Lysine Identifiers CAS number , L, DDL PubChem ChemSpider , L KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL IUPHAR ligand Jmol-3D images Image 1 Properties Molecular formula C6H14N2O2 Molar mass 146.19 g mol−1 Solubility in water 1.5kg/L @ 25 °C Supplementary data page Structure and
n, εr, etc. Thermodynamic
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. It is an essential amino acid, which means that the human body cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG.
Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. (The ε-amino group, which is attached to the NH3+ group, is the fifth carbon down from the α-carbon, which is attached to the carboxyl (C=OOH) group.)
Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications at lysine residues include acetylation and ubiquitination. Collagen contains hydroxylysine, which is derived from lysine by lysyl hydroxylase. O-Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell.
As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. In plants and bacteria, it is synthesized from aspartic acid (aspartate):
- L-aspartate is first converted to L-aspartyl-4-phosphate by aspartokinase (or Aspartate kinase). ATP is needed as an energy source for this step.
- β-Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase converts this into β-aspartyl-4-semialdehyde (or β-aspartate-4-semialdehyde). Energy from NADPH is used in this conversion.
- Dihydrodipicolinate synthase adds a pyruvate group to the β-aspartyl-4-semialdehyde, and two water molecules are removed. This causes cyclization and gives rise to 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate.
- This product is reduced to 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate (or Δ1-piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate, in the figure: (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) by dihydrodipicolinate reductase. This reaction consumes a NADPH molecule.
- Tetrahydrodipicolinate N-acetyltransferase opens this ring and gives rise to N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedionate (or N-acyl-2-amino-6-oxopimelate). Two water molecules and one acyl-CoA (succinyl-CoA) enzyme are used in this reaction.
- N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedionate is converted into N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (N-acyl-2,6-diaminopimelate). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase. A glutaric acid molecule is used in this reaction and an oxoacid is produced as a byproduct.
- N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (N-acyl-2,6-diaminopimelate)is converted into LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate (L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate) by succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase (acyldiaminopimelate deacylase). A water molecule is consumed in this reaction and a succinate is produced a byproduct.
- LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedionate is converted by diaminopimelate epimerase into meso-2,6-diamino-heptanedionate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate).
- Finally, meso-2,6-diamino-heptanedionate is converted into L-lysine by diaminopimelate decarboxylase.
Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include:
- β-Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
- Dihydropicolinate synthase
- Δ1-Piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase
- N-succinyl-2-amino-6ketopimelate synthase
- Succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase
- Succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase
- Diaminopimelate epimerase
- Diaminopimelate decarboxylase.
Allysine is a derivative of lysine, used in the production of elastin and collagen. It is produced by the actions of the enzyme lysyl oxidase on lysine in the extracellular matrix and is essential in the crosslink formation that stabilizes collagen and elastin.
Synthetic, racemic lysine has long been known. A practical synthesis starts from caprolactam. Industrially, L-lysine is usually manufactured by a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum; production exceeds 600,000 tons a year.
The nutritional requirement per day, in milligrams of lysine per kilogram of body weight, is: infants (3–4 months) 103, children (2 years) 64, older children (10–12 years) 60 to 44, adults 12. For a 70 kg adult, 12 milligrams of lysine per kilogram of body weight is 0.84 grams of lysine. Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein such as soy, as well as meat (specifically red meat, lamb, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly Parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), and eggs.
Lysine is the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity in the particular foodstuff) in most cereal grains, but is plentiful in most pulses (legumes). Consequently, meals that combine cereal grains and legumes, such as the Indian dal with rice, Middle Eastern hummus, ful medames, falafel with pita bread, the Mexican beans with rice or tortilla have arisen to provide complete protein in diets that are, by choice or by necessity, vegetarian. A food is considered to have sufficient lysine if it has at least 51 mg of lysine per gram of protein (so that the protein is 5.1% lysine).
Foods containing significant amounts of lysine include:
- Catfish, channel, farmed, raw: 9.19% of the protein is lysine.
- Chicken, roasting, meat and skin, cooked, roasted: 8.11% of the protein is lysine.
- Beef, ground, 90% lean/10% fat, cooked: 8.31% of the protein is lysine.
- Soybean, mature seeds, raw: 7.42% of the protein is lysine.
- Soybean, mature seeds, sprouts: 5.74% of the protein is lysine (sprouting decreases the lysine content).
- Winged Bean (aka Goa Bean or Asparagus Pea), mature seeds, raw: 7.20% of the protein is lysine.
- Lentil, pink, raw: 6.97% of the protein is lysine.
- Lentil, sprouts, raw: 7.95% of the protein is lysine (sprouting increases the lysine content).
- Parmesan cheese, grated: 7.75% of the protein is lysine.
- Azuki bean (adzuki beans), mature seeds, raw: 7.53% of the protein is lysine.
- Milk, non-fat: 7.48% of the protein is lysine.
- Egg (food), whole, raw: 7.27% of the protein is lysine.
- Pea, split, mature seeds, raw: 7.22% of the protein is lysine.
- Kidney Bean, mature seeds, raw: 6.87% of the protein is lysine.
- Chickpea, (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw: 6.69% of the protein is lysine.
- Navy Bean, mature seeds, raw: 5.73% of the protein is lysine.
- Amaranth, grain, uncooked: 5.17% of the protein is lysine.
L-Lysine is a necessary building block for all protein in the body. L-Lysine plays a major role in calcium absorption; building muscle protein; recovering from surgery or sports injuries; and the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
Lysine can be modified through acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, neddylation, biotinylation, pupylation, and carboxylation, which tends to modify the function of the protein of which the modified lysine residue(s) are a part.
It has been suggested that lysine may be beneficial for those with herpes simplex infections. However, more research is needed to fully substantiate this claim. For more information, refer to Herpes simplex - Lysine.
Lysine has a known anxiolytic action through its effects on serotonin receptors in the intestinal tract. One study on rats showed that overstimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors in the gut are associated with anxiety-induced intestinal pathology. Lysine, acting as a serotonin antagonist and therefore reducing the overactivity of these receptors, reduced signs of anxiety and anxiety-induced diarrhea in the sample population. Another study showed that lysine deficiency leads to a pathological increase in serotonin in the amygdala, a brain structure that is involved in emotional regulation and the stress response.
Human studies have also shown negative correlations between reduced lysine intake and anxiety. A population-based study in Syria included 93 families whose diet is primarily grain-based and therefore likely to be deficient in lysine. Fortification of grains with lysine was shown to reduce markers of anxiety, including cortisol levels, and also led to potentiation of benzodiazepine receptors (common targets of anxiolytic drugs such as Xanax and Ativan).
There are lysine conjugates that show promise in the treatment of cancer, by causing cancerous cells to destroy themselves when the drug is combined with the use of phototherapy, while leaving non-cancerous cells unharmed.
While chemically insignificant to lysine itself, it is worth noting that lysine is attached to dextroamphetamine to form the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). In the gastrointestinal tract, the lysine molecule is cleaved from the dextroamphetamine, thereby making oral administration necessary.
According to animal studies, lysine deficiency causes immunodeficiency. One cause of relative lysine deficiency is cystinuria, where there is impaired hepatic resorption of basic, or positively charged amino acids, including lysine. The accompanying urinary cysteine results because the same deficient amino acid transporter is normally present in the kidney as well.
Limited studies suggest that a high-lysine diet or L-lysine monochloride supplements may have a moderating effect on blood pressure and the incidence of stroke.
Use of lysine in animal feed
Lysine production for animal feed is a major global industry, reaching in 2009 almost 700,000 tonnes for a market value of over €1.22 billion. Lysine is an important additive to animal feed because it is a limiting amino acid when optimizing the growth of certain animals such as pigs and chickens for the production of meat. Lysine supplementation allows for the use of lower-cost plant protein (maize, for instance, rather than soy) while maintaining high growth rates, and limiting the pollution from nitrogen excretion.
Lysine is industrially produced by microbial fermentation, from a base mainly of sugar. Genetic engineering research is actively pursuing bacterial strains to improve the efficiency of production and allow lysine to be made from other substrates.
In popular culture
The 1993 film Jurassic Park, which is based on the 1990 Michael Crichton novel Jurassic Park, features dinosaurs that were genetically altered so that they could not produce lysine. This was known as the "lysine contingency," and was supposed to prevent the cloned dinosaurs from surviving outside the park, forcing them to be dependent on lysine supplements provided by the park's veterinary staff. Most vertebrates cannot produce lysine by default (it is an essential amino acid).
In 1996, lysine became the focus of a price-fixing case, the largest in United States history. The Archer Daniels Midland Company paid a fine of US$100 million, and three of its executives were convicted and served prison time. Also found guilty in the price-fixing case were two Japanese firms (Ajinomoto, Kyowa Hakko) and a South Korean firm (Sewon). Secret video recordings of the conspirators fixing lysine's price can be found online or by requesting the video from the U.S. Department of Justice, Antitrust Division. This case served as the basis of the movie The Informant!, and a book of the same title.
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- Much of the information in this article has been translated from German Wikipedia.
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The 20 common amino acids By propertiesAliphaticAromaticPolar, unchargedPositive charge (pKa)Negative charge (pKa)General Other classifications K→acetyl-CoAlysine→ GG→pyruvate→citrateG→glutamate→
α-ketoglutarateotherG→fumarateG→oxaloacetatesee urea cycle
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lysine — [ lizin ] n. f. • 1897; du gr. lusis « solution, dissolution » ♦ Biochim. 1 ♦ Acide aminé essentiel, l un des vingt constituants des protéines. 2 ♦ Anticorps ou toxine capable de provoquer la lyse cellulaire. 3 ♦ Protéine de l acrosome du… … Encyclopédie Universelle
lysine — lysine. См. лизин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) … Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.
Lysine — Lysine, vom Körper gebildete Abwehrstoffe, die ins Blut eingedrungene Bakterien (Bakteriolysine) oder blutgruppenfremde Blutkörperchen (Hämolysine) auflösen … Universal-Lexikon
lysine — [lī′sēn΄] n. [ LYS(I) + INE3] an essential amino acid, NH2 (CH2) 4CH(NH2)COOH obtained synthetically or by the hydrolysis of certain proteins in digestion: see AMINO ACID … English World dictionary
Lysine — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Lys (homonymie). Lysine L ou S … Wikipédia en Français
lysine — /luy seen, sin/, n. Biochem. a crystalline, basic, amino acid, H2N(CH2)4CH(NH2)COOH, produced chiefly from many proteins by hydrolysis, essential in the nutrition of humans and animals. Abbr.: Lys; Symbol: K [1890 95; LYS + INE2] * * * One of the … Universalium
lysine — lizinas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Aminorūgštis. formulė H₂N(CH₂)₄CH(NH₂)COOH santrumpa( os) Lys, K atitikmenys: angl. lysine rus. лизин ryšiai: sinonimas – 2,6 diaminoheksano rūgštis … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
lysine — noun Date: 1892 a crystalline essential amino acid C6H14N2O2 obtained from the hydrolysis of various proteins … New Collegiate Dictionary
lysine — (= Lys; K; 146D) Amino acid; the only carrier of a side chain primary amino group in proteins. Has important structural and chemical roles in proteins … Dictionary of molecular biology
lysine — noun An essential amino acid CHNO found in most animal proteins; essential for growth especially in children. Syn: Lys … Wiktionary