Threonine


Threonine

NatOrganicBox


name=(2"S",3"R")-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid
PubChem = 6288
CAS = 72-19-5
EINECS = 200-774-1
SMILES = C [C@@H] (O) [C@H] (N)C(O)=O
C=4 | H=9 | N=1 | O=3
mass=119.12 g/mol

Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) [cite web | author=IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature | title=Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides | work=Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc | url=http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/AminoAcid/ | accessdate=2007-05-17] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Its codons are ACU, ACA, ACC, and ACG. This essential amino acid is classified as polar. Together with serine and tyrosine, threonine is one of three proteinogenic amino acids bearing an alcohol group.

The threonine residue is susceptible to numerous posttranslational modifications. The hydroxy side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation. In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, it can be referred to as phosphothreonine.

Allo-threonine

With two chiral centers, threonine can exist in four possible stereoisomers, or two possible diastereomers of L-threonine. However, the name L-threonine is used for one single enantiomer, (2"S",3"R")-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid. The second diastereomer (2"S",3"S"), which is rarely present in nature, is called L-"allo"-threonine.

Biosynthesis

As an essential amino acid, threonine is not synthesized in humans, hence we must ingest threonine in the form of threonine-containing proteins. In plants and microorganisms, threonine is synthesized from aspartic acid via α-aspartyl-semialdehyde and homoserine. Homoserine undergoes "O"-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with relocation of the OH group. [Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York, 2000. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.] Enzymes involved in a typical biosynthesis of threonine include:
# aspartokinase
# α-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
# homoserine dehydrogenase
# homoserine kinase
# threonine synthase.

Metabolism

Threonine is metabolized in two ways:
* It is converted to pyruvate via threonine dehydrogenase. An intermediate in this pathway can undergo thiolysis with CoA to produce Acetyl-CoA and glycine.
* In humans, it is converted to alpha-ketobutyrate in a less common pathway via the enzyme serine dehydratase, and thereby enters the pathway leading to succinyl-CoA.

ources

Foods high in threonine include cottage cheese, poultry, fish, meat, lentils, and sesame seeds.Fact|date=June 2007

Racemic threonine can be prepared from crotonic acid by alpha-functionalization using mercury(II) acetate. [OrgSynth | author = Carter, H. E.; West, H. D. | title = dl-Threonine | collvol = 3 | collvolpages = 813 | year = 1955 | prep = cv3p0813]

References

ee also

* Harold Dadford West American Biochemist who first synthetised the Threonine.

External links

* [http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/reaction/AminoAcid/Thr.html Threonine biosynthesis]
* [http://www.compchemwiki.org/index.php?title=Threonine Computational Chemistry Wiki]
* [http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=205 CID 205]
* [http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=6288 CID 6288]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • threonine — [thrē′ə nēn΄, thrē′ənin] n. [prob. < threon(ic acid) + INE3] an essential amino acid, CH3CH(OH)CH(NH2)COOH, obtained from the hydrolysis of many proteins …   English World dictionary

  • threonine — /three euh neen , nin/, n. Biochem. an essential amino acid, CH3CHOHCH(NH2)COOH, obtained by the hydrolysis of proteins. Abbr.: Thr; Symbol: T [1925 30; threon (alter. of Gk erythrón, neut. of erythrós red; see ERYTHRO ) + INE2] * * * One of the… …   Universalium

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  • threonine — treoninas statusas T sritis chemija formulė CH₃CH(OH)CH(NH₂)COOH santrumpa( os) Thr, T atitikmenys: angl. threonine rus. треонин ryšiai: sinonimas – 2 amino 3 hidroksibutano rūgštis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

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  • threonine — (= Thr; T; 119 D) The hydroxylated polar amino acid …   Dictionary of molecular biology


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