Christopher Plummer


Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer

Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus premiere - September 18, 2009 - Roy Thomspon Hall
Born Arthur Christopher Orme Plummer
December 13, 1929 (1929-12-13) (age 81)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Residence Connecticut, US
Toronto
Nationality Canadian
Education High School
Alma mater Canadian Repertory Theatre
Occupation Actor
Years active 1953–present
Home town Senneville, Quebec, Canada
Spouse Tammy Grimes (1956–60; divorce)
Patricia Lewis (1962–67; divorced)
Elaine Taylor (1970–present)
Children Amanda Plummer (with Tammy Grimes)
Parents John Orme Plummer,
Isabella Mary (nee Abbott)
Relatives John Abbott
(great-grandfather)

Arthur Christopher Orne Plummer, CC (born December 13, 1929) is a Canadian theatre, film and television actor. He made his film debut in 1957's Stage Struck, and notable early film performances include Night of the Generals, The Return of the Pink Panther and The Man Who Would Be King.

In a career that spans over five decades and includes substantial roles in each of the dramatic arts, Plummer is probably best known to audiences as the autocratic widower Captain Georg Ludwig von Trapp in the hit 1965 musical movie The Sound of Music opposite Julie Andrews.[1] Plummer has also tackled various television projects, including the legendary miniseries The Thorn Birds and the role of General Chang on Star Trek.[2]

His most recent film roles include the The Insider as Mike Wallace, the Disney-Pixar 2009 film Up as Charles Muntz, the Shane Acker production 9 as 1, The Last Station as Leo Tolstoy, and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus as Doctor Parnassus.

Contents

Early life

Plummer was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the son of Isabella Mary (née Abbott) and John Orme Plummer, who was secretary to the Dean of Sciences at McGill University. His maternal great-grandfather was Canadian Prime Minister Sir John Abbott.[3] Plummer was an only child. His parents were divorced shortly after he was born, and he was brought up at the Abbott family home in Senneville, Quebec, outside Montreal. He is bilingual.[4][5] He studied to be a concert pianist, but developed a love for the theatre at an early age, and began acting in high school. Plummer took up acting after seeing Laurence Olivier's film Henry V (1944).[6] He travelled by train to gain experience with the Canadian Repertory Theatre (the CRT) in Ottawa.

Theatre

Plummer has played most of the great roles in classic repertoire. In 1953, Plummer was the understudy to Tyrone Power in The Dark is Light Enough, in a production by Katharine Cornell in which she also starred. In his biography, Plummer states that Cornell was his 'sponsor.'[7] In 1973, he appeared on Broadway as the swordsman and poet Cyrano de Bergerac in Cyrano, a musical adaptation of Edmond Rostand's 1897 play Cyrano de Bergerac by Anthony Burgess (libretto and lyrics) and Michael J. Lewis (music). For that performance, Plummer won the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical and a Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance.

In 1971 he appeared at the National Theatre in the play Amphitryon 38, directed by Sir Laurence Olivier.[8]

In 2002, he appeared in a lauded production of King Lear, directed by Jonathan Miller and performed at the Stratford (Canada) Shakespeare Festival.[9] The production came to New York City's Lincoln Center in 2004,[10] where Plummer's performance as Lear garnered him his sixth Tony nomination.

He returned to Broadway in 2007 as Henry Drummond in a revival of Inherit the Wind, winning a Drama Desk Award nomination as well as his seventh Tony nomination.

Plummer returned to the stage at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in August 2008 in a critically acclaimed performance as Julius Caesar in George Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra directed by Tony winner Des McAnuff; this production was videotaped and shown in high-definition in Canadian cinemas on January 31, 2009 (with an encore presentation on February 23, 2009) and broadcast on April 4, 2009 on Bravo! in Canada. Plummer once again returned to the Stratford Festival in the summer of 2010 in The Tempest as the lead character, Prospero.

Film

Photograph by Carl Van Vechten, 1959.

Plummer's eclectic career on screen began in 1958 when Sidney Lumet cast him as a young writer in Stage Struck. Since then he has appeared in a vast number of notable films which include Oedipus the King, The Man Who Would Be King, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Jesus of Nazareth, The Return of the Pink Panther, The Royal Hunt of the Sun, Battle of Britain, Waterloo, The Silent Partner, Dragnet, Shadow Dancing, Inside Daisy Clover, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Malcolm X, Dolores Claiborne, Wolf, 12 Monkeys, The Insider, Murder by Decree, Somewhere in Time, Syriana, The New World, The Lake House and International Velvet.

One of Plummer's most critically acclaimed roles was that of television journalist Mike Wallace in Michael Mann's Oscar-nominated The Insider, for which he won Boston, Los Angeles, and National Society of Film Critics Awards for 'Best Supporting Actor'; he was also nominated for Chicago and Las Vegas Film Critics Awards, as well as a Satellite Award. Predictions of an Oscar nomination circulated, but such recognition only came in January 2010 when Plummer received his first Academy Award nomination for his portrayal of author Leo Tolstoy in The Last Station.[11] Speaking to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in an interview that aired on March 7, 2010,[12] Plummer appeared slightly irritated that it had taken so long to receive a personal Academy Award nomination, saying, "Well, I said it's about time! I mean, I'm 80 years old, for God's sake. Have mercy." Still, on Oscar night, March 7, 2010, Plummer lost the Best Supporting Actor nomination to Christoph Waltz in the Quentin Tarantino 2009 war film Inglourious Basterds.[13]

Other recent successes include his roles as Dr. Rosen in Ron Howard's Academy Award winning A Beautiful Mind, Arthur Case in Spike Lee's 2006 film Inside Man, and the philosopher Aristotle in Alexander, alongside Colin Farrell. In 2004, Plummer played John Adams Gates in National Treasure.

Plummer has also done some voice work, such as his role of Henri the pigeon in An American Tail, the villainous Grand Duke of Owls in Rock-a-Doodle, the antagonistic Charles Muntz in Up and the elder leader 1 in the Tim Burton-produced action/science fiction film 9.

In 1963, he was the subject of a short National Film Board of Canada documentary, 30 Minutes, Mister Plummer, directed by Anne Claire Poirier.[14]

In 2011, Plummer appeared in the feature length documentary The Captains. The film, which was written and directed by William Shatner sees Shatner interview Plummer at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival Theatre where they talk about their young careers, long lasting friendship, and Plummer's role as General Chang in Star Trek VI. The film also mentions how Shatner was Plummer's understudy for a production of Henry V at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival and that after Plummer had fell ill Shatner was forced to take the stage and thus earned his first big break.[15]

The Sound of Music

Owing to the box office success and continued popularity of The Sound of Music (1965), Plummer remains best known for his portrayal of Captain Von Trapp, a role he reportedly disliked.[16] He declined to attend the 40th Anniversary cast reunion, but did provide commentary on the 2005 DVD release. Plummer relented in 2010 for the 45th anniversary, and appeared with the full cast on The Oprah Winfrey Show on October 28, 2010.

Said Plummer of the movie and his role in a December 2009 interview, “I was a bit bored with the character (of Captain Von Trapp)," said Plummer. “Although we worked hard enough to make him interesting, it was a bit like flogging a dead horse. And the subject matter is not mine. I mean, it can’t appeal to every person in the world."[1] However, Plummer admits the movie itself was well made and, despite his reservations, is proud to be associated with a film with such mass appeal. "The world has seen (The Sound of Music) so many times. And there’s a whole new generation every year—poor kids—that have to sit through it (laughs). But it was a very well-made movie, and it’s a family movie and we haven't seen a family movie, I don't think, on that scale for ages. I don’t mind that. It just happened to be not my particular cup of tea."[17]

Television

Among his television appearances, which number almost a hundred, are the Emmy-nominated BBC production Hamlet at Elsinore, the five-time Emmy winning The Thorn Birds, the Emmy-winning Nuremberg, the Emmy-winning Little Moon of Alban and the Emmy-winning Moneychangers. In 1956, he appeared with Jason Robards and Constance Ford in an episode entitled "A Thief There Was" of CBS's anthology series Appointment with Adventure.

He co-starred in American Tragedy as F. Lee Bailey (for which he received a Golden Globe Nomination), and appeared in Four Minute Mile, Miracle Planet, and a documentary by Ric Burns about Eugene O'Neill. He received an Emmy nomination for his performance in Our Fathers and reunited with Julie Andrews for a television production of On Golden Pond. He also played Herod Antipas in the miniseries, Jesus of Nazareth and was the narrator for The Gospel of John. He also co-starred with Gregory Peck in The Scarlet and The Black.

He narrated the animated television series Madeline, for which he received an Emmy,[18] as well as the animated television series David the Gnome.

Plummer has also written for the stage, television and the concert-hall. Plummer and Sir Neville Marriner rearranged Shakespeare’s Henry V with Sir William Walton’s music as a concert piece. They recorded the work with Marriner's chamber orchestra the Academy of St Martin in the Fields.

He performed it and other works with the New York Philharmonic and symphony orchestras of London, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, Ohio, Philadelphia, Minneapolis, Toronto, Vancouver and Halifax. With Marriner he made his Carnegie Hall debut in his own arrangements of Mendelssohn's incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream.

Honours and awards

Plummer has won many honours in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Austria. He was the first winner of Canada's Genie Award, for Best Actor in Murder by Decree (1980) and has received three other Genie nominations. Plummer has won two Tony Awards (from seven nominations), and two Emmy Awards (six nominations) in the United States, and Great Britain's Evening Standard Award.

In 1968, he was invested as Companion of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest civilian honour. In 2001, he received the Canadian Governor General's Lifetime Achievement Award. He was made an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts at New York's Juilliard School and has received honorary doctorates from the University of Toronto, Ryerson University, McGill University, the University of Western Ontario, the University of Ottawa, and most recently the University of Guelph. Plummer was inducted into the American Theatre's Hall of Fame in 1986 and into Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto in 1997.

His awards include the following:

  • London Evening Standard Award as Best Actor (1961), for his portrayal of King Henry II in the stage play, Becket
  • Genie Award (1980), for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role in Murder by Decree
  • Tony Award for Best Leading Actor in a Musical (1974), for his lead role in Cyrano
  • Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play (1997), for his lead role in Barrymore
  • Emmy Award (1976), as Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series for Arthur Hailey's The Moneychangers
  • Emmy Award (1994), for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for his work on the Family Channel's Madeline children's series
  • Edwin Booth Lifetime Achievement Award (1997)
  • Jason Robards Award for Excellence in Theatre (2002)
  • Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award (1999) for The Insider
  • Boston Society of Film Critics Award (1999) for The Insider

Personal life

Plummer has been married three times. His first marriage, to Tony Award-winning actress Tammy Grimes, was in 1956 and lasted four years. The couple's daughter, Amanda Plummer (born 1957), is an acclaimed actress in her own right, but (as he mentions in his autobiography) he had no contact with her during her early and teenage years. They now maintain a friendly relationship. Plummer was married to journalist Patricia Lewis from May 4, 1962 until their divorce in 1967. He and his third wife, British dancer and actress Elaine Regina Taylor, have been married since 1970 and live in a 100-year-old converted farm house in Connecticut.[19]

In a 2005 interview with Entertainment Weekly, Plummer maintained that in their early days he and his fellow actors did not drink to excess "because we had problems...Nonsense! Actually, I was taught as a child to drink. I came from a family that loved wine. I was twelve, I think, when I was drinking wine with dinner."

Plummer's memoir, In Spite of Myself,[20] was published by Knopf Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., in November 2008.

Filmography

Year Film Role Notes
1958 Stage Struck Joe Sheridan
1958 Wind Across the Everglades Walt Murdock
1959 Doll's House, AA Doll's House Torvald Helmer
1961 Playdate Host
1962 Cyrano de Bergerac Cyrano de Bergerac
1964 Fall of the Roman Empire, TheThe Fall of the Roman Empire Commodus
1964 Hamlet at Elsinore Hamlet
1965 Sound of Music, TheThe Sound of Music Captain von Trapp
1966 Inside Daisy Clover Raymond Swan
1966 Triple Cross Eddie Chapman
1967 Night of the Generals, TheThe Night of the Generals Field Marshal Irwin Rommel
1968 Oedipus the King Oedipus
1968 Nobody Runs Forever Sir James Quentin
1969 Battle of Britain Squadron Leader Colin Harvey
1969 Royal Hunt of the Sun, TheThe Royal Hunt of the Sun Atahualpa
1969 Lock Up Your Daughters! Lord Foppington
1970 Waterloo Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
1971 Don Juan in Hell Don Juan
1973 Pyx, TheThe Pyx Dt. Sgt. Jim Henderson
1974 After the Fall Quentin
1974 Happy Prince, TheThe Happy Prince The Happy Prince
1975 Spiral Staircase, TheThe Spiral Staircase Dr. Joe Sherman
1975 Return of the Pink Panther, TheThe Return of the Pink Panther Sir Charles Litton
1975 Conduct Unbecoming Maj. Alastair Wimbourne
1975 Man Who Would Be King, TheThe Man Who Would Be King Rudyard Kipling
1975 Day That Shook the World, TheThe Day That Shook the World Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
1976 Aces High Capt. 'Uncle' Sinclair
1976 Arthur Hailey's the Moneychangers Roscoe Heyward Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor – Miniseries or a Movie
1977 Jesus of Nazareth Herod Antipas
1977 Assignment, TheThe Assignment Captain Behounek
1977 Disappearance, TheThe Disappearance Deverell
1977 Silver Blaze Sherlock Holmes
1978 Silent Partner, TheThe Silent Partner Harry Reikle
1978 International Velvet John Seaton
1979 Starcrash Emperor
1979 Murder by Decree Sherlock Holmes Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role
1979 Riel John A. Macdonald
1979 Hanover Street Paul Sellinger
1980 Desperate Voyage Burrifous
1980 Shadow Box, TheThe Shadow Box Brian
1980 Somewhere in Time William Fawcett Robinson
1981 When the Circus Came to Town Duke Royal
1981 Eyewitness Joseph
1981 Amateur, TheThe Amateur Professor Lakos Nominated – Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role
1982 Little Gloria... Happy at Last Reggie Vanderbilt
1983 Scarlet and the Black, TheThe Scarlet and the Black Col. Herbert Kappler
1983 Thorn Birds, TheThe Thorn Birds Archbishop Vittorio Contini-Verchese Nominated – Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor – Miniseries or a Movie
1983 Prototype Dr. Carl Forrester
1984 Lily in Love Fitzroy Wynn/Roberto Terranova
1984 Dreamscape Bob Blair
1984 Highpoint James Hatcher
1984 Terror in the Aisles Archival appearance
1984 Ordeal by Innocence Leo Argyle
1985 Játszani kell
1985 World of David the Gnome, TheThe World of David the Gnome
1985 Rumpelstiltskin Narrator
1986 Boy in Blue, TheThe Boy in Blue Knox
1986 Crossings Armand DeVilliers
1986 Boss' Wife, TheThe Boss' Wife Mr. Roalvang
1986 American Tail, AnAn American Tail Henri Voice talent
1986 Spearfield's Daughter Lord Jack Cruze
1986 Vampire in Venice Professor Paris Catalano
1987 Dragnet Reverend Jonathan Whirley
1987 Hazard of Hearts, AA Hazard of Hearts Sir Giles Staverley
1987 Man Who Planted Trees, TheThe Man Who Planted Trees Narrator
1987 Gnomes' Great Adventure, TheThe Gnomes' Great Adventure Narrator
1988 Light Years Metamorphis
1988 Shadow Dancing Edmund Beaumont
1988 Making of a Legend: Gone with the Wind, TheThe Making of a Legend: Gone with the Wind Narrator
1988 I Love N.Y. John Robertson Yeats
1989 Souvenir Ernst Kestner
1989 Nabokov on Kafka Vladimir Nabokov
1989 Mindfield Doctor Satorius
1989 Kingsgate
1990 Where the Heart Is Jerry
1990 Ghost in Monte Carlo, AA Ghost in Monte Carlo The Grand Duke Ivan
1990 Red Blooded American Girl Dr. John Alcore
1990 Money Martin Yahl
1990 Madeline Narrator
1990 Counterstrike Alexander Addington
1991 Firehead Col. Garland Vaughn
1991 Young Catherine Sir Charles
1991 Marriage: Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz, AA Marriage: Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz Alfred Stieglitz
1991 Rock-a-Doodle Grand Duke Voice talent
1991 Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country General Chang
1991 Berlin Lady Wilhem Speer
1991 First Circle, TheThe First Circle Victor Abakumov
1992 Secrets Mel Wexler
1992 Impolite Naples O'Rorke Nominated – Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role
1992 Malcolm X Chaplain Gill
1992 Liar's Edge Harry Weldon
1993 Sidney Sheldon's A Stranger in the Mirror Clifton Lawrence
1993 Little Crooked Christmas Tree, TheThe Little Crooked Christmas Tree
1993 Madeline Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance
1994 Wolf Raymond Alden
1994 Crackerjack Ivan Getz
1995 Dolores Claiborne Det. John Mackey
1995 Harrison Bergeron John Klaxon
1995 12 Monkeys Dr. Goines
1996 We the Jury Wilfred Fransiscus
1996 Skeletons R. Carlyle
1996 Conspiracy of Fear, TheThe Conspiracy of Fear Joseph Wakeman
1997 Arrow, TheThe Arrow George Hees
1997 Babes in Toyland Barnaby Crookedman Voice talent
1998 Winchell Franklin D. Roosevelt
1998 Hidden Agenda Ulrich Steiner
1998 First Christmas: The Story of the First Christmas Snow, TheThe First Christmas: The Story of the First Christmas Snow Narrator
1998 Clown at Midnight, TheThe Clown at Midnight Mr. Caruthers
1999 Celebrate the Century
1999 Madeline: Lost in Paris Narrator
1999 Insider, TheThe Insider Mike Wallace Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture
2000 Nuremberg Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe
2000 Dinosaur Hunter, TheThe Dinosaur Hunter Hump Hinton
2000 Possessed Archbishop Hume
2000 American Tragedy F. Lee Bailey Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film
2000 Dracula 2000 Abraham Van Helsing
2000 Star Trek: Klingon Academy General Chang Video game voiceover
2001 Leo's Journey Narrator
2001 On Golden Pond Norman Thayer
2001 Lucky Break
2001 Blackheart Holmes
2001 Beautiful Mind, AA Beautiful Mind Dr. Rosen Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2001 Full Disclosure Robert Lecker
2002 Night Flight 'Flash' Harry Peters
2002 Ararat David Nominated – Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role
2002 Agent of Influence John Watkins
2002 Nicholas Nickleby Ralph Nickleby National Board of Review Award for Best Cast
2002 Tma
2003 Blizzard Santa Claus Nominated – Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role
2003 Gospel of John, TheThe Gospel of John Narrator
2003 Cold Creek Manor Mr. Massie
2004 National Treasure John Adams Gates
2004 Alexander Aristotle
2005 Our Fathers Cardinal Bernard Law Television film
Nominated – Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor – Miniseries or a Movie
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
2005 Must Love Dogs Bill Nolan
2005 Syriana Dean Whiting
2005 New World, TheThe New World Captain Newport
2006 Inside Man Arthur Case
2006 Lake House, TheThe Lake House Simon Wyler
2007 Man in the Chair Flash Madden
2007 Closing the Ring Jack
2007 Emotional Arithmetic David Winters Nominated – Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role
2007 Already Dead Dr. Heller
2008 Summit, TheThe Summit P.J. Aimes TV Miniseries: 2 Episodes
2009 Caesar and Cleaopatra Julius Caesar also executive producer
2009 Up Charles Muntz voice talent
2009 My Dog Tulip J. R. Ackerley voice talent
2009 9 1 voice talent
2009 Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, TheThe Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus Doctor Parnassus
2009 Last Station, TheThe Last Station Leo Tolstoy Nominated – Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
Nominated – Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role
2011 Priest Monsignor Orelas
2011 Beginners Hal Hollywood Film Festival Award for Best Supporting Actor
2011 Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, TheThe Girl with the Dragon Tattoo Henrik Vanger filming
2011 The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim Arngeir Video game voiceover

References

  1. ^ a b "At 80, Plummer has arrived at his ‘Station’", Boston Globe (2010-01-31). Retrieved on 2011-07-02.
  2. ^ Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens (1997) The Art of Star Trek, pp. 262–265. Simon and Schuster ISBN 0671017764
  3. ^ CBC: Life And Times. Cbc.ca (2002-11-12). Retrieved on 2011-07-02.
  4. ^ Witchel, Alex (November 19, 2008). "Christopher Plummer's legendary life, wonderfully retold". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/21/arts/21iht-IDSIDE20.1.18821148.html. Retrieved December 16, 2009. 
  5. ^ Hartigan, Patti (January 19, 1997). "Starring as the Star-Crossed Actor Who was Also a Rake and Rebel, Christopher Plummer does Barrymore by the Book". Boston Globe. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BG&p_theme=bg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EADDC8B6EB6EACF&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved December 16, 2009. 
  6. ^ Boca Raton News Apr 28, 1983 (2010). "Stars gather to Honour Olivier's Career". filmreference. http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=6MgPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1owDAAAAIBAJ&pg=5187,7955556&dq=laurence+olivier&hl=en. Retrieved September 6, 2010. [dead link]
  7. ^ Plummer, In Spite of Myself: A Memoir, Alfred A. Knopf (2008)
  8. ^ "Olivier at Work: The National Years", Lyn Haill ed. (1989), p 105
  9. ^ Ben Brantley (September 12, 2002). "Every Inch a King, Every Moment a Revelation". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/12/arts/theater/12LEAR.html. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  10. ^ Ben Brantley (March 5, 2004). "A Fiery Fall Into the Abyss, Unknowing And Unknown". The New York Times. http://theater2.nytimes.com/mem/theater/treview.html?res=9B02E1D7133FF936A35750C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ "Christopher Plummer interview". CBC News. March 8, 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/video/#/News/Arts_and_Entertainment/1244504193/ID=1445422951. 
  13. ^ Oscar – The official 2011 site for the 83rd Academy Awards – Winners. Oscars.go.com (2011-02-27). Retrieved on 2011-07-02.
  14. ^ "30 Minutes, Mister Plummer". Documentary film. National Film Board of Canada. http://nfb.ca/film/30_minutes_mister_plummer/. Retrieved October 9, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Exclusive Clips from William Shatner's 'The Captains'". Trekmovie.com. http://trekmovie.com/2011/07/18/exclusive-clips-from-william-shatners-the-captains-how-to-watch-doc-for-free-online/. 
  16. ^ New York Times, 12/19/08
  17. ^ Christopher Plummer for "The Last Station" | Feature. Dark Horizons (2009-12-28). Retrieved on 2011-07-02.
  18. ^ The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946-Present. Ballantine Books. 2003. p. 1444. ISBN 0-345-45542-8. 
  19. ^ Steve Daly (November 18, 2005). "Captain, Our Captain". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1128481,00.htm. Retrieved April 10, 2008. 
  20. ^ In Spite of Myself by Christopher Plummer – Book – eBook. Random House (2008-11-04). Retrieved on 2011-07-02.

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