Fellow


Fellow

A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade. The term fellow is also used to describe a person, particularly by those in the upper social classes. It is most often used in an academic context: a fellow is often part of an elite group of learned people who are awarded fellowship to work together as peers in the pursuit of knowledge or practice. The fellows may include visiting professors, postdoctoral researchers and doctoral researchers.

Contents

Academia

Research fellow

The title of research fellow is used to denote an academic research position at a university or a similar institution.

Teaching fellow

The title of Teaching fellow is used to denote an academic teaching position at a university or similar institution.

Emeritus title in the UK

The title fellow might be given to an academic member of staff upon retirement who continues to be affiliate to a university institution in the United Kingdom.

Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin

At Colleges of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Trinity College, Dublin, full fellows form the governing body of the college. They may elect a Council to handle day-to-day management. All fellows are entitled to certain privileges within their colleges, which may include dining at High Table (free of charge) and possibly the right to a room in college (free of charge).

There are a number of types of fellow:

  • Research fellows are researchers, whose salaries or stipends are paid by a college from the income of its endowment. Some of the less affluent colleges do not pay their research fellows a salary, instead award fellowships to researchers already employed by the university.
  • At Oxford, college tutors are fellows, who are paid to provide small-group teaching to a college's undergraduates. The position is typically a joint appointment (there are a variety of types) with the university.
  • At Cambridge, teaching officers (lecturers, readers, and professors) are entitled to a college fellowship. For lecturers and readers, the process is competitive – generally the most able academics get fellowships at the richest and most prestigious colleges[citation needed]. Professors are allocated to colleges by a centralised process to ensure fairness. These fellows may or may not provide small-group teaching to undergraduates in the college, for which they would be paid by the hour. College fellows at Cambridge (except for research fellows) have no duties as such and are not paid. They will typically have a salaried post either with their college or the university.
  • At Cambridge, a praelector is a fellow of a college, who formally presents students during the matriculation and graduation ceremony.

Most Cambridge colleges grant fellowships for life after a qualifying period. Retired academics may therefore remain as fellows. In Oxford upon retirement, a Governing Body fellow would normally be elected a fellow emeritus and would leave the Governing Body. Distinguished old members of the college, or its benefactors and friends, might also be elected 'Honorary Fellow', normally for life; but beyond limited dining rights this is merely an honour. Most Oxford colleges have 'Fellows by Special Election' or 'Supernumerary Fellows', who may be members of the teaching staff, but not necessarily members of the Governing Body.

US medical training

In US medical institutions, a fellow refers to someone who has completed residency training (e.g. in internal medicine, pediatrics, general surgery, etc.) and is currently in a 1 to 3 year subspecialty training program (e.g. cardiology, pediatric nephrology, transplant surgery, etc.).

Medical Education Systems in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand

In these four countries the overarching responsibility of postgraduate specialist medical and surgical education is assigned to a number of Royal colleges. Examples of these colleges are: the Royal College of Surgeons, The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. When a graduate medical doctor completes the speciality training/examinations required by one of these colleges he or she is assigned the designation of Fellow of the corresponding college. This designation comes with a post-nominal designation such as FRCS (Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons), FRCP (C) (Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada) and FRANZCP (Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists).

Graduate school fellowships

In the context of graduate school in the United States and Canada, a fellow is a recipient of a fellowship. Examples are the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Rosenthal Fellowship and the Presidential Management Fellowship.

Academia administration

Harvard University

At Harvard and some other universities in the United States, "fellows" are members of the Board of Trustees who hold administrative positions as non-executive trustee rather than academics.

Cambridge and Oxford Colleges

Some senior administrators of a college such as bursars are made fellows, and thereby become members of the governing body, because of their importance to the running of a College.

Secondary education

Teaching fellows in the US

The term used, in the United States, the high school and middle school setting for students or adults that assist a teacher with one or more classes.[1]

Learned or professional societies

Fellows are the highest grade of membership of most professional or learned societies (see for example, the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators. Lower grades are referred to as members (who typically share voting rights with the fellows), or associates (who may or may not, depending on whether "associate" status is a form of full membership).

How a fellowship is acquired varies for each society, but may typically involve some or all of these:

  • A qualifying period in a lower grade
  • Passing a series of examinations
  • Nomination by two existing fellows who know the applicant professionally
  • Evidence of continued formal training post-qualification
  • Evidence of substantial achievement in the subject area
  • Submission of a thesis or portfolio of works which will be examined

Exclusive learned societies such as the Royal Society have Fellow as the only grade of membership, others like the Faculty of Young Musicians (now defunct) have members holding the post of Associate and posts Honoris Causa.

Honorary fellow

Appointment as an honorary fellow in a learned or professional society can be either to honour exceptional achievement and/or service within the professional domain of the awarding body or to honour contributions related to the domain from someone who is professionally outside of it. Membership of the awarding body may or may not be a requirement.

Industry / Corporate

Large corporations in research and development-intensive industries (IBM or Sun Microsystems in information technology, Bell Labs or L3 Communications in telecommunications, and Boston Scientific in Medical Devices for example) appoint a small number of senior scientists and engineers as fellows. Fellow is the most senior rank or title one can achieve on a technical career, though some fellows also hold business titles such as vice president or chief technology officer. Examples are:

Nonprofit / Government

The title fellow can be used for participants in a professional development program run by a nonprofit or governmental organization. This type of fellowship is a short term work opportunity (1-2 years)[2] for professionals who already possess some level of academic or professional expertise that will serve the nonprofit mission. Fellows are given a stipend as well as professional experience and leadership training. Examples are:

Notes and references


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Synonyms:
, , / , , / , , / (of a college, participating in its instruction and sharing its revenues)


Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fellow — Fel low, n. [OE. felawe, felaghe, Icel. f[=e]lagi, fr. f[=e]lag companionship, prop., a laying together of property; f[=e] property + lag a laying, pl. l[ o]g law, akin to liggja to lie. See {Fee}, and {Law}, {Lie} to be low.] 1. A companion; a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • fellow — in its meaning ‘belonging to the same class or activity’ used attributively (before a noun), is sometimes hyphened and sometimes written as a separate word: fellow citizen or fellow citizen. The modern tendency is to spell such combinations as… …   Modern English usage

  • fellow — Ⅰ. fellow UK US /ˈfeləʊ/ adjective [before noun] ► used to describe someone who has the same job or interests as you, or is in the same situation as you: »A member of staff was sacked for stealing from fellow employees. Ⅱ. fellow UK US /ˈfeləʊ/… …   Financial and business terms

  • Fellow — Тип Эмулятор Разработчик Dan Sutherland, Riot777, Peter Schau, Rainer Sinsch, Marco Nova Написана на Си со вставками на Ассемблере Операционная система Кроссплатформенное программное обеспечение Последняя версия v0.0.4a (xFellow), v0.4.4… …   Википедия

  • fellow — [fel′ō, fel′ə] n. [ME felaghe < Late OE feolaga, partner < feoh (see FEE) + laga, a laying down (see LAW), after ON félagi: basic sense, “one laying down wealth for a joint undertaking”; FELLOW senses 5, 6, 7, after L socius: see ASSOCIATE] …   English World dictionary

  • Fellow — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Fellow es un emulador diseñado para ejecutar programas de Amiga. Fue publicado un poco después de la primera versión funcional de UAE. La comptetitividad entre estos dos proyectos, hizo que se ambos se beneficiasen.… …   Wikipedia Español

  • fellow — c.1200, from O.E. feolaga fellow, partner, from O.N. felagi, from fe money (see FEE (Cf. fee)) + verbal base denoting lay (see LAY (Cf. lay) (v.)). Sense is of one who puts down money with another in a joint venture. Used familiarly since mid 15c …   Etymology dictionary

  • fellow — ● fellow nom masculin (anglais fellow, compagnon) Dans les universités anglaises, membre (en général enseignant) d une corporation jouissant des revenus attachés à un collège. (Le terme désigne aussi les membres de certaines sociétés savantes.) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • fellow — FÉLĂU/ s. m. (în universităţile engleze) membru al unei corporaţii. (< engl. fellow) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • fellow — ► NOUN 1) informal a man or boy. 2) a person in the same position or otherwise associated with another. 3) a thing of the same kind as or otherwise associated with another. 4) a member of a learned society. 5) Brit. an incorporated senior member… …   English terms dictionary

  • Fellow — Fel low, v. t. To suit with; to pair with; to match. [Obs.] Shak. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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