Dysplasia

Dysplasia

Dysplasia (from Greek, roughly: "bad formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue. This generally consists of an expansion of immature cells, with a corresponding decrease in the number and location of mature cells. Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process. The term dysplasia is typically used when the cellular abnormality is restricted to the originating tissue, as in the case of an early, "in-situ" neoplasm. For example, epithelial dysplasia of the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - a disorder commonly detected by an abnormal pap smear) consists of an increased population of immature (basal-like) cells which are restricted to the mucosal surface, and have not invaded through the basement membrane to the deeper soft tissues. Myelodysplastic syndromes, or dysplasia of blood-forming cells, show increased numbers of immature cells in the bone marrow, and a decrease in mature, functional cells in the blood.

Dysplasia, in which cell maturation and differentiation are delayed, can be contrasted with metaplasia, in which cells of one mature, differentiated type are replaced by cells of another mature, differentiated type.

Dysplasia vs. carcinoma in situ vs. invasive carcinoma

These terms are related since they represent the three steps in the progression of many malignant neoplasms (cancers) of epithelial tissues.
*Dysplasia is the earliest form of pre-cancerous lesion recognizable in a pap smear or in a biopsy by a pathologist. Dysplasia can be low grade or high grade (see "Carcinoma in situ," below). The risk of low grade dysplasia transforming into high grade dysplasia and, eventually, cancer is low. Treatment is usually straightforward. High grade dysplasia represents a more advanced progression towards malignant transformation.
*Carcinoma in situ, meaning "cancer in place," represents the transformation of a neoplastic lesion to one in which cells undergo essentially no maturation, and thus may be considered cancer-like. In this state, cells have lost their tissue identity and have reverted back to a primitive cell form that grows rapidly and without regulation. However, this form of cancer remains localized, and has not invaded into tissues below the surface.
*Invasive carcinoma is the final step in this sequence. It is a cancer which has invaded beyond the original tissue layer and may be able to spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Invasive cancer can usually be treated, but not always successfully. However, if it is left untreated, it is almost always fatal.

References

*cite book |author=Richard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor) |title=Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set) |publisher=W B Saunders |location=London |year= |pages= |isbn=0-7216-7253-1 |oclc= |doi=
*cite book |author=Ramzi S. Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins (Editor) |title=Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, sixth edition |publisher=W B Saunders |location=London |year=1999 |pages= |isbn=0-7216-7335-X |oclc= |doi=
*Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1985, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia

External links

* [http://www.omdict.com/definition/dysplasia.php Dysplasia symptoms, treatment and details]

See also

* Fibrous dysplasia
* Cervical dysplasia
* Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
* Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
* Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia


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См. также в других словарях:

  • dysplasia — 1935, Mod.L., from DYS (Cf. dys ) + plasia, from Gk. plasis molding, conformation, from plassein (see PLASMA (Cf. plasma)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • dysplasia — [dis plā′zhə, dis plā′zhē ə, dis plā′zē ə] n. [ModL: see DYS & PLASIA] a disordered growth or faulty development of various tissues or body parts dysplastic [displas′tik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • dysplasia — dysplastic /dis plas tik/, adj. /dis play zheuh, zhee euh, zee euh/, n. Pathol. abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ. [1930 35; DYS + PLASIA] * * * Abnormal formation of a bodily structure or tissue, usually bone,… …   Universalium

  • Dysplasia — Abnormal in form. From the Greek dys (bad, disordered, abnormal) and plassein (to form). For example, retinal dysplasia is abnormal formation of the retina during embryonic development. * * * Abnormal tissue development. SEE ALSO: heteroplasia.… …   Medical dictionary

  • dysplasia — alloplasia; = heteroplasia; n. a premalignant condition characterized by abnormal development of epithelium, bone, or other tissues. See also: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia Derivatives: dysplastic adj …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Dysplasia — raidos sutrikimas statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Dysplasia ryšiai: platesnis terminas – audinių nenormalumas siauresnis terminas – dauginė siauresnis terminas – ektoderminė siauresnis terminas… …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

  • Dysplasia — sutrikusioji raida statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Dysplasia ryšiai: platesnis terminas – nenormalumas sinonimas – displazija …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

  • Dysplasia — raidos sutrikimas statusas T sritis embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Dysplasia ryšiai: platesnis terminas – audinių nenormalumas siauresnis terminas – dauginė siauresnis terminas – ektoderminė siauresnis terminas – kaulinė siauresnis terminas –… …   Medicininės histologijos ir embriologijos vardynas

  • Dysplasia — vystymosi ar augimo sutrikusi raida statusas T sritis embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Dysplasia ryšiai: platesnis terminas – nenormalumas …   Medicininės histologijos ir embriologijos vardynas

  • dysplasia — noun Etymology: New Latin Date: circa 1923 abnormal growth or development (as of organs or cells); broadly abnormal anatomical structure due to such growth • dysplastic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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