Mohamed ElBaradei


Mohamed ElBaradei
Mohamed ElBaradei
محمد البرادعى
Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency
In office
1 December 1997 – 30 November 2009
Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Ban Ki-moon
Preceded by Hans Blix
Succeeded by Yukiya Amano
Personal details
Born 17 June 1942 (1942-06-17) (age 69)
Cairo, Egypt
Alma mater Cairo University
Graduate Institute of International Studies
New York University
Profession Scholar, Diplomat, Activist
Religion Islam[1][2]
Website Official website

Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد مصطفى البرادعى‎, Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Barādʿī, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd mosˈtˤɑfɑ (ʔe)lbæˈɾædʕi]; born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat. He was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organisation under the auspices of the United Nations, from December 1997 to November 2009. ElBaradei and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. ElBaradei was also an important figure in the 2011 Egyptian revolution which ousted the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

Contents

Family and personal life

ElBaradei was born and raised in Cairo, Egypt. He was one of five children of Mostafa ElBaradei, an attorney who headed the Egyptian Bar Association and often found himself at odds with the regime of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. ElBaradei's father was also a supporter of democratic rights in Egypt, supporting a free press and an independent judiciary.[3]

ElBaradei is married to Aida El-Kachef, an early-childhood teacher. They have two children: a daughter, Laila, who is a lawyer living in London; and a son, Mostafa, who is an IT manager living in Cairo. They also have one granddaughter, Maya.[4]

ElBaradei speaks Arabic, English, and French, and knows “enough German to get by, at least in Vienna.”[5]

Early career

ElBaradei earned a bachelor's degree in law from the University of Cairo in 1962, a master's degree in international law at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, and a J.S.D.[6][7] in International Law at the New York University School of Law in 1974.

His diplomatic career began in 1964 in the Ministry of External Affairs, where he served in the Permanent Missions of Egypt to the United Nations in New York and in Geneva, in charge of political, legal, and arms-control issues. From 1974 to 1978, he was a special assistant to the foreign minister. In 1980, he became a senior fellow in charge of the International Law Program at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research. From 1981 to 1987, he was also an adjunct professor of international law at the New York University School of Law.

In 1984, ElBaradei became a senior staff member of the IAEA Secretariat, serving as the agency's legal adviser (1984 to 1993) and Assistant Director General for External Relations (1993 to 1997).

ElBaradei is currently a member of both the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law.

Public career as IAEA Director General

ElBaradei began to serve as Director General of the IAEA, which is based in Vienna, on December 1, 1997, succeeding Hans Blix of Sweden.[8][9] He was re-elected for two more four-year terms in 2001 and in 2005. His third and last term ended in November 2009. ElBaradei's tenure has been marked by high-profile, non-proliferation issues, which include the inspections in Iraq preceding the March 2003 invasion and tensions over the nuclear program of Iran.

First term as Director General

After being appointed by the IAEA General Conference in 1997, ElBaradei said in his speech that, “for international organizations to enjoy the confidence and support of their members, they have to be responsive to [members'] needs; show concrete achievements; conduct their activities in a cost-effective manner; and respect a process of equitable representation, transparency, and open dialogue.”[10]

Just a couple of months before ElBaradei took office, the Model Additional Protocol was adopted, creating a new environment for IAEA verification by giving it greater authority to look for undeclared nuclear activities. When in office, Elbaradei launched a program to establish “integrated safeguards” combining the IAEA’s comprehensive safeguard agreements with the newly adopted Additional Protocol. In his statement to the General Conference in 1998, he called upon all states to conclude the Additional Protocol: “One of the main purposes of the strengthened-safeguards system can be better achieved with global adherence. I would, therefore, urge all states with outstanding-safeguards agreements to conclude them, and I would also urge all states to accelerate their consideration of the Model Additional Protocol and enter into consultations with the Agency at the earliest possible opportunity. We should work together to ensure that, by the year 2000, all states [will] have concluded outstanding-safeguards agreements and also the Additional Protocol.” Elbaradei repeated this call through his years as the Director General of the IAEA. In November 2009, 93 countries had Additional Protocols in force.[11]

ElBaradei’s first term ended in November 2001, just two months after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. These attacks made clear that more needed to be done to protect nuclear material and installations from theft or a terrorist attack. Consequently, ElBaradei established a nuclear security program to combat the risk of nuclear terrorism by assisting member states to strengthen the protection of their nuclear and radioactive material and installations, the Nuclear Security Fund.[12]

Second term as Director General

One of the major issues during ElBaradei’s second term as the director general of the IAEA was the agency’s inspections in Iraq. ElBaradei disputed the U.S. rationale for the 2003 invasion of Iraq from the time of the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis, when he, along with Hans Blix, led a team of UN weapons inspectors in Iraq. ElBaradei told the UN Security Council in March 2003 that documents purporting to show that Iraq had tried to acquire uranium from Niger were not authentic.

ElBaradei described the U.S. invasion of Iraq as "a glaring example of how, in many cases, the use of force exacerbates the problem rather than [solves] it."[13] ElBaradei further stated that "we learned from Iraq that an inspection takes time, that we should be patient, that an inspection can, in fact, work,"[14] and that he had "been validated" in concluding that Saddam Hussein had not revived his nuclear weapons program.[15]

In a 2004 op-ed piece on the dangers of nuclear proliferation, in the New York Times (February 12, 2004), ElBaradei stated that "[w]e must abandon the unworkable notion that it is morally reprehensible for some countries to pursue weapons of mass destruction, yet morally acceptable for others to rely on them for security -- and indeed to continue to refine their capacities and postulate plans for their use."[16] He went on to say "If the world does not change course, we risk self-destruction."

Third and final term as Director General

The United States initially voiced opposition to his election to a third four-year term in 2005.[17] In a May 2005 interview with the staff of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Lawrence Wilkerson, the chief of staff to former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, charged former Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security John Bolton with an underhanded campaign to unseat ElBaradei.[18] “Mr. Bolton overstepped his bounds in his moves and gyrations to try to keep [ElBaradei] from being reappointed as [IAEA] head,” Wilkerson said. The Washington Post reported in December 2004 that the Bush administration had intercepted dozens of ElBaradei’s phone calls with Iranian diplomats and was scrutinizing them for evidence [that] they could use to force him out.[18] IAEA spokesman Mark Gwozdecky said the agency worked on "the assumption that one or more entities may be listening to our conversations." "It's not how we would prefer to work, but it is the reality. At the end of the day, we have nothing to hide," he said. Iran responded to the Washington Post reports by accusing the U.S. of violating international law in intercepting the communications.[19]

The United States was the only country to oppose ElBaradei's reappointment and eventually failed to win enough support from other countries to oust ElBaradei. On June 9, 2005, after a meeting between U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and ElBaradei, the United States dropped its objections. Among countries that supported Elbaradei were China, Russia, Germany, and France. China praised his leadership and objectivity,[17] and supported him for doing "substantial fruitful work, which has maintained the agency's role and credit in international non-proliferation and promoted the development of peaceful use of nuclear energy. His work has been universally recognized in the international community. China appreciates Mr. El Baradei's work and supports his reelection as the agency's director general."[20] France, Germany, and some developing countries, have made clear their support for ElBaradei as well.[18] Russia issued a strong statement in favor of re-electing him as soon as possible.

ElBaradei was unanimously re-appointed by the IAEA board on June 13, 2005.[21]

Comments on no fourth term

In 2008, ElBaradei said that he would not be seeking a fourth term as director general.[22] Moreover, he said, in an IAEA document,that he was "not available for a further term" in office.[23] In its first five rounds of voting, the IAEA Board of Governors was split in its decision regarding the next director general. ElBaradei said, "I just hope that the agency has a candidate acceptable to all--north, south, east, west--because that is what is needed."[24] After several rounds of voting, on July 3, 2009, Mr. Yukiya Amano, Japanese ambassador to the IAEA, was elected as the next IAEA director general.

ElBaradei and U.S. Relations

Mohamed ElBaradei, leader of the National Coalition for Change, has been a major voice for democratic change in Egypt since 2009 and was a significant leader during the recent protests.[25] However, he has a rocky history with the U.S. government and supports some policies that do not support current U.S. foreign policy towards stability in the Middle East. ElBaradei was the Director General of the IAEA from 1997–2009. During his three terms, he repeatedly downplayed claims of possible military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program, which undermined U.S. efforts to press Iran over its safeguards violations.[26] According to a July 3, 2003 article in Time Magazine, ElBaradei also maintained that Iraq's nuclear program had not restarted before the 2003 Iraq War, contradicting claims by the Bush Administration. He told the German news magazine Der Spiegel on July 12, 2010 that he wanted to open the Gaza Strip – Egypt border and accused Israel of being the biggest threat to the Middle East because of their nuclear weapons.[27]

ElBaradei has called for international criminal investigation of former Bush regime officials for their roles in fomenting the war on Iraq.[28]

Role in addressing the nuclear program of Iran

In his last speech to the IAEA Board of Governors in June 2009, ElBaradei stated that “the agency has been able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran." He regretted, however, that "Iran has not implemented any of the measures called for by the Security Council and by the Agency's Board of Governors.” ElBaradei also said that he was encouraged “by the new initiative of the United States to engage the Islamic Republic of Iran in direct dialogue, without preconditions and on the basis of mutual respect” and expressed hope “that Iran will respond to the US initiative with an equal gesture of goodwill and trust building.” This gesture “could include implementing again the agency's design-information requirements and applying the provisions of the additional protocol.”

The IAEA Board of Governors and UN Security Council have commended ElBaradei for "professional and impartial efforts" to resolve all outstanding issues with Iran.[29][30] The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) has also reiterated "its full confidence in the impartiality and professionalism of the Secretariat of the IAEA."[31][32]

Statements to the media

In an interview with CNN in May 2007, ElBaradei gave one of his sternest warnings against using military action against Iran, a state signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Referring to "the extreme people who have extreme views" he said that "you do not want to give additional argument to some of the 'new crazies' who want to say let us go and bomb Iran."[33]

The New York Times columnist Roger Cohen interviewed ElBaradei in April 2009. ElBaradei is quoted as saying, “Israel would be utterly crazy to attack Iran." He states that an attack on Iran's nuclear facilities would "turn the region into a ball of fire and put Iran on a crash course for nuclear weapons with the support of the whole Muslim world.”[34] ElBaradei believes that the nuclear non-proliferation regime has "lost its legitimacy in the eyes of Arab public opinion because of the perceived double standard" in relation to Israel's nuclear-weapons' program.[35]

In an interview with French newspaper, Le Monde, ElBaradei said that he wants "to get people away from the idea that Iran will be a threat from tomorrow and that we are faced right now with the issue of whether Iran should be bombed or allowed to have the bomb. We are not at all in that situation. Iraq is a glaring example of how, in many cases, the use of force exacerbates the problem rather than [solves] it."[13]

In an interview published on July 12, 2010, in the German magazine Der Spiegel, ElBaradei said "I do not believe that the Iranians are actually producing nuclear weapons. . . .[I]n general, the danger of a nuclear-armed Iran is overestimated; some even play it up intentionally.[36]

Reactions to Elbaradei's role in addressing the nuclear program of Iran

Former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has indirectly criticized ElBaradei for "muddying the message" to Iran and has also said that "the IAEA is not in the business of diplomacy. The IAEA is a technical agency that has a board of governors of which the United States is a member." In response to Rice's comments, a senior official from the agency said that "the IAEA is only doing now what the U.N. Security Council asked us to do."[37] ElBaradei notes that Rice said that, "from the U.S. perspective, I served with distinction,",[38] and Rice has further said that she appreciated his "stewardship of the nonproliferation regime."[39]

Former prime minister and current president of Israel, Shimon Peres, has said that "there are holes in the (IAEA) apparatus for deterring a culture of nuclear weapons, as in the case with Iran, but the agency certainly has done much in the prevention of nuclear weapons from reaching dangerous hands."[40] In a different reaction, former Israeli Deputy Prime Minister Shaul Mofaz has called for ElBaradei to be impeached.[41]

In September 2007, French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner, warned about the potential dangers of a nuclear Iran. He stated that "we have to prepare for the worst, and the worst is war."[42] In response to Kouchner, ElBaredei characterized talk of attacking Iran as "hype", and dismissed the notion of a possible attack on Iran. He referred to the war in Iraq, where "70,000 innocent civilians have lost their lives on the suspicion that a country has nuclear weapons."[43] He further added "I do not believe at this stage that we are facing a clear and present danger that requires [that] we go beyond diplomacy."[44]

Iran points out that ElBaradei has highlighted the lack of evidence that Iran is after a nuclear bomb[45][46] and has stated that Iran is meeting its obligations to allow inspectors into its nuclear sites. Iran further states that the IAEA chief has consistently verified non-diversion in Iran's nuclear program and has said that his investigations show no military aspect in Iran's program.[47][48] According to the Tehran Times political desk, ElBaradei has reaffirmed in December 2008 that Iran's nuclear activities are "legal".[49][50]

Dr. Kaveh L Afrasiabi, the author of After Khomeini: New Directions in Iran's Foreign Policy, said that ElBaradei has been downplaying Iran's cooperation for some time, a statement which is raising the ire of Tehran. Afrasiabi further says that ElBaradei has given himself "the license to speculate on the timeline when Iran could convert its peaceful nuclear work into weaponization," which is irresponsible and inconsistent with his statements on other states.[51]

ElBaradei and Colin Powell

The NAM has also reiterated "its full confidence in the impartiality and professionalism of the Secretariat of the IAEA." "[The] NAM recognizes the IAEA as the sole competent authority for verification and expresses its full confidence in the professionalism and impartiality of the IAEA. In this regard, [the] NAM strongly believes that all issues on safeguards and verification, including those of Iran, should be resolved only by the agency, within its framework, and be based on technical and legal grounds," the NAM said in another statement.[31][52]

Multinational control of the nuclear fuel cycle

In an op-ed that he wrote for the Economist in 2003, ElBaradei outlined his idea for the future of the nuclear fuel cycle. His suggestion was to “limit the processing of weapon-usable material in civilian nuclear programs, as well as the production of new material, by agreeing to restrict these operations exclusively to facilities under multinational control.” Also, “nuclear-energy systems should be deployed that, by design, avoid the use of materials that may be applied directly to making nuclear weapons.” He concluded by saying that “considerable advantages would be gained from international co-operation in these stages of the nuclear-fuel cycle. These initiatives would not simply add more non-proliferation controls, to limit access to weapon-usable nuclear material; they would also provide access to the benefits of nuclear technology for more people in more countries.”[53]

Non-nuclear-weapon states have been reluctant to embrace these proposals due to a perception that the commercial or strategic interests of nuclear-weapon states motivate the proposals, a perception that the proposals produce a dependency on a limited number of nuclear fuel suppliers, and a concern that the proposal restricts their unalienable right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.[54]

Technical cooperation and cancer control

ElBaradei’s work does not only concentrate on nuclear verification. Another very important aspect is development through nuclear technology. In 2004, ElBaradei sponsored a comprehensive global initiative—the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT)--to fight cancer. In one of his statements, Elbaradei said: “A silent crisis in cancer treatment persists in developing countries and is intensifying every year. At least 50 to 60 percent of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy, but most developing countries do not have enough radiotherapy machines or sufficient numbers of specialized doctors and other health professionals.” In the first year of operation, PACT provided cancer-treatment capacity in seven member states, using the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize.[55]

In his speech to the 2008 General Conference, ElBaradei said that “development activities remain central to our work. Our resources have long been insufficient to keep pace with requests for support, and we have increasingly made use of partnerships with other organizations, regional collaborations and country-to-country support. I again emphasise that technical cooperation is not a bargaining chip, part of a political 'balance' between the development and safeguards activities of the agency.”[56]

International Crisis Group

ElBaradei served on the Board of Trustees of the International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization that enjoys an annual budget of over $15 million and is bankrolled by the Carnegie, the Ford Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as well as George Soros’ Open Society Institute. Soros himself serves as a member of the organization’s Executive Committee.[57]

Egyptian politics

2011 Egyptian revolution

Mohammed ElBaradei during Friday of Anger

While speaking at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government on April 27, 2010, ElBaradei joked that he is "looking for a job" and is seeking to be an "agent of change and an advocate for democracy" within Egyptian politics. He also made clear that his wife is not very enthusiastic about any potential run.[58]

On January 27, 2011, ElBaradei returned to Egypt amid ongoing turmoil, with the largest mass protests in 30 years, which had begun two days earlier, on January 25, 2011. ElBaradei declared himself ready to lead a transitional government if that was the will of the nation, saying that, "If [people] want me to lead the transition, I will not let them down."[59] Subsequently, "when he joined protesters Friday after noon prayers, police fired water cannons at him and his supporters. They used batons to beat some of ElBaradei's supporters, who surrounded him to protect him."[60] On January 28, 2011, ElBaradei was reported to have been placed under house arrest in Egypt.[61] However, the next day, when he was interviewed by Al Jazeera, he said that he was unaware of any such arrest.[62]

Later on, ElBaradei arrived in Tahrir Square to join thousands of other protesters against the Mubarak regime and spoke directly to the people, stating that they "have taken back [their] rights" and that they cannot go back. A number of Egyptian political movements have called on ElBaradei to form a transitional government.[63] ElBaradei has also stated that "the people [of Egypt] want the regime to fall." In response to the appointment of Omar Suleiman as the new vice president of Egypt, ElBaradei stated that it was a "hopeless, desperate attempt by Mubarak to stay in power. I think [that] it is loud and clear...that Mubarak has to leave today." Additionally, ElBaradei restated his position that, when Egypt does become a democratic nation, "there is no reason to believe that a democracy in Egypt would not lead to a better relationship with the US based on respect and equity."[64]

The Guardian reported that ElBaradei has been mandated by the Muslim Brotherhood and four other opposition groups to negotiate an interim "national salvation government." However, BBC reports that the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest opposition party banned by Mubarak's regime, has not consented to the choice of ElBaradei as the representative of the opposition. "The people have not appointed Mohamed ElBaradei to become a spokesman of them. The Muslim Brotherhood is much stronger than Mohamed ElBaradei as a person. And we do not agree [that he should represent] this movement. The movement is represented by itself, and it will [appoint] a committee. . .to [delegate its representatives]."[65]

His appointment is controversial largely because of the long periods that he has spent outside the country. His appointment is seen as a recognition of the importance of various Western nations' support of the revolts.

Possible presidential candidacy

ElBaradei's name has been circulated by opposition groups since 2009 as a possible candidate to succeed President Hosni Mubarak in Egypt's highest executive position.[66][67][68]

ElBaradei did not make any clear statements regarding his intentions to run for the office; however, he has demanded that certain conditions be met to ensure fair elections accompanied by changes to the constitution that will allow more freedom for independent candidates before he would actually consider running for the presidency. Several opposition groups have endorsed him, considering him a neutral figure who could transition the country to greater democracy.

On February 24, 2010, ElBaradei met with several opposition leaders and notable intellectuals at his home in Cairo. The meeting was concluded with an announcement for the formation of a new non-party-political movement called the "National Association for Change." The movement aims for general reforms in the political scene and mainly article 76 of the Egyptian constitution, which places restrictions on free presidential elections, especially when it comes to independent candidates. The banned political group, the Muslim Brotherhood, was represented at the meeting by one of its key figures; however, its stand in accepting a non-member of its group as a representative is still unclear. It is also unknown whether Amr Moussa, the head of the Arab League who met with ElBaradei a day earlier, will be part of the new movement.[69]

On March 7, 2011 it was announced that Elbaradei intended to run for the presidential elections, this intention was later clearly stated in a live interview by ElBaradei to the ON TV channel March 10, 2011.[70]

Awards

During his tenure as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, ElBaradei has been recognized with many awards for his efforts to ensure that nuclear energy is used for peaceful purposes.

2005 Nobel Peace Prize

On October 7, 2005, ElBaradei and the IAEA were announced as joint recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize for their "efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy, for peaceful purposes, is used in the safest possible way." ElBaradei donated all of his winnings to building orphanages in Cairo. The IAEA's winnings are being spent to train scientists from developing countries to use nuclear techniques in combating cancer and malnutrition. ElBaradei is the fourth Egyptian to receive the Nobel Prize, following Anwar Sadat (1978 in Peace), Naguib Mahfouz (1988 in Literature), and Ahmed Zewail (1999 in Chemistry).

In his Nobel lecture, ElBaradei said that the changing landscape of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament may be defined by the emergence of an extensive black market in nuclear material and equipment, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technology, and the stagnation in nuclear disarmament. To combat proliferation, ElBaradei has suggested keeping nuclear and radiological material out of the hands of extremist groups, tightening control over the operations for producing the nuclear material that could be used in weapons, and accelerating disarmament efforts.[71] ElBaradei also stated that only one percent of the money spent to develop new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world and that, if we hope to escape self destruction, nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience and no role in our security.

United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan said that he was delighted that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded to the UN nuclear watchdog and its head, ElBaradei. "The secretary general congratulates him and the entire staff of the agency, past and present, on their contributions to global peace," a spokesman for Annan said.[72]

Other awards and recognition

ElBaradei in the 45th Munich Security Conference 2009

ElBaradei has received many awards for his work as director of the IAEA:

ElBaradei has also received honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Dublin, Trinity College; New York University; the University of Maryland; the American University in Cairo; the Free Mediterranean University (LUM) in Bari, Italy; Soka University of Japan; Tsinghua University of Beijing; the Polytechnic University of Bucharest; the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid; Konkuk University in Seoul; the University of Florence; the University of Buenos Aires; the National University of Cuyo in Argentina; Amherst College and Cairo University.[88]

He is also a member of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation’s Ibrahim Prize Committee.

See Also

References

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    ElBaradei, who describes himself as having a Muslim background, sometimes cites his favorite Christian prayer when speaking of his role on the world stage.

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  31. ^ a b "''XinhuaNet'': Non-aligned nations voice support deal between IAEA, Iran". News.xinhuanet.com. 2007-09-12. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-09/12/content_6706557.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
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  33. ^ "Transcript of Interview with IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei". CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. 28 October 2007. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Transcripts/2007/cnn281007.html. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  34. ^ Realpolitik for Iran
  35. ^ "Israel seen undermining disarmament ElBaradei". Reuters. 2009-02-16. http://in.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idINIndia-38051120090216. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  36. ^ Der Spiegel: Interview with Mohamed ElBaradei, 12 July 2010. Accessed 15 July 2010.
  37. ^ Pleming, Sue (2007-09-19). "Rice: ElBaradei "muddying the message" and Agency "not in the business of diplomacy"". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN1822732020070919. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  38. ^ "Arms Control Association: "Tackling the Nuclear Dilemma: An Interview With IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei"". Armscontrol.org. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2005_03/ElBaradei. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  39. ^ U.S. State Department: Remarks With International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei After Meeting
  40. ^ Jerusalem Post: IAEA, ElBaradei share Nobel Peace Prize
  41. ^ "Israel minister: Sack ElBaradei". BBC News. 8 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7085213.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  42. ^ France warning of war with Iran
  43. ^ IAEA boss warns against Iran attack UK Press Google, accessed September 22, 2007.
  44. ^ ElBaradei concerned over Iran row, BBC News, Sep. 17, 2007
  45. ^ PressTV: ElBaradei: Iran not after bomb
  46. ^ Atlantic Free Press: Threats of War Against Iran Continue to Escalate
  47. ^ PressTV: Soltaniyeh: Nothing new in ElBaradei's report
  48. ^ France24: ElBaradei: 'No evidence Iran is making nuclear weapons'
  49. ^ Tehran Times: ElBaradei says Iran’s nuclear program is legal: report
  50. ^ Mehr News: ElBaradei says Iran’s nuclear program is legal: report
  51. ^ Asia Times: IAEA 'mismanagement' raises Tehran's ire
  52. ^ South African Government: Notes following briefing by Deputy Minister Aziz Pahad on current international issues, Union Building, Pretoria - Iran
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  60. ^ AP (2010-02-01). "Five People Killed During Protests in Egypt". FoxNews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/01/28/violent-clashes-police-break-cairo/. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  61. ^ Mubarak Faces His Biggest Challenge Amid Nationwide Protests
  62. ^ Thousands in Cairo defy curfew
  63. ^ ElBaradei's speech on Tahrir Square
  64. ^ "Video - Breaking News Videos from". CNN.com. 2010-07-16. http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/bestoftv/2011/01/30/gps.elbaradei.intv.cnn?iref=allsearch. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
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  68. ^ "Arab League chief refuses to rule out Egypt presidential bid". Earth Times. October 20, 2009. http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/291035,arab-league-chief-refuses-to-rule-out-egypt-presidential-bid.html. 
  69. ^ ElBaradei to form 'national association for change'
  70. ^ "البرادعي يعلن ترشحه للرئاسة". Masrawy.com. 2011-03-07. http://www.masrawy.com/News/Egypt/Politics/2011/march/7/barad3i_president.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  71. ^ The Nobel Foundation: Mohamed ElBaradei, The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
  72. ^ Peoples Daily: Int'l community hails IAEA, ElBaradei's winning of Nobel Peace Prize
  73. ^ "Der Bundespräsident / "Visionär für eine Menschheitsfamilie" - Ansprache von Bundespräsident Horst Köhler anlässlich der Verleihung des Großen Verdien". www.bundespraesident.de. 2010-03-03. http://www.bundespraesident.de/Reden-und-Interviews/Reden-Horst-Koehler-,12213.662472/Visionaer-fuer-eine-Menschheit.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  74. ^ Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Award Laureates since 1982
  75. ^ a b Yale University: ElBaradei Will Speak at Yale
  76. ^ Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: ElBaradei Remarks at Georgetown University
  77. ^ MPAC: Dr. Mohamed Elbaradei to be Presented with MPAC's Human Security Award
  78. ^ Arrivée de Graça Machel au Comité d’attribution du Prix Mo Ibrahim
  79. ^ a b Amherst: Amherst College To Honor Atomic Agency Head, Princeton President and Five Others at Commencement May 25
  80. ^ University Philosophical Society: Honorary Patrons
  81. ^ World Nuclear University: Inaugural Ceremony of the World Nuclear University - Part Two
  82. ^ Center za mir: "Centar za mir - Mostar"
  83. ^ ZERO NUCLEAR'S FOUR STATESMEN, ELBARADEI TO BE HONORED
  84. ^ Richard Erdman and the EastWest Institute: Statesman of the Year Award
  85. ^ Entrega del IV Premio Sevilla-Nodo
  86. ^ Indian Express: ElBaradei chosen for Indira Gandhi Peace Prize
  87. ^ University of Georgia: 2009 Delta Prize Recipient
  88. ^ IAEA: Biography of Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei

External links

Articles

Nomination of ElBaradei

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Hans Blix
Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency
1997–2009
Succeeded by
Yukiya Amano
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Wangari Maathai
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
2005
Served alongside: International Atomic Energy Agency
Succeeded by
Muhammad Yunus
Succeeded by
Grameen Bank

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