C 56-0885 at Edwards AFB set a new world altitude record of 103,389 feet. He also set 30,000 meter time-to-climb record of 904.92 seconds. US Air Force Maj Robert W. Smith, flying NF-104A 56-0756, set an unofficial world altitude record of 118,860 feet on 15 November 1963. On 6 December 1963, he was able to fly the same aircraft to another unofficial altitude record of 120,800 feet.
Jacqueline Cochran flew TF-104G N104L to set three women's world's speed records. On 11 May 1964, she averaged 1429.3 mph over a 15/25 km course, on June 1 she flew at an average speed of 1303.18 mph over a 100-km closed-circuit course, and on June 3 she flew at an average speed of 1127.4 mph over a 500-km closed-circuit course.
Lockheed test pilot Darryl Greenamyer built a F-104 out of parts he had collected. The aircraft, N104RB, was first flown in 1976. On 2 October 1976 Greenamyer flew an average 1010 mph at Mud Lake near Tonopah, Nevada. A tracking camera malfunction eliminated the necessary proof for formal records. On 24 October 1977 Greenamyer flew a 3 km official FAI record flight of 988.26 mph.
On 26 February 1978 Greenamyer made a practice run for a world altitude record attempt. After the attempt, he was unable to get a lock light on the left wheel; after multiple touch-and-go tests at an Edwards Air Force Base runway, he determined that it was not safe to land. He ejected, and the N104RB crashed in the desert.
A total of 2,578 F-104s were produced by Lockheed and under license by various foreign manufacturers. Principal variants included:
- Two prototype aircraft equipped with Wright J65 engines (the J79 was not yet ready); one aircraft equipped with the M61 cannon as an armament test bed. Both aircraft were destroyed in crashes.
- 17 pre-production aircraft used for engine, equipment, and flight testing. Most were later converted to F-104A standard.
- A total of 153 initial production versions were built. The F-104A was in USAF service from 1958 through 1960, then transferred to ANG until 1963 when they were recalled by the USAF Air Defense Command for the 319th and 331st Fighter Interceptor Squadrons. Some were released for export to Jordan, Pakistan, and Taiwan, each of whom used it in combat. In 1967 the 319th F-104As and Bs were re-engined with the J79-GE-19 engines with 17,900 lbf (79.6 kN) of thrust in afterburner; service ceiling with this engine was in excess of 73,000 ft (22,250 m). In 1969, all the F-104A/Bs in ADC service were retired. On 18 May 1958, an F-104A set a world speed record of 1,404.19 mph (2,259.82 km/h).
- Three demilitarized versions with an additional 6,000 lbf (27 kN) Rocketdyne LR121/AR-2-NA-1 rocket engine, used for astronaut training at altitudes up to 120,800 ft (36,820 m).
- A total of 22 F-104As converted into radio-controlled drones and test aircraft.
- Tandem two-seat, dual-control trainer version of F-104A, 26-built. Enlarged rudder and ventral fin, no cannon and reduced internal fuel, but otherwise combat-capable. A few were supplied to Jordan, Pakistan and Taiwan.
- Fighter-bomber versions for USAF Tactical Air Command, with improved fire-control radar (AN/ASG-14T-2), centerline and two wing pylons (for a total of five), and ability to carry one Mk 28 or Mk 43 nuclear weapon on the centerline pylon. The F-104C also had in-flight refuelling capability. On 14 December 1959, an F-104C set a world altitude record of 103,395 ft (31,515 m), 77 built.
- Dual-control trainer versions of F-104C, 21 built.
- Dual-control trainer version of F-104J for Japanese Air Self-Defense Force, 20 built by Lockheed and assembled by Mitsubishi.
- Dual-control trainers based on F-104D, but using the upgraded engine of the F-104G. No radar, and not combat-capable. Produced as interim trainers for the Luftwaffe. All F-104F aircraft were retired by 1971; 30 built.
- 1,122 aircraft of the main version produced as multi-role fighter-bombers. Manufactured by Lockheed, and under license by Canadair and a consortium of European companies which included Messerschmitt/MBB, Dornier, Fiat, Fokker and SABCA. The type featured strengthened fuselage and wing structure, increased internal fuel capacity, an enlarged vertical fin, strengthened landing gear with larger tires and revised flaps for improved combat maneuvering. Upgraded avionics included a new Autonetics NASARR F15A-41B radar with air-to-air and ground mapping modes, the Litton LN-3 Inertial Navigation System (the first on a production fighter) and an infrared sight.
- 189 tactical reconnaissance models based on F-104G, usually with three KS-67A cameras mounted in the forward fuselage in place of cannon.
- 220 combat-capable trainer version of F-104G; no cannon or centerline pylon, reduced internal fuel. One aircraft used by Lockheed as a demonstrator with the civil registration number L104L, was flown by Jackie Cochran to set three women’s world speed records in 1964. This aircraft later served in the Netherlands. A pair of two-seat TF-104Gs and a single-seat F-104G joined the Dryden inventory in June 1975.
- Projected export version based on a F-104G with simplified equipment and optical gunsight. Not built.
- Specialized interceptor version of the F-104G for the Japanese ASDF, built under license by Mitsubishi for the air-superiority fighter role, armed with cannon and four Sidewinders; no strike capability. Some were converted to UF-104J radio-controlled target drones and destroyed. Total of 210 built, three built by Lockheed, 29 built by Mitsubushi from Lockheed built components and 178 built by Mitsubishi.
- Three F-104Gs were delivered to NASA in 1963 for use as high-speed chase aircraft. One, piloted by Joe Walker, collided with an XB-70 on 8 June 1966.
- 246 Italian versions produced by FIAT, one aircraft crashed prior to delivery and is often not included in the total number built. Forty aircraft were delivered to the Turkish Air Force and the rest to the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana). The F-104S was upgraded for the interception role having NASARR R-21G/H radar with moving-target indicator and continuous-wave illuminator for SARH missiles (initially AIM-7 Sparrow), two additional wing and two underbelly hardpoints (increasing the total to nine), more powerful J79-GE-19 engine with 11,870 lbf (53 kN) and 17,900 lbf (80 kN) thrust, and two additional ventral fins to increase stability. The M61 cannon was sacrificed to make room for the missile avionics in the interceptor version but retained for the fighter-bomber variants. Up to two Sparrow; and two, theoretically four or six Sidewinder missiles were carried on all the hardpoints except the central (underbelly), or seven 750 lb (340 kg) bombs (normally two–four 500-750 lb/227–340 kg). The F-104S was cleared for a higher maximum takeoff weight, allowing it to carry up to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) of stores; other Starfighters had a maximum external load of 4,000 lb (1,814 kg). Range was up to 780 mi (1,250 km) with four tanks.
- (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma – "Weapon Systems Update") – 150 upgraded F-104S with Fiat R21G/M1 radar with frequency hopping, look-down/shoot-down capability, new IFF system and weapon delivery computer, provision for AIM-9L all-aspect Sidewinder and Selenia Aspide missiles. It was first flown in 1985.
- (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma/Modificato – "Weapon Systems Update/Modified") – 49 airframes upgraded in 1998 to ASA/M standard with GPS, new TACAN and Litton LN-30A2 INS, refurbished airframe, improved cockpit displays. All strike-related equipment was removed. The last Starfighters in combat service, they were withdrawn in December 2004 and temporarily replaced by the F-16 Fighting Falcon, while awaiting Eurofighter Typhoon deliveries.
- 200 Canadian-built versions, built under license by Canadair and optimized for both nuclear strike and 2-stage-to-orbit payload delivery, having NASARR R-24A radar with air-to-air modes, cannon deleted (restored after 1972), additional internal fuel cell, and Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines with 10,000 lbf (44 kN)/15,800 lbf (70 kN) thrust.
- 38 dual-control trainer versions of CF-104, built by Lockheed, but with Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines. Some later transferred to Denmark, Norway and Turkey.
Production summary table and costs
Production summary Type Lockheed Multi-national Canadair Fiat Fokker MBB [a] Messerschmitt [a] Mitsubishi SABCA Total XF-104 2 2 YF-104A 17 17 F-104A 153 153 F-104B 26 26 F-104C 77 77 F-104D 21 21 F-104DJ 20 20 CF-104 200 200 CF-104D 38 38 F-104F 30 30 F-104G 139 140 164 231 50 210 188[b] 1122 RF-104G 40 35 119 194 TF-104G (583C to F) 172 27 199 TF-104G (583G and H) 21 21 F-104J 3 207 210 F-104S 245[b] 245 Total by manufacturer 738 48 340 444 350 50 210 207 188 2,575
Note: [a] "Messerschmitt" merged later to "Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) later a part of EADS.
Note: [b] One aircraft crashed on test flight and is not included.
Source: Bowman, Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
F-104 Costs F-104A F-104B F-104C F-104D F-104G TF-104G Unit R&D cost 189,473 189,473 Airframe 1,026,859 1,756,388 863,235 873,952 Engine 624,727 336,015 473,729 271,148 169,000 Electronics 3,419 13,258 5,219 16,210 Armament 19,706 231,996 91,535 269,014 Ordnance 29,517 59,473 44,684 70,067 Flyaway cost 1.7 million 2.4 million 1.5 million 1.5 million 1.42 million 1.26 million Modification costs by 1973 198,348 196,396 Cost per flying hour 655 Maintenance cost per flying hour 395 544 395 395
According to the FAA there are 10 privately owned F-104 in the U.S. The Starfighters, a civilian demonstration team in Florida, operates three ex-Canadian Military CF-104 Starfighters (1 CF-104D and 2 CF-104s). Another, 5303 (104633), civil registry: N104JR is owned and operated by a private collector in Arizona.
The F-104 was operated by the militaries of the following nations:
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- United States
Aircraft on display
Since being withdrawn from service the Starfighter has been preserved in museums and is a popular Gate guardian.
Data from Quest for Performance
- Crew: 1
- Length: 54 ft 8 in (16.66 m)
- Wingspan: 21 ft 9 in (6.36 m)
- Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.09 m)
- Wing area: 196.1 ft² (18.22 m²)
- Airfoil: Biconvex 3.36% root and tip
- Empty weight: 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
- Loaded weight: 20,640 lb (9,365 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 29,027 lb (13,170 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × General Electric J79-GE-11A afterburning turbojet
- Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0172
- Drag area: 3.37 sq ft (0.31 m²)
- Aspect ratio: 2.45
- Maximum speed: 1,328 mph (1,154 kn, 2,125 km/h)
- Combat radius: 420 mi (365 nmi, 670 km)
- Ferry range: 1,630 mi (1,420 nm, 2,623 km)
- Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
- Rate of climb: 48,000 ft/min (244 m/s)
- Wing loading: 105 lb/ft² (514 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.54 with max. takeoff weight (0.76 loaded)
- Lift-to-drag ratio: 9.2
- Guns: 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) T171 Vulcan 6-barreled Gatling cannon, 725 rounds
- Hardpoints: 7 with a capacity of 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of:
- Missiles: 4 × AIM-9 Sidewinder
- Other: Bombs, rockets, or other stores
Notable appearances in media
The Starfighter was featured in music and film. The German controversy over the Starfighter's contract and its toll on pilots inspired a rock concept album by Robert Calvert of Hawkwind, called Captain Lockheed and the Starfighters. It repeated the commonplace grim joke in Germany that the cheapest way of obtaining a Starfighter was to buy a small patch of land and simply wait. After Kai-Uwe von Hassel succeeded Strauss as minister of defence, his son Oberleutnant Joachim von Hassel died in a Starfighter crash. This event was the topic of the Welle: Erdball song, "Starfighter F-104G".
Stock footage of F-104s was used when a U.S. Air Force F-104 intercepted the USS Enterprise in the Star Trek first season episode, "Tomorrow is Yesterday". In the remastered version of the episode, the stock footage was replaced by computer-generated imagery. The 1964 movie The Starfighters, about the training and operations of F-104 crews was subsequently featured in episode #612 of Mystery Science Theater 3000. The film starred future US Congressman Robert Dornan.
Italian Air Force F104 Starfighters starred in several episodes of the 1989 Italian public television RAI Due fiction series, "Aquile", narrating the story of an improbable group of Italian Air Force cadets going through the training in the airforce academy of Pozzuoli (Naples).
The Starfighter was commonly called the "missile with a man in it"; a name swiftly trademarked by Lockheed for marketing purposes. The term "Super Starfighter" was used by Lockheed to describe the F-104G in marketing campaigns, but fell into disuse. In service, American pilots called it the "Zipper" or "Zip-104" because of its prodigious speed. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force called it Eiko ("Glory"). A less charitable name appeared, "The Flying Coffin" from the translation of the common German public name of Fliegender Sarg. The F-104 was also called Witwenmacher ("Widowmaker"), or Erdnagel ("ground nail") – the official military term for a tent peg. The Pakistani AF name was Badmash ("Hooligan"), while among Italian pilots its spiky design earned it the nickname Spillone ("Hatpin"), along with Bara volante ("Flying coffin"). In the Canadian Forces, the aircraft were sometimes referred to as the "Widowmaker", or the "Lawn Dart".
The engine made a unique howling sound at certain throttle settings which led to NASA F-104B Starfighter N819NA being named Howling Howland.
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Dassault Mirage III
- English Electric Lightning
- EWR VJ 101
- Grumman F-11 Tiger
- Saunders-Roe SR.177
- Sukhoi Su-15
- Related lists
- List of fighter aircraft
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- ^ a b Knaack 1978.
- ^ "F-104 Starfighter." NASA, 1 February 2005.
- ^ Matricardi 2006, p. 129.
- ^ a b Bowman 2000, p. 26.
- ^ Bowman 2000, p. 32.
- ^ a b Bowman 2000, p. 28.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
- ^ "Ejection seats of the F-104." ejectionsite.com. Retrieved: 6 February 2008
- ^ Käsmann 1994, p. 84.
- ^ Bowman 2000, p. 39.
- ^ "ANG Heritage: Missions, Wars and Operations." ang.af.mil. Retrieved: 8 August 2010.
- ^ Thompson 2004, p. 155.
- ^ Smith and Herz 1992.
- ^ Thompson 2004, p. 157.
- ^ Hobson
- ^ "F-104C "60910" 479th TFW USAF based at Udorn RTAFB, Thailand heads into Vietnam 1966, loaded with 2 M-117 750 lbs (340 kg) iron bombs, the maximum load at that time." 916-starfighter.de. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
- ^ a b Hobson 2001
- ^ Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 74.
- ^ Jagan and Chopra, 2006.
- ^ a b "Claims and Counter Claims." Pakdef.info. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
- ^ "PAF Aircraft Losses – 1971 War." pakdef.info. Retrieved: 27 June 2010.
- ^ Mohan, P.V.S. Jagan. /Appendix3.html "Aircraft Losses in Pakistan- 1971 War (PAF, Army Aviation, and Civilian aircraft Casualties)."] bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved: 27 June 2010.
- ^ "Indian Air Force: Down the Memory Lane." Indian MoD. Retrieved: 29 July 2008.
- ^ Coggins, Ed. Wings That Stay on. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 978-1-56311-568-4.
- ^ Bowman 2000, p. 165.
- ^ "Wingless Deterrent." Flight 14 February 1958, p. 95, via flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 27 June 2010.
- ^ "First Things First: On Not seeing the Sales Trees for the Reorganization Woods." Flight 17 January 1958, p. 72, via flightglobal,com. Retrieved: 27 June 2010.
- ^ "The Lockheed Mystery." Time, 13 September 1976. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
- ^ Bowman 2000, pp. 40, 43.
- ^ Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 92.
- ^ Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 78.
- ^ Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 97.
- ^ "Spanish F-104 history." aire.org. Retrieved: 9 August 2009.
- ^ a b Bowman 2000, p. 21.
- ^ a b USAF Safety & Inspection Center
- ^ Jenkins 2005, p. 46.
- ^ Drendel 1976, p. 22.
- ^ Bowman 2000
- ^ "Too gung-ho." New Scientist, Vol. 199, No. 2666, 26 July 2008, p. 17.
- ^ Reed 1981, p. 46.
- ^ Weal 1995, p. 164.
- ^ Toliver and Constable 1985, pp. 285–286.
- ^ Kropf 2002, Ch. 10.
- ^ a b c d e The Starfighter World Milestones Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- ^ International F-104 Society. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- ^ Lednicer, David. "Lockheed F-104A Starfighter aircraft." airliners.net, May 22, 2005. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- ^ "F-104 Starfighter." Federation of American Scientists, 29 June 1999. Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
- ^ Matricardi 2006, p. 130.
- ^ Sgarlato 2004
- ^ Bowman 2000, Appendix II.
- ^ "FAA REGISTRY". Federal Aviation Administration. http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/AcftRef_Results.aspx?Mfrtxt=&Modeltxt=F104&PageNo=1. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- ^ "Starfighters F-104 Demo Team web site." starfighters.net. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
- ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed CF-104D Starfighter". American Military Aircraft: Canadair CF-104D Starfighter, 20 January 2003. Retrieved: 24 February 2009.
- ^ Loftin, LK, Jr. "NASA SP-468: Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft." NASA. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
- ^ Bashow 1990, p. 93. Quote: "...just buy an acre of land anywhere in Germany, Sooner or later..."
- ^ "Aquile" IMDb. Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
- ^ a b Bashow 1986, p. 16.
- ^ "Cold Lake Airforce Museum." Cold Lake Airforce Museum. Retrieved: 8 August 2010.
- ^ "CF-104 Starfighter." canadianmilitary.page. Retrieved: 24 September 2010.
- Bashow, David L. Starfighter: A Loving Retrospective of the CF-104 Era in Canadian Fighter Aviation, 1961-1986. Stoney Creek, Ontario: Fortress Publications Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-919195-12-1.
- Bashow, David L. "Starwarrior: A First Hand Look at Lockheed's F-104, One of the Most Ambitious Fighters ever Designed!" Wings, Vol. 16, no. 3, June 1986.
- Bowman, Martin W. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press Ltd., 2000. ISBN 1-86126-314-7.
- Donald, David, ed. Century Jets. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-880588-68-4.
- Drendel, Lou. F-104 Starfighter in action, Aircraft No. 27. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1976. ISBN 0-89747-026-5.
- Fricker, John and Paul Jackson. "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter". Wings of Fame, Volume 2, 1996, pp. 38–99. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-874023-69-7.
- Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
- Higham, Robin and Carol Williams. Flying Combat Aircraft of USAAF-USAF (Vol.2). Manhattan, Kansas: Sunflower University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-8138-0375-6.
- Hobson, Chris. Vietnam Air Losses, USAF, USN, USMC, Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses in Southeast Asia 1961–1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-85780-115-6.
- Jackson, Paul A. German Military Aviation 1956-1976. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1976. ISBN 0-904597-03-2.
- Jagan, Mohan P.V.S. and Samir Chopra. The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965. New Delhi: Manohar, 2006. ISBN 81-7304-641-7.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. "Hun Heaven, The Super Sabre Dance." Wings Magazine, Vol. 35, No. 12, December 2005.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. and Tony R. Landis. Experimental & Prototype U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58007-111-6.
- Käsmann, Ferdinand C.W. Die schnellsten Jets der Welt (German language) Planegg, Germany: Aviatic-Verl., 1994. ISBN 3-925505-26-1.
- Kinzey, Bert. F-104 Starfighter in Detail & Scale. Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania: TAB books, 1991. ISBN 1-85310-626-7.
- Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of USAF Aircraft and Missile Systems: Vol. 1, Post-WW II Fighters 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5
- Kropf, Klaus. German Starfighters. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-85780-124-5.
- Matricardi, Paolo. Aerei militari: Caccia e ricognitori Volume 1. Milano, Mondadori Electa, 2006. No ISBN.
- Nicolli, Ricardo. "Starfighters in the AMI". Air International, Volume 31, No. 6, December 1986, pp. 306–313, 321–322.
- Pace, Steve. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-608-8.
- Pace, Steve. X-Fighters: USAF Experimental and Prototype Fighters, XP-59 to YF-23. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1991. ISBN 0-87938-540-5.
- Reed, Arthur. F-104 Starfighter – Modern Combat Aircraft 9. London: Ian Allan Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-7110-1089-7.
- Sgarlato, Nico. "F-104 Starfighter" (in Italian). Delta editions, Great Planes Monograph series, February 2004.
- Smith, Philip E. and Peggy Herz. Journey Into Darkness: the Gripping Story of an American Pow's Seven Years Trapped Inside Red China During the Vietnam War. New York: Pocket Books, 1992. ISBN 0-671-72823-7.
- Stachiw, Anthony L. and Andrew Tattersall. CF-104 Starfighter (Aircraft in Canadian Service). St. Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited, 2007. ISBN 1-55125-114-0.
- Thompson, J. Steve with Peter C. Smith. Air Combat Manoeuvres: The Technique and History of Air Fighting for Flight Simulation. Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-903223-98-7.
- Thompson, Warren. "Starfighter in Vietnam". International Air Power Review. Volume 12, Spring 2004. Norwalk, Connecticut, USA: AirTime Publishing. 2004. ISBN 1-880588-77-3.
- Toliver, Raymond F. and Trevor J. Constable. Holt Hartmann vom Himmel! (in German) Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag, 1985. ISBN 3-87943-216-3
- Upton, Jim. Warbird Tech - Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58007-069-8.
- USAF Class A mishap rates through the end of 2007. Kirtland AFB, NM: USAF Safety and Inspection Center, 2007.
- van der Zeeuw, Ton. "Lockheed F-104G Starfighter." Vliegend in Nederland 2 (in Dutch). Eindhoven, Netherlands: Flash Aviation, 1987. ISBN 978-90-71553-03-5.
- Weal, John. "Jagdeschwader 'Richthofen': Phoenix Twice Risen". Wings of Fame, Volume 1, 1995, pp. 142–165. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-874023-68-9.
External images Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Cutaway Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Cutaway from Flightglobal.com
- Lockheed XF-104 to F-104A, F-104B/D, F-104C, and F-104G pages on USAF National Museum site
- Baugher's F-104 Index Page variants and operators
- The International F-104 Society
- Photos from F-104N Joe Walker crash site
- Site of Chuck Yeager NF-104A crash
- List of F-104s on display and list of Canadair CF-104 Starfighters on display in Canada from Aero-Web.org
- F-104F Starfighter at the Deutsches Museum, Munich
- F-104G Starfighter on display at the National War Museum, Athens
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