Tumor


Tumor
Neoplastic tumor of the cheek skin, here a benign neoplasm of the sweat glands called Hidradenoma, which is not solid but is fluid-filled.

A tumor or tumour is commonly used as a synonym for a neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled (cystic) lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size.[1] Tumor is not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by definition malignant, a tumor can be benign, pre-malignant, or malignant, or can represent a lesion with no cancerous potential whatsoever.

Contents

Etymology

The term tumour/tumor is derived from the Latin word for "swelling" -- tumor. It is similar to the Old French tumour (contemporary French: tumeur). In the Commonwealth the spelling "tumour" is commonly used, whereas in the U.S. it is usually spelled "tumor".

In its medical sense it has traditionally meant an abnormal swelling of the flesh. The Roman medical encyclopedist Celsus (ca 30 BC–38 AD) described the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation as tumor, dolor, calor, and rubor (swelling, pain, increased heat, and redness). His treatise, De Medicina, was the first medical book printed in 1478 following the invention of the printing press.

In contemporary English, the word tumor is often used as a synonym for a cystic (liquid-filled) growth or solid neoplasm (cancerous or non-cancerous),[2] with other forms of swelling often referred to merely as swellings.[3]

Related terms are common in the medical literature, where the nouns tumefaction and tumescence (derived from the adjective tumefied), are current medical terms for non-neoplastic swelling. This type of swelling is most often caused by inflammation caused by trauma, infection, and other factors..etc.

Tumors may be caused by conditions other than an overgrowth of neoplastic cells, however. Cysts (such as sebaceous cysts) are also referred to as tumors, even though they have no neoplastic cells. This is standard in medical billing terminology (especially when billing for a growth whose pathology has yet to be determined).

Causes

A neoplasm can be caused an abnormal proliferation of tissues, which can be caused by genetic mutations. Not all types of neoplasms cause a tumorous overgrowth of tissue, however (such as leukemia or carcinoma in situ).

Benign conditions that are not associated with an abnormal proliferation of tissue (such as sebaceous cysts) can also present as tumors, however, but have no malignant potential. Breast cysts (as occur commonly during pregnancy and at other times) are another example, as are other encapsulated glandular swellings (thyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas).

Encapsulated hematomas, encapsulated necrotic tissue (from an insect bite, foreign body, or other noxious mechanism), and keloids and granulomas (discrete overgrowths of scar tissue) may also present as tumors.

Discrete localized enlargements of normal structures (ureters, blood vessels, intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary ducts, pulmonary inclusions, or gastrointestinal duplications) due to outflow obstructions or narrowings, or abnormal connections, may also present as a tumor. Examples are arteriovenous fistulae or aneurysms (with or without thrombosis), biliary fistulae or aneurysms, sclerosing cholangitis, cysticercosis or hydatid cysts, intestinal duplications, and pulmonary inclusions as seen with cystic fibrosis. It can be dangerous to biopsy a number of types of tumor in which the leakage of their contents would potentially be catastrophic. When such types of tumors are encountered, diagnostic modalities such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, angiograms, and nuclear medicine scans are employed prior to (or during) biopsy and/or surgical exploration/excision in an attempt to avoid such severe complications.

The nature of a tumor is determined by imaging, by surgical exploration, and/or by a pathologist after examination of the tissue from a biopsy or a surgical specimen.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tumor" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Tumor in MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Swelling in MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tumor M2-PK — is a synonym for the dimeric form of the pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (PKM2).Tumor M2 PK is a key enzyme within tumor metabolism and can be used in stool (fecal) samples for the screening of colorectal tumors (= bowel cancer) and in EDTA… …   Wikipedia

  • Tumor — Tu mor, n. [L., fr. tumere to swell: cf. F. tume[ u]r. See {Tumid}.] 1. (Med.) A morbid swelling, prominence, or growth, on any part of the body; especially, a growth produced by deposition of new tissue; a neoplasm. [1913 Webster] 2. Affected… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tumor — m. oncol. Massa o protuberancia de uno o varios tejidos debida a una proliferación celular de naturaleza benigna o maligna. Medical Dictionary. 2011. tumor …   Diccionario médico

  • Tumor — Sm Geschwulst erw. fach. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus l. tumor Geschwulst , zu l. tumēre geschwollen sein .    Ebenso nndl. tumor, ne. tumo(u)r, nfrz. tumeur, nschw. tumör, nnorw. tumor; Tuberkulose. Zur germanischen Verwandtschaft s.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • tumor — tȗmor m DEFINICIJA pat. ograničen neupalni izrast na ljudima, životinjama i biljkama koji nastaje iz postojećeg tkiva, bujanje novih stanica potiskuje zdravo tkivo; novotvorina, neoplazma, blastom SINTAGMA benigni tumor pat. tumor koji nije… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • tumor — tumor, *neoplasm, malignancy, cancer can all denote an abnormal growth or mass of tissue. Tumor, the most general term, is applicable to any such growth or mass in or on the surface of the body of a human being, animal, or plant {the term tumor… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • tumor — (Del lat. tumor, ōris). m. Med. Masa de células transformadas, con crecimiento y multiplicación anormales. tumor benigno. m. Med. El formado por células muy semejantes a las normales, que permanece en su localización primaria y no produce… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • tȗmor — m pat. ograničen neupalni izrast na ljudima, životinjama i biljkama koji nastaje iz postojećeg tkiva, bujanje novih stanica potiskuje zdravo tkivo; novotvorina, neoplazma, blastom ∆ {{001f}}benigni ∼ pat. tumor koji nije maligan; dobroćudan,… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • tumor — (n.) 1540s, from L. tumor swelling, condition of being swollen, from tumere to swell (see THIGH (Cf. thigh)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Tumor — Tumor: Der medizinisch fachsprachliche Ausdruck für »Geschwulst« ist eine gelehrte Entlehnung neuerer Zeit aus lat. tumor »das Anschwellen, die Geschwulst«. Dies gehört seinerseits zu lat. tumere »geschwollen sein«, das mit lat. tumultus »Unruhe …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • tumor — tumor. См. бластома. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.


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