List of official languages by state


List of official languages by state

This is a complete list of the official languages designated in the sovereign states of the world. It includes all languages that have official language status either statewide or in a part of the state, or that have status as a national language, regional language, or minority language.

Only states, which are defined as sovereign, internationally recognised, independent political entities, are listed. This is not a list of countries or nations, although many states listed, are simultaneously also countries and/or nations.

For dependent territories, refer to the corresponding sovereign states.

Definitions

*"Official language": one designated as having a unique legal status in the state, typically, the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, and often, official government business
*"Regional language": one designated as having official status limited to a specific area, administrative division, or territory of the state (on this page a regional language will have parentheses next to it that contain a region, province, etc. where the language has regional status)
*"Minority language": (as used here) one spoken by a minority population within the state and officially designated as such; typically afforded protection and designated an officially permissible language for legal and government business in a specific area or territory of the state (on this page a minority language will be followed by parentheses that identify its minority status)
*"National language": one that uniquely represents the national identity of a state, nation, and/or country and so designated by a country's government; some are technically minority languages (on this page a national language will be followed by parentheses that identify it as a national language status). Some countries have more than one language with this status.

A

*AFG [ [http://www.afghan-web.com/politics/current_constitution.html Constitution of Afghanistan] (Article 16)]
**Pashto (statewide) (official)
**Dari (statewide) (official)
**Uzbek (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)
**Turkmen (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)
**Pashai (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)
**Nuristani (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)
**Balochi (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)
**Pamiri (statewide) (third official language in areas where spoken by majority of population)

*ALB [ [http://www.parlament.al/eng/dokumenti.asp?id=1117&kujam=Constitution Constitution of Albania] (Article 14)]
**Albanian (based on Tosk dialect)

*DZA
**Arabic (official and national) [http://www.chr.up.ac.za/hr_docs/constitutions/docs/AlgeriaC(rev).doc Constitution of Algeria] (Article 3) (MS Word format)]
**Tamazight (national)
**French (de facto official)

*AND (Languages of Andorra) [ [http://www.andorramania.com/constit_gb.htm Constitution of Andorra] (Article 2)]
**Catalan

*AGO [cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html#People |title=Angola |work=The World Factbook |publisher=Central Intelligence Agency ]
**Portuguese

*ATG
** No official language (but people in the Senate etc. must be able to speak and read English [ [http://www.ab.gov.ag/gov_v1/government/constitution.htm Constitution of Antigua and Barbuba, 1981] (Article 29)] )

*ARG [ [http://www.argentina.ar/sw_seccion.php?id=36 Argentina: Country Information] ]
**Spanish
**Guarani (Corrientes)
*ARM
**Armenian [ [http://www.gov.am/enversion/legal_1/legal_sahman_all.html Constitution of Armenia] (Article 12)]
*AUS
**No official language, English is the "de facto" official language.

*AUT
**German (official statewide) [ [http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/au00000_.html Constitution of Austria] (Article 8)]
**Croatian (official in Burgenland in areas where live Austrians of the Croat minority) [http://www.vfgh.gv.at/cms/vfgh-site/english/downloads/englishverfassung.pdf Constitution of Austria, Article 8 & State Treaty for the Re-establishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria)] (Article 7, Page 188)] (statewide minority language)
**Slovene (official in Carinthia and Styria in areas where live Austrians of the Slovene minority) (statewide minority language)
**Czech (statewide minority language)
**Hungarian (in Burgenland) (statewide minority language)
**Slovak (statewide minority language)
**Romani (statewide minority language)

*AZE
**Azerbaijanian [ [http://www.constcourt.gov.az/index.php?nw=2&j=11 Constitution of Azerbaijan] , [http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/aj00000_.html Constitution of Azerbaijan] (English translation) (Article 21)]

B

*BHS
**English

*BHR
**Arabic

*BGD
**Bengali

*BRB
**English

*BLR
**Belarusian
**Russian

*BEL (Languages of Belgium) [Constitution of Belgium, in [http://www.senate.be/doc/const_nl.html#t1 Dutch] , [http://www.senate.be/doc/const_fr.html#t1 French] and [http://www.senate.be/doc/const_de.html#t1 German] (Article 4)]
**Dutch
**French
**German

*BLZ
**English

*BEN
**French

*BTN
**Dzongkha
**English

*BOL
**Spanish
**Aymara
**Quechua

*BIH
**Bosnian
**Croatian
**Serbian

*BWA
**English
**Tswana (national)

*BRA
**Portuguese

*BRN
**Malay

*BGR
**Bulgarian

*BFA
**French
**Fula (national)
**Jula (national)
**More (national)

*BDI
**French
**Kirundi

C

*KHM
**Khmer

*CMR
**English
**French

*CAN
**English (national)
**French (national)
**Chipewyan (Dëne Sųłiné) (in the Northwest Territories)
**Cree (in the Northwest Territories)
**Dogrib (Tłįchǫ) (in the Northwest Territories)
**Gwich’in (in the Northwest Territories)
**Inuinnaqtun (in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut)
**Inuktitut (in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut)
**Inuvialuktun (in the Northwest Territories)
**Slavey (in the Northwest Territories)

*CPV
**Portuguese (official)
**Cape Verdean Creole (national)

*CAF
**French
**Sango (national)

*TCD
**Arabic
**French

*CHL
**Spanish
**Mapudungun

*PRC
**Chinese
***written: Simplified Chinese statewide, Traditional Chinese de facto in Hong Kong and Macau
***spoken: Mandarin statewide, Cantonese de facto in Hong Kong and Macau
**English (in Hong Kong)
**Portuguese (in Macau)
**Kazakh (in Ili Kazakh, Xinjiang)
**Korean (in Changbai and Yanbian, Jilin)
**Mongolian (in Inner Mongolia)
**Tajik (in Taxkorgan, Xinjiang)
**Tibetan (in Tibet)
**Uyghur (in Xinjiang)
**Zhuang (in Guangxi)

*ROC
**- "see below

*COL
**Spanish (the languages and dialects of ethnic groups are also official in their territories [ [http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Colombia/col91.html Constitution of Colombia, 1991] (Article 10)] )

*COM
**Arabic
**Comorian
**French

*COD
**French
**Lingala (national)
**Kikongo (national)
**Swahili (national)
**Tshiluba (national)

*COG
**French
**Lingala (national)
**Munukutuba (national)

*CRI
**Spanish

*CIV
**French

*HRV
**Croatian (statewide)
**Italian (in Istria)

*CUB
**Spanish

*CYP
**Greek
**Turkish

*CZE
**Czech

D

*DNK
**Danish (statewide)
**Faroese (in the Faroe Islands)
**German (protected minority language in South Jutland)
**Kalaallisut (in Greenland)

*DJI
**Arabic
**French

*DMA
**English

*DOM
**Spanish

E

*ETM
**Portuguese
**Tetum

*ECU
**Spanish
**Quechua

*EGY
**Arabic

*SLV
**Spanish

*GNQ
**Spanish
**French
**Portuguese

*ERI
**Arabic (working language)
**Tigrinya (working language)

*EST
**Estonian
**Võro (regional language in Võrumaa)

*ETH
**Amharic

F

*FJI
**English
**Fijian
**Hindustani

*FIN
**Finnish (statewide, except in the Åland Islands)
**Swedish (statewide) (in the Åland Islands where Swedish is spoken monolingually)
**Sami (minority language in Enontekiö, Inari, Sodankylä, and Utsjoki)

*FRA and overseas departments and territories (Languages of France and language policy in France) [ [http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/html/constitution/constitution2.htm#titre1 Constitution of France] (Article 2)]
** French (statewide)



G

*GAB
**French

*GMB
**English

*GEO
**Abkhaz (in Abkhazia)
**Georgian (statewide, except in Abkhazia and South Ossetia)
**Ossetic (in South Ossetia)
**Russian (in Abkhazia and South Ossetia)

*DEU
**German (statewide)
**Danish (in Schleswig-Holstein) (minority language)
**Lower Sorbian (in Brandenburg) (minority language)
**North Frisian (in Schleswig-Holstein) (minority language)
**Romani (in Hesse)
**Saterland Frisian (in Lower Saxony) (minority language)
**Upper Sorbian (in Saxony) (minority language)

*GHA
**Adangme (in Greater Accra)
**Dagaare (in the Upper West Region)
**Dagbani (in the Northern Region)
**English (statewide)
**Ewe (in the Volta Region)
**Ga (in Greater Accra)
**Gonja (in the Northern Region)
**Kasem (in the Upper East Region)
**Nzema (in the Western Region)
**Twi (in Akuapem, Akyem, Ashanti, Fanteakwa, Fante, and Kwahu)

*GRC
**Greek

*GRD
**English

*GTM
**Spanish

*GIN
**French
**Fula (national)
**Maninka (national)
**Susu (national)

*GNB
**Portuguese

*GUY
**English

H

*HTI
**French
**Haitian Creole

*HND
**Spanish

*HUN
**Hungarian

I

*ISL
**Icelandic

*IND
**Assamese (in Assam)
**Bengali (in Tripura and West Bengal)
**Bhojpuri (in Bihar)
**Bodo (in Assam)
**Chhattisgarhi (in Chhattisgarh)
**Dogri (in Jammu and Kashmir)
**English (statewide)
**French (in Puducherry)
**Garo (in Meghalaya)
**Gujarati (in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Gujarat)
**Hindi (statewide)
**Kannada (in Karnataka)
**Karbi (in Assam)
**Kashmiri (in Jammu and Kashmir)
**Khasi (in Meghalaya)
**Kokborok (in Tripura)
**Konkani (in Goa)
**Magadhi (Only in Bihar)
**Maithili (in Bihar)
**Malayalam (in Kerala, Pondicherry and Lakshadweep)
**Meitei (in Manipur)
**Marathi (in Maharashtra, Goa)
**Mizo (in Mizoram)
**Nepali (in Sikkim)
**Nicobarese (in Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
**Oriya (in Orissa)
**Pahari (in Himachal Pradesh)
**Portuguese (in Diu and Goa)
**Punjabi (in Punjab)
**Rajasthani (in Rajasthan)
**Sanskrit (statewide)
**Santali (in Jharkhand)
**Sindhi (sindhi community/people dependent)
**Tamil (in Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Pondicherry)
**Telugu (in Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry)
**Urdu (in Jammu and Kashmir and most muslim people)

*IDN
**Indonesian

*IRN
**Persian

*IRQ
**Arabic (statewide)
**Kurdish (in the Kurdish Autonomous Region)
**Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (in assyrian areas)
**Iraqi Turkmen (in turkmen areas)

*IRL (Languages of Ireland) [ [http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/attached_files/html%20files/Constitution%20of%20Ireland%20(Eng).htm Constitution of Ireland] (Article 8)]
**Irish (national - but spoken by a minority)
**English

*ISR
**Hebrew
**Arabic

*ITA (Languages of Italy) Fact|date=July 2008
**Italian (statewide)
**Albanian (in some parts of Southern Italy)
**Catalan (in Alghero, Sardinia)
**Croatian (in Montemitro & Acquaviva Collecroce & San Felice, Molise)
**French (in Aosta Valley)
**Friulian (in Friuli)
**German (in Alto Adige/Südtirol)
**Greek (in some parts of Apulia and Calabria)
**Ladin (in some parts of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol)
**Slovene (in some parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia)

J

*JAM
**English [ [http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Jamaica/jam62.html The Constitution of Jamaica] section 20(6e) (implicit)]

*JPN
**No official language nationwide, Japanese is the "de facto" official language and the national language.
**Ryukyuan (minority language)
**Ainu (minority language)
**Korean (minority language)

*JOR
**Arabic

K

*KAZ
**Kazakh (national)
**Russian

*KEN
**English
**Swahili (national)

*KIR
**English
**Kiribati (national)

*PRK
**Korean

*KOR
**Korean

*KOS
**Albanian (national)
**Serbian (Serbian enclaves)
**Turkish

*KWT
**Arabic

*KGZ
**Kirghiz (national)
**Russian

L

*LAO
**Lao

*LVA
**Latvian
**Latgalian

*LBN
**Arabic
**French
**English
**Armenian

*LSO
**English
**Sotho "(national)"

*LBR
**English

*LBY
**Arabic

*LIE
**German

*LTU
**Lithuanian

*LUX
**French
**German
**Luxembourgish "(national)"

M

*MKD
**Macedonian "(statewide)"
**Albanian
**Turkish

*MDG
**French
**English
**Malagasy "(national)"

*MWI
**Chichewa" (national)"
**English

*MYS
**Malay "(national)"

*MDV
**Dhivehi

*MLI
**French

*MLT
**Maltese" (national)"
**English
**Italian

*MHL
**English
**Marshallese (national)

*MRT
**Arabic (national)
**French
**Fula (national)
**Soninke (national)
**Wolof (national)

*MUS
**English
**French

*MEX
**No official language statewide, Spanish is the "de facto" official language

*FSM
**Chuukese "(in Chuuk)"
**English (statewide except in Kosrae, where it has a constitutionally protected associate status)
**Kosraean "(in Kosrae)"
**Pohnpeian ("in Pohnpei)"
**Ulithian "(in Yap)"
**Yapese "(in Yap)"

*MDA
**Gagauz (in Gagauzia)
**Moldovan (or Romanian - statewide)
**Russian (in Gagauzia and Transnistria)
**Ukrainian (in Transnistria)

*MCO [ [http://www.gouv.mc/devwww/wwwnew.nsf/1909$/036c62fe5f92f2efc1256f5b0054fa42fr?OpenDocument&3Fr Constitution of Monaco] (Article 8)]
** French

*MNG
**Mongolian

*MNE
**Montenegrin
**Bosnian
**Croatian
**Serbian
**Albanian

*MAR
**Arabic
**French

*MOZ
**Portuguese

*MMR "(Burma)"
**Burmese

N

*NAM [Citation
url=http://www.orusovo.com/namcon/
title=The Constitution of The Republic of Namibia
chapter=Article 3 – Language
chapter-url=http://www.orusovo.com/namcon/chap1.htm#art3
publisher=orusovo.com
accessdate=2008-04-23
]
**English

*NRU
**English
**Nauruan

*NPL
**Nepali

*NLD
**Dutch (in Netherlands, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles)
**English (on Netherlands Antilles)
**West Frisian (in Friesland)
**Limburgish (regional language)
**Low Saxon (regional language)
**Papiamento (on Aruba, Netherlands Antilles)

*NZL
**English is a de facto official language (statewide)
**Maori (statewide)
**NZSL (NZ Deaf community)
**Cook Islands Maori (in the Cook Islands)
**Niuean (in Niue)
**Tokelauan (in Tokelau)

*NIC
**Spanish

*NER
**French

*NGA
**English
**Hausa (national)
**Yoruba (national)
**Igbo (national)

*NOR (Languages of Norway)
**Norwegian (statewide) (Bokmål and Nynorsk are the official forms, and municipalities choose between them or a neutral stance.
**Sami (indigenous language in vast areas from Engerdal to the Russian border, official administrative language in Kautokeino, Karasjok, Gáivuotna - Kåfjord), Nesseby, Porsanger, Tana, Tysfjord, and Snåsa)
**Kven (national minority language, administrative language in Porsanger
**Romani (national minority language)
**Scandoromani (national minority language)

O

*OMN
**Arabic

P

*PAK
**English (Official Language)
**Urdu (National Language)
**Balochi (provincial language)
**Pashto (provincial language)
**Punjabi (provincial language)
**Sindhi (Provincial language)
*PLW
**English (statewide)
**Palauan (statewide)
**Sonsorolese (in Sonsorol)
**Tobian (in Hatohobei)
**Angaur (in Angaur)
**Japanese (in Angaur)

*PSE
**Arabic

*PAN
**Spanish

*PNG
**English
**Hiri Motu
**Tok Pisin

*PRY
**Spanish
**Guaraní

*PER
**Spanish
**Aymara
**Quechua
**All native languages in areas where they are spoken by the majority of people

*PHL
**Arabic (recognized in the Constitution)
**Bikol (in Luzon)
**Cebuano (in Visayas and Mindanao)
**English (statewide)
**Filipino (statewide) (national)
**Hiligaynon (in the Visayas)
**Ilokano (in Luzon)
**Kapampangan (in Luzon)
**Kinaray-a (in the Visayas)
**Maranao (in Mindanao)
**Maguindanao (in Mindanao)
**Pangasinan (in Luzon)
**Spanish (recognized in Constitution)
**Tagalog (in Luzon)
**Tausug (in Mindanao)
**Waray-Waray (in the Visayas)

*POL
**Polish (sole official language of state)
**Kashubian (recognised regional language and secondary official language in part of Pomeranian Voivodeship)
**German (minority language and auxiliary language in part of Opole Voivodeship)
**German (minority language and auxiliary language in Puńsk commune, Podlaskie Voivodeship)
**Belorussian (minority language and auxiliary language in Hajnówka commune, Podlaskie Voivodeship)

*PRT (Languages of Portugal)
**Portuguese
**Mirandese (regional, in Miranda do Douro)

Q

*QAT
**Arabic

R

*ROU
**Romanian
**Hungarian (minority, in Transylvania)

*RUS (Languages of Russia)
**Russian (federal)
**Abaza (in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic)
**Adyghe (in the Republic of Adygea)
**Agul (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Altay (in the Altai Republic)
**Avar (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Bashkir (in the Republic of Bashkortostan)
**Buryat (in Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, Buryat Republic, and Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug)
**Chechen (in the Chechen Republic)
**Chukchi (in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug)
**Chuvash (in the Chuvash Republic)
**Dargin (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Dolgan (in Taymyr Autonomous Okrug)
**Erzya (in the Republic of Mordovia)
**Evenk (in Evenk Autonomous Okrug)
**Ingush (in the Republic of Ingushetia)
**Kabardian (in the Kabardino-Balkar and Karachay-Cherkess Republics)
**Kalmyk (in the Republic of Kalmykia)
**Karachay-Balkar (in the Kabardino-Balkar and Karachay-Cherkess Republics)
**Khakas (in the Republic of Khakassia)
**Khanty (in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
**Komi-Permyak (in Komi-Permyak Okrug)
**Komi-Zyrian (in the Komi Republic)
**Koryak (in Koryak Autonomous Okrug)
**Kumyk (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Lak (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Lezgian (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Mansi (in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
**Mari (in the Mari El Republic)
**Moksha (in the Republic of Mordovia)
**Nogai (in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic and in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Nenets (in Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
**Ossetic (in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania)
**Sakha (in the Sakha Republic)
**Tabasaran (in the Republic of Dagestan)
**Tatar (in the Republic of Tatarstan)
**Tuvin (in the Tuva Republic)
**Udmurt (in the Republic of Udmurtia)
**Yiddish (in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast)

*RWA
**English
**French
**Kinyarwanda

*KNA
**English

*LCA
**English

*flag|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
**English

*WSM
**English
**Samoan (national)

*SMR
**Italian

*STP
**Portuguese

*SAU
**Arabic

*SEN
**French
**Jola-Fogny "(national)"
**Malinke "(national)"
**Mandinka "(national)"
**Pulaar "(national)"
**Serer-Sine "(national)"
**Wolof "(national)"

*SRB
**Albanian "(in Kosovo and some municipalities in southern Serbia)"
**Bosniak "(in municipalities of Sandzak)"
**Croatian "(in Vojvodina)"
**Hungarian "(in Vojvodina)"
**Romanian "(in Vojvodina)"
**Rusyn "(in Vojvodina)"
**Serbian "(statewide)"
**Slovak "(in Vojvodina)"

*SYC
**English
**French
**Seychellois Creole

*SLE
**English

*SGP
**English
**Malay "(national)"
**Chinese "(written: Simplified Chinese; spoken: Mandarin)"
**Tamil

*SVK
**Slovak
**Hungarian (minority, in southern Slovakia)
*SVN
**Hungarian "(minority language in Dobrovnik, Hodoš, and Lendava)"
**Italian "(minority language in Izola, Koper, and Piran)"
**Slovene "(statewide)"

*SLB
**English

*SOM
**Somali
**Italian
**Arabic "(in Puntland and Somaliland)"
**English "(in Somaliland)"

*ZAF
**Afrikaans
**English
**Ndebele
**Northern Sotho
**Sotho
**Swazi
**Tsonga
**Tswana
**Venda
**Xhosa
**Zulu

*ESP
**Spanish "(statewide)"
**Catalan "(in the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, and Valencia)"
**Galician "(in Galicia)"
**Basque "(in Basque Country and Navarre)"
**Occitan "(in Catalonia)"

*LKA
**Sinhala
**Tamil

*SDN
**Arabic
**English

*SUR
**Dutch

*SWZ
**English
**Swazi

*SWE
**No official language statewide, Swedish is the "de facto" official language.
**Finnish "(in Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertorneå, and the surrounding areas)" (minority language)
**Meänkieli (i"n Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala, Övertorneå, and the surrounding areas)" (minority language)
**Romani (historical minority language)
**Sami "(in Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk, Kiruna, and the surrounding areas)" (minority language)
**Yiddish (historical minority language)

*CHE
**German "(in Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Glarus, Graubünden, Lucerne, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Saint Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Uri, Valais, Zug, and Zürich)"
**French "(in Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais, and Vaud)"
**Italian "(in Ticino and Graubünden)"
**Romansh "(in Graubünden)"

*SYR
**Arabic

T

*TWN
**Chinese (written: Traditional Chinese; spoken: Mandarin (national))

*TJK
**Tajik

*TZA
**Swahili (national)

*THA
**Thai

*TGO
**French

*TGA
**English
**Tongan "(national)"

*TTO
**English

*TUN
**Arabic "(national)"
**French

*TUR
**Turkish

*TKM
**Turkmen

*TUV
**English
**Tuvaluan "(national)"

U

*UGA
**English
**Swahili "(national)"

*UKR
**Ukrainian
**Russian "(regional in Donetsk Oblast, Luhansk, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Odessa Oblasts, and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea)"
**Hungarian "(regional in parts of Zakarpattia Oblast)"

*ARE
**Arabic

*UK
**English [Citation
url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookHomeInternal/139560/
title=United Kingdom; Key Facts
publisher=Commonwealth Secretariat
accessdate=2008-04-23
] , with the following specifications:
***English" (in Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Montserrat, Northern Ireland, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena and Turks and Caicos Islands)"
***Cornish [Citation
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2410383.stm
title=Cornish gains official recognition
date=November 6, 2002
publisher=BBC News
accessdate=2008-05-08
] "(in Cornwall) (minority language)"
***Dgèrnésiais "(in Guernsey)"
***French "(in Guernsey and Jersey)"
***Irish "(in Northern Ireland) (regional language)"
***Jèrriais "(in Jersey)"
***Pitcairnese "(in the Pitcairn Islands)"
***Scots (in Northern Ireland and Scotland) "(Regional language)"
***Scottish Gaelic "(in Scotland)"
***Welsh "(in Wales)"

*USA
**No official language nationwide, English is the "de facto" official language and the national language.
**English "(in Alabama, Alaska, American Samoa, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Guam, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Utah, Virginia, and Wyoming)"
**Carolinian "(in the Northern Mariana Islands)"
**Chamorro "(in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands)"
**French "(in Louisiana)"
**Hawaiian "(in Hawaii)"
**Samoan "(in American Samoa)"
**Spanish "(in Puerto Rico)"

*URY
**Spanish

*UZB
**Uzbek

V

*VUT
**Bislama "(national)"
**English
**French

*VAT
**No official language; Italian is the "de facto" official language.

*VEN
**Spanish

*VNM
**Vietnamese

W

*SADR (Western Sahara)
**Arabic

Y

*YEM
**Arabic

Z

*ZMB
**English

*ZWE
**English
**Shona
**Ndebele

References and footnotes

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