Name = Carcinoma

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A carcinoma is any malignant cancer that arises from epithelial cells. Carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs and may metastasize, or spread, to lymph nodes and other sites.

"Carcinoma in situ" (CIS) is a pre-malignant condition, in which some signs of malignancy are present, but there is no histological evidence of invasion through the epithelial basement membrane.

Classification of carcinoma

Carcinoma, like all neoplasia, is classified by its histopathological appearance. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two common descriptive terms for tumors, reflect the fact that these cells may have glandular or squamous cell appearances respectively. Severely anaplastic tumors might be so undifferentiated that they do not have a distinct histological appearance (undifferentiated carcinoma).

Sometimes a tumour is referred to by the presumptive organ of the primary (eg carcinoma of the prostate) or the putative cell of origin (hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma).

Types of carcinoma by ICD-O Code

(8010-8790) Epithelial
* (8010-8040) Epithelial neoplasms, NOS
* (8050-8080) Squamous cell neoplasms
** (ICDO|8070|3) Squamous cell carcinoma, NOS
* (8090-8110) Basal cell neoplasms
** (ICDO|8090|3) Basal cell carcinoma, NOS
* (8120-8130) Transitional cell papillomas and carcinomas
* (8140-8380) Adenomas and Adenocarcinomas (glands)
** (ICDO|8140|0) Adenoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8140|3) Adenocarcinoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8142|3) Linitis plastica
** (ICDO|8151|0) Insulinoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8152|0) Glucagonoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8153|1) Gastrinoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8155|3) Vipoma
** (ICDO|8160|3) Cholangiocarcinoma
** (ICDO|8170|3) Hepatocellular carcinoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8200|3) Adenoid cystic carcinoma
** (ICDO|8240|1) Carcinoid tumor, NOS, of appendix
** (ICDO|8271|0) Prolactinoma
** (ICDO|8290|0) Oncocytoma
** (ICDO|8290|0) Hurthle cell adenoma
** (ICDO|8312|3) Renal cell carcinoma
** (ICDO|8312|3) Grawitz tumor
** (ICDO|8360|1) Multiple endocrine adenomas
** (ICDO|8380|0) Endometrioid adenoma, NOS
* (8390-8420) Adnexal and Skin appendage Neoplasms
* (8430-8439) Mucoepidermoid Neoplasms
* (8440-8490) Cystic, Mucinous and Serous Neoplasms
** (ICDO|8440|0) Cystadenoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8480|6) Pseudomyxoma peritonei
* (8500-8540) Ductal, Lobular and Medullary Neoplasms
* (8550-8559) Acinar cell neoplasms
* (8560-8580) Complex epithelial neoplasms
** (ICDO|8561|0) Warthin's tumor
** (ICDO|8580|0) Thymoma, NOS
* (8590-8670) Specialized gonadal neoplasms
** (ICDO|8590|1) Sex cord-stromal tumor
** (ICDO|8600|0) Thecoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8620|1) Granulosa cell tumor, NOS
** (ICDO|8630|1) Arrhenoblastoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8631|0) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor
* (8680-8710) Paragangliomas and Glomus tumors
** (ICDO|8680|1) Paraganglioma, NOS
** (ICDO|8700|0) Pheochromocytoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8711|0) Glomus tumor
* (8720-8790) Nevi and Melanomas
** (ICDO|8720|0) Melanocytic nevus
** (ICDO|8720|3) Malignant melanoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8720|3) Melanoma, NOS
** (ICDO|8721|3) Nodular melanoma
** (ICDO|8727|0) Dysplastic nevus
** (ICDO|8742|3) Lentigo maligna melanoma
** (ICDO|8743|3) Superficial spreading melanoma
** (ICDO|8744|3) Acral lentiginous melanoma, malignant

Types of lung carcinoma

* Adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor originating in the epithelial cells of glandular tissue and forming glandular structures. This is common in the lung (forming 30-40% of all lung carcinomas). It is found peripherally, arising from goblet cells or type II pneumocytes.

* Squamous cell carcinoma due to squamous metaplasia. This accounts for 20-30 percent of lung tumors and is usually hilar in origin.

* Small cell carcinoma is almost certainly due to smoking. These metastasise early, and may secrete ADH (lowering patient sodium concentration).

* Large cell undifferentiated carcinomas account for 10-15 percent of lung neoplasms. These are aggressive and difficult to recognise due to the undifferentiated nature. These are most commonly central in the lung.

* Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

taging and grading

The staging of cancers is the extent of spread of the neoplasm. Grading is the system used to record the tumors degree of differentiation from the parent tissue. High grade shows little differentiation and the prognosis is therefore poor.

Carcinomas, like all cancers, are staged according to the extent of disease. The UICC/AJCC TNM system is often used, however for some common tumors, classic staging methods (such as the Dukes classification for colon cancer) are still used.

ee also

* Cancer
* Sarcoma
* Hematological malignancy
* Basal cell carcinoma

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • carcinoma — m. oncol. Tumor o neoplasia maligna formada por células de origen epitelial que conservan la capacidad de producir metástasis. También se denomina epitelioma. Medical Dictionary. 2011 …   Diccionario médico

  • Carcinoma — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Un carcinoma es una forma de cáncer con origen en células de tipo epitelial o glandular, de tipo maligno. Los dos grandes grupos de carcinomas son los carcinomas epidermoides y los adenocarcinomas. Los carcinomas… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Carcinōma — (v. gr., Med.), 1) Krebs (s.d.); Carcinoma oculi, so v.w. Augenkrebs; 2) das offene Krebsgeschwür; daher Carcinomatös (Carcinoidisch), krebsartig, s. Krebs …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Carcinoma —   [lateinisch, aus griechisch karkínos »Krebs«] das, s/ ta, Abkürzung Ca., Karzinom, bösartige Geschwulst (Krebs). Carcinoma uteri, der Gebärmutterkrebs.   …   Universal-Lexikon

  • carcinoma — /kartʃi nɔma/ s.m. [dal lat. carcinoma, gr. karkínōma, der. di karkínos granchio; cancro ] (pl. i ). (med.) [tumore maligno degli epiteli ghiandolari: c. mammario ; c. gastrico ] ▶◀ epitelioma. ⇑ Ⓖ (fam.) brutto male, Ⓖ cancro, Ⓖ (fam.) male del… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • carcinoma — 1721, malignant tumor, from L. carcinoma, from Gk. karkinoma a cancer, from karkinos crab (see CANCER (Cf. cancer)) + OMA (Cf. oma) …   Etymology dictionary

  • carcinoma — sustantivo masculino 1. Área: medicina Tumor maligno formado por tejido epitelial: carcinoma de mama …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • carcinoma — (Del lat. carcinōma, y este del gr. καρκίνωμα). m. Med. Tumor maligno derivado de estructuras epiteliales …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • carcinoma — car ci*no ma (k[aum]r s[i^]*n[=o] m[.a]), n. [L., fr. Gr. karki nwma, fr. karki nos crab, cancer. See { oma}.] (Med.) A form of malignant cancer arising from epithelial tissue. The term was earlier applied to all forms of cancer, or to certain… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • carcinoma — carcinoma. См. карцинома. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Carcinōma — (lat., Carcinom), s. Krebs; C. as bolicum, Schornsteinfegerkrebs; C. medullare, Markschwamm; C. recti, Mastdarmkrebs; C. ventriculi. Magenkrebs etc …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon