- The Tempest
name = The Tempest
caption = Prospero, Ariel and Miranda by William Hamilton
genre = Comedy / Romance
setting = Desert isle
subject = Retribution / Forgiveness
premiere = November 1, 1611 (probable)
Whitehall Palace, London, England
orig_lang = English
"The Tempest" is a comedy written by
William Shakespeare. It is generally dated to 1610-11 and accepted as the last play written solely by him, [Barton (1968, 22); Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 1); de Grazia and Wells (2001, xx)] although some scholars have argued for an earlier dating. [Hunter, Rev. Joseph, "Disquisition on the Scene, Origin, Date & etc. of Shakespeare's Tempest"; Elze, Karl. "The Date of the Tempest" in "Essays on Shakespeare," translated with the author's sanction by Dora L. Schmitz. London: Macmillan & Co., 1874 ] While listed as a comedyin its initial publication in the First Folioof 1623, many modern editors have relabelled the play a romance. It did not attract a significant amount of attention before the closing of the theatres in 1642, and after the Restoration it attained great popularity only in adapted versions. [Orgel (1987, 64-68)] Theatre productions returned conclusively to the original Shakespearean text in the mid-nineteenth century. [Orgel (1987, 68)] In the twentieth century, the play received a sweeping re-appraisal by critics and scholars, to the point that it is now considered one of Shakespeare's greatest works. [Frye (1970, 24)]
There is no obvious, single source for the plot of "The Tempest". Instead, the play seems to have been created out of an amalgamation of sources. [Coursen (2000, 7)] Since source scholarship began in the eighteenth century, researchers have suggested that passages from Erasmus's "Naufragium" ("The Shipwreck") (1523, English translation 1606) and Richard Eden's 1555 translation of Peter Martyr's "De orbo novo", or "Decades of the New Worlde Or West India" (1530), influenced the composition of the play. [(Eden: Kermode 1958 xxxii-xxxiii; Erasmus: Bullough 1975 VIII: 334-339)] However, most Shakespearean scholars see parallel imagery in a work by
William Strachey, an eyewitness report of the real-life shipwreck of the " Sea Venture" in 1609 on the islands of Bermudawhile sailing toward Virginia. A character in the play makes reference to the "still-vexed Bermoothes". Strachey's report was written in 1610; although it was not printed until 1625, it circulated in manuscript and many critics think that Shakespeare may have taken the idea of the shipwreck and some images from it. Another Sea Venture survivor, Sylvester Jordain, also published an account, "A Discovery of The Barmudas", so the event would have been widely known. However, literary scholar Kenneth Muir believed that even though " [t] here is little doubt that Shakespeare had read . . . William Strachey's [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/TR%20original.doc "True Reportory of the Wracke"] " and other accounts, " [t] he extent of the verbal echoes of [the Bermuda] pamphlets has, I think, been exaggerated. There is hardly a shipwreck in history or fiction which does not mention splitting, in which the ship is not lightened of its cargo, in which the passengers do not give themselves up for lost, in which north winds are not sharp, and in which no one gets to shore by clinging to wreckage," and goes on to say that "Strachey's account of the shipwreck is blended with memories of St Paul's–in which too not a hair perished–and with Erasmus' colloquy." [Muir (1978, 280)] The overall form of the play is modelled heavily on traditional Italian commedia dell'arteperformances, which sometimes featured a magusand his daughter, their supernatural attendants, and a number of rustics. The commedia often featured a clown-figure known as " Arlecchino" (or his predecessor, " Zanni") and his partner " Brighella," who bear a striking resemblance to Stephano and Trinculo; a lecherous Neapolitan hunch-back named " Pulcinella," who corresponds to Caliban; and the clever and beautiful "Isabella," whose wealthy and manipulative father, " Pantalone," constantly seeks a suitor for her, thus mirroring the relationship between Miranda and Prospero. [Coursen (2000, 13)]
In addition, one of Gonzalo's speeches is derived from "On Cannibals", an essay by
Montaignethat praises the society of the Caribbeannatives "It is a nation ...that hath no kinde of traffike, no knowledge of letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politike superioritie; no use of service of riches, or of poverty; no contracts, no successions, no dividences, no ocupation but idle; no respect of kinred, but common, no apparrell but naturall, no manuring of lands, no use of wine corne, or mettle. The very words that import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulation, covetousnes, envie, detraction, and pardon, were never heard of amongst them." [Montaigne, 102] [Coursen (2000, 11-12)] and much of Prospero's renunciative speech is taken word for word from a speech by Medeain Ovid's Metamorphoses. [Gilman (1980, 214-230)]
Date and Text
The Tempest is generally accepted to be the last play written solely by Shakespeare, [Barton (1968, 22); Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 1); de Grazia and Wells (2001, xx)] although some scholars point out that it is impossible to determine if it was written before, after, or at the same time as
The Winter's Tale, [Orgel (1987, 63-64), Dating of The Winter's Tale has been equally problematic - according to Tannenbaum (1966 ) "scholars had been disputing for considerably more than half a century whether "The Winter's Tale" was one of Shakespeare's earliest plays or one of his latest." Tannenbaum reports that "Malone had at first decided that it was written in 1594; subsequently he seems to have assigned it to 1604; later still, to 1613; and finally he settled on 1610-11. Hunter assigned it to about 1605."] while other scholars have argued for an earlier dating. Generally dated to 1610-11, the play was entered into the Stationers' Registerby Edward Blounton November 8, 1623. It was one of sixteen Shakespearean plays Blount registered on that date.
Compared to many of Shakespeare's other plays, "The Tempest" has relatively few textual problems. The text as we have it has a simple history: it was published in the
First Folioin December 1623. In that volume, "The Tempest" is the first play in the section of Comedies, and therefore the opening play of the collection. This printing includes more stage directions than any of Shakespeare's other plays, although these directions seem to have been written more for a reader than for an actor. This leads scholars to infer that the editors of the First Folio, John Hemingesand Henry Condell, added the directions to the folio to aid the reader, and that they were not necessarily Shakespeare's original intent. Scholars have also wondered about the Masque in Act 4, which seems to have been added as an afterthought, possibly in honor of the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Frederick in 1613. However, other scholars see this as unlikely, arguing that to take the Masque out of the play creates more problems than it solves. [Coursen (2000, 1-2)]
The 1610-11 dating of "The Tempest" has been challenged by numerous scholars, most recently by researchers Roger Stritmatter and Lynne Kositsky [Shakespeare and the Voyagers Revisited, Stritmatter and Kositsky Review of English Studies, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2007; 58, [http://www.shakespearefellowship.org/virtualclassroom/tempest/kositsky-stritmatter%20Tempest%20Table.htm abbreviated Web version] ] who argue that Strachey's narrative could not have furnished an inspiration for Shakespeare, claiming that Strachey's letter was not put into its extant form until after the "Tempest" had already been performed on Nov. 1, 1611. The notion of an early date for "Tempest" has in fact a long history in Shakespearean scholarship, going back to 19th century scholars such as Hunter [Hunter, Rev. Joseph, "Disquisition on the Scene, Origin, Date & etc. of Shakespeare's Tempest"] and Elze [Elze, Karl. "The Date of the Tempest" in "Essays on Shakespeare," translated with the author's sanction by Dora L. Schmitz. London: Macmillan & Co., 1874 ] , who both critiqued the widespread belief that the play depended on the Strachey letter.
Prospero, a magician and the Duke of Milan before being usurped by his brother Antonio. Living in exile on a desert isle with his daughter Miranda, he is the master of a monster called Caliban, and a sprite called Ariel. The storm is conjured by Prospero as his enemies near the isle. for|other meanings|Prospero (disambiguation)
*Miranda, Prospero's daughter, often called "a wonder" (due to the root of "Miranda" being Latin for "wonder")
*Ariel, an airy spirit who is commanded by Prospero
*Caliban, a monster, son of Sycorax and serving as Prospero's slave
*Alonso, King of Naples and father of Ferdinand. Alonso aided Antonio in unseating Prospero as Duke of Milan twelve years before. As he appears in the play, however, he is acutely aware of the consequences of all his actions. He blames his decision to marry his daughter to the Prince of Tunis on the apparent death of his son. In addition, after the magical banquet, he regrets his role in the usurping of Prospero.
*Sebastian, Alonso's brother
*Antonio, Prospero's brother, the usurping Duke of Milan
*Ferdinand, Alonso's son and eventually Miranda's lover
*Gonzalo, a wise, good-hearted old councillor who provided
Prosperowith magic books when Antonioset him adrift in a boat. He tries to comfort King Alonso after he loses his son Ferdinand. Gonzalo sees Caliban for more than a demonic beast, and is Shakespeare's "role model" for Elizabethan society.
*Adrian and Francisco, dim-witted lords in the train of Antonio
*Trinculo, a jester who plots against Prospero with Stephano and Caliban
*Stephano, a drunken butler who plots against Prospero with Trinculo and Caliban
*Master of the ship
*Iris, Ceres and Juno, spirits
*Sycorax, a witch and Caliban's mother (mentioned, but deceased when the action of the play begins)
Prospero, rightful Duke of Milan, and his daughter, Miranda, have been stranded for twelve years on an island, after Prospero's jealous brother Antonio—helped by Alonso, the King of Naples—deposed him and set him adrift with the three-year-old Miranda. Prospero secretly sought the help of Gonzaloand their small and shoddy boat had secretly been upgraded to be more than sea worthy, it had been supplied with plenty of foodand water, it had an excellent libraryand contained surviving material in case the boat capsized. Possessed of magic powers due to his great learning and prodigious library, Prospero is reluctantly served by a spirit, Ariel, whom he had rescued from imprisonment in a tree. Ariel was trapped therein by the Algerian witch Sycorax, who had been exiled to the island years before and died prior to Prospero's arrival; Prospero maintains Ariel's loyalty by repeatedly promising to release the "airy spirit" from servitude, but continually defers that promise to a future date, namely at the end of the play. The witch's son Caliban, a deformed monster and the only non-spiritual inhabitant before the arrival of Prospero, was initially adopted and raised by the Milanese sorcerer. He taught Prospero how to survive on the island, while Prospero and Miranda taught Caliban religion and their own language. Following Caliban's attempted rape of Miranda, he had been compelled by Prospero to serve as the sorcerer's slave, carrying wood and gathering pig nuts. In slavery Caliban has come to view Prospero as a usurper, and grown to resent the magician and his daughter, feeling that they have betrayed his trust. Prospero and Miranda in turn view Caliban with contempt and disgust.
The play opens as Prospero, having divined that his brother, Antonio, is on a ship passing close by the island (having returned from the nuptials of Alonso's daughter Claribel with the King of Tunis), has raised a storm (the tempest of the title) which causes the ship to run aground. Also on the ship are Antonio's friend and fellow conspirator, King Alonso, Alonso's brother Sebastian, Alonso's royal advisor Gonzalo, and Alonso's son, Ferdinand. Prospero, by his spells, contrives to separate the survivors of the wreck into several groups and Alonso and Ferdinand are separated, and believe one another dead. , reprimanding them for their betrayal of Prospero. Alonso, Sebastian and Antonio are deeply affected while Gonzalo is unruffled. Prospero manipulates the course of his enemies' path through the island, drawing them closer and closer to him. In the conclusion, all the main characters are brought together before Prospero, who forgives Alonso (as well as his own brother's betrayal, and warns Antonio and Sebastian about further attempts at betrayal) and finally uses his magic to ensure that everyone returns to Italy.
Ariel (as his final task for Prospero) is charged to prepare the proper sailing weather to guide Alonso and his entourage back to the Royal fleet and then to Naples. Ariel is set free to the elements. Prospero pardons Caliban who is sent to prepare Prospero’s cell, to which Alonso and his party are invited for a final night before their departure. Prospero indicates he intends to entertain them with the story of his life on the island. In his epilogue, Prospero invites the audience to set him free from the island by their applause.
Analysis and criticism
The story draws heavily from the tradition of the Romance, which featured a fictitious narrative set far away from ordinary life. Romances were typically based around themes such as the supernatural, wandering, exploration and discovery. Romances were often set in coastal regions, and typically featured exotic, fantastical locations; they featured themes of transgression and redemption, loss and retrieval, exile and reunion. As a result, while "The Tempest" was originally listed as a comedy in the
First Folioof Shakespeare's plays, subsequent editors have chosen to give it the more specific label of Shakespearean romance. Like the other romances, the play was influenced by the then-new genre of tragicomedy, introduced by John Fletcher in the first decade of the seventeenth century and developed in the Beaumont and Fletchercollaborations, as well as by the explosion of development in the courtly masquebeing conducted by Ben Jonsonand Inigo Jonesat the same time. [Hirst, 13-16, 35-38]
"The Tempest" differs from Shakespeare's other plays in its observation of a stricter, more organized
neo-classicalstyle. The clearest indication of this is Shakespeare's respect for the three unities in the play: the Unities of Time, Place, and Action. The play's events unfold in real time before the audience, Prospero even declaring at the end of the play that everything has happened in mere hours. All action is unified into one basic plot: Prospero's struggle to regain his dukedom; it is also confined to one place: Prospero's Island. Shakespeare's other plays rarely respected the three unities, taking place in separate locations miles apart and over several days or even years. [Hirst, 34-35.] One author notes: "Why Shakespeare observed the three unities in "The Tempest" is not known. In most of his other plays, events occur on several days and characters visit numerous settings. Some scholars have suggested that, because "The Tempest" contains so much fantasy, Shakespeare may have wanted to observe the unities to help audiences suspend their disbelief. Others have pointed to criticism that Shakespeare received for ignoring the unities; they say he may have wanted to prove once and for all that he could follow rules if he felt like it." [ [http://www.glencoe.com/sec/literature/litlibrary/pdf/tempest.pdf Glencoe Study Guide] Accessed 15 November 2007]
The entire play is set on a fictional Island, which many scholars agree is meant to be located in the Mediterranean Sea. However, another reading of the play with a large following states that the play is meant to take place in the New World, as parts of it read like records of Spanish conquest in the Americas. Still others argue that the Island can represent any land that has been colonized. [Demaray 24-26]
Themes and motifs
that Prospero creates.Fact|date=February 2008
Early critics saw this constant allusion to the theatre as an indication that Prospero was meant to represent Shakespeare; the character's renunciation of magic thus signalling Shakespeare's farewell to the stage. This theory has fallen into disfavour;Fact|date=November 2007 but certainly "The Tempest" is interested in the way that, like Prospero's "Art", the
theatrecan be both an immoral occupation and yet morally transformative for its audience.Fact|date=February 2008
Magic was a controversial subject in Shakespeare's day. In Italy in 1600,
Giordano Brunowas burnt at the stake for his occult studies, and John Dee, an Englishman and student of supernatural phenomena, died in disgrace in 1608. Outside the Catholic world, in Protestant England, where Shakespeare wrote "The Tempest," magic was also taboo. While not emulating his great aunt, the Bloody Queen Mary, it must be remembered that King James I - under whose rule "The Tempest" was written - both had a Catholic wife and oversaw the translation of the King James Bible. Yet, not all magic was considered evil. [Albert J. Loomie, "King James I's Catholic Court," The Huntington Library Quarterly 34, no. 4 (Aug, 1971): 303-316] Several scientists took what they called a more "rational" approach to the study of the supernatural, determined to discover the workings behind unusual phenomena. Henricus Cornelius Agrippawas one such scientist, who published in "De Occulta Philosophia" his observations of "divine" magic. Agrippa's work influenced Dr. John Dee, an Englishman. Both Agrippa and Dee describe a kind of magic similar to Prospero's—one that is based on 16th-century science, rationality, and divinity, rather than the occult. When King James took the throne, Dee found himself under attack for his beliefs, but was able to defend himself successfully by explaining the divine nature of his profession. [Hirst, 23-25]
Shakespeare is also careful to make the distinction that Prospero is a rational, and not an occultist, magician. He does this by providing a contrast to him in Sycorax. Sycorax is said to have worshiped the devil and been full of "earthy and abhored commands". She was unable to control Ariel, who was "too delicate" for such dark tasks. Prospero's rational goodness enables him to control Ariel where Sycorax can only trap him in a tree. Sycorax's magic is frequently described as destructive and terrible, where Prospero's is said to be wondrous and beautiful. Prospero seeks to set things right in his world through his magic, and once that is done, he renounces it, setting Ariel free. [Hirst, 24-25]
In Shakespeare's day, most of the planet was still being "discovered", and stories were coming back from distant islands, with myths about the Cannibals of the Caribbean, faraway Edens, and distant Tropical
Utopias. With the character Caliban (whose name is roughly anagrammatic to Cannibal), Shakespeare may be offering an in-depth discussion into the morality of colonialism. Different views are discussed, with examples including Gonzalo's Utopia, Prospero's enslavement of Caliban, and Caliban's subsequent resentment. Caliban is also shown as one of the most natural characters in the play, being very much in touch with the natural world (and modern audiences have come to view him as far nobler than his two Old Worldfriends, Stephanoand Trinculo, although the original intent of the author may have been different). There is evidence that Shakespeare drew on Montaigne's essay "Of Cannibals", which discusses the values of societies insulated from European influences, while writing The Tempest. [Carey-Webb (1993, 30-35)]
Beginning in about 1950, with the publication of "
Psychology of Colonization" by Octave Mannoni, "The Tempest" was viewed more and more through the lens of postcolonialtheory. This new way of looking at the text explored the effect of the colonizer (Prospero) on the colonized (Ariel and Caliban). Though Ariel is often overlooked in these debates in favor of the more intriguing Caliban, he is still involved in many of the debates. [Cartelli (1995, 82-102)] The French writer Aimé Césaire, in his play " Une Tempête" sets "The Tempest" in Haiti, portraying Ariel as a mulattowho, unlike the more rebellious Caliban, feels that negotiation and partnership is the way to freedom from the colonizers. Fernandez Retamarsets his version of the play in Cuba, and portrays Ariel as a wealthy Cuban (in comparison to the lower-class Caliban) who also must choose between rebellion or negotiation. [Nixon (1987, 557-578)] Although scholars have suggested that his dialogue with Caliban in Act two, Scene one, contains hints of a future alliance between the two when Prospero leaves, in general, Ariel is viewed by scholars as the good servant, in comparison with the conniving Caliban—a view which Shakespeare's audience would have shared. [Dolan (1992, 317-340)] Ariel is used by some postcolonial writers as a symbol of their efforts to overcome the effects of colonization on their culture. Michelle Cliff, for example, a Jamaican author, has said that she tries to combine Caliban and Ariel within herself to create a way of writing that represents her culture better. Such use of Ariel in postcolonial thought is far from uncommon, as Ariel is even the namesake of a scholarly journalcovering post-colonial criticism. [Cartelli (1995, 82-102)]
"The Tempest" has only one visible female character in Miranda. Other women, such as Caliban's mother Sycorax, Miranda's mother, and Alonso's daughter Claribel, are only mentioned. Because of the small role women play in the story in comparison to other Shakespeare plays, "The Tempest" has not attracted much feminist criticism. Miranda is typically viewed as being completely deprived of freedom by her father. Her only duty in his eyes is to remain chaste.
Ann Thompsonargues that Miranda, in a manner typical of women in a colonial atmosphere, has completely internalized the patriarchal order of things, thinking of herself as a subordinate to her father. [Coursen, 87-88]
The less-prominent women of the play are subordinated as well, as they are only described through the men of the play. Most of what is said about Sycorax, for example, is said by Prospero. Further, Stephen Orgel notes that Prospero has never met Sycorax—all he learned about her he learned from Ariel. According to Orgel, Prospero's suspicion of women makes him an unreliable source of information. Orgel suggests that he is skeptical of female virtue in general, citing his ambiguous remark about his wife's fidelity.Orgel, Stephen. "Prospero's Wife." "Representations." pgs. 1-13] "
hakespeare's day to the Interregnum
The first recorded performance of "The Tempest" occurred on
November 1, 1611, when the King's Men acted the play before James I and the English royal court at Whitehall Palaceon Hallowmas night. It was also one of the eight Shakespearean plays acted at Court during the winter of 1612-13, as part of the festivities surrounding the marriage of Princess Elizabeth with Frederick V, the Elector of the Palatinate in the Rhineland. [Halliday (486)] There is no public performance recorded prior to the Restoration; but in his preface to the 1667 Dryden/Davenant version (see below) Sir William Davenantstates that "The Tempest" had been performed at the Blackfriars Theatre. Careful consideration of stage directions within the play supports this, strongly suggesting that the play was written with Blackfriars Theatrerather than the Globe Theatrein mind. [Gurr (1989, 91-102); Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 6-7).]
17th-19th century adaptations
Adaptations of the play, not Shakespeare's original, dominated the performance history of "The Tempest" from the restoration until the mid-nineteenth century. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 76)]
All theatres were closed down by the
puritangovernment during the Commonwealth. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, two patent companies (the King's Companyand the Duke's Company) were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them. [Marsden (2002, 21)] Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company had the rights to perform Shakespeare's "Tempest". However, the play was considered unsuitable for Restoration audiences, and in 1667 it was heavily cut and adapted by Davenant and John Dryden, and given the title "The Tempest or, The Enchanted Island" . [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 76)] Dryden and Davenant added characters and plotlines: Miranda has a sister, named Dorinda; and Caliban a sister, also named Sycorax. As a parallel to Shakespeare's Miranda/Ferdinand plot, Prospero has a foster-son, Hippolito, who has never set eyes on a woman. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 76-77)] Hippolito was a popular breeches role, a man played by a woman, popular with restoration theatre management for the opportunity to reveal actresses' legs. [Marsden (2002, 26)] Scholar Michael Dobson has described "Enchanted Island" as "the most frequently revived play of the entire Restoration" and as establishing the importance of enhanced and additional roles for women. [Michael Dobson's "The Making of the National Poet" cited by Tatspaugh (2003, 527) ]
Thomas Shadwellre-adapted Dryden and Davenant's "Enchanted Island" as an opera: although in Restoration theatre "opera" did not have its modern meaning, instead referring to a play with added songs, closer in style to a modern musical comedy. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 76-79)] Restoration playgoers appear to have regarded the Dryden/Davenant/Shadwell version as Shakespeare's: Samuel Pepys, for example, described it as "an old play of Shakespeares" in his diary. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 76)] The opera was extremely popular, and Pepys considered it "full of so good variety, that I cannot be more pleased almost in a comedy" [Pepys diary, cited by Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 77)] The Prospero in this version is very different from Shakespeare's: Eckhard Auberlen describes him as "...reduced to the status of a Polonius-like overbusy father, intent on protecting the chastity of his two sexually naive daughters while planning advantageous dynastic marriages for them." [Auberlen (1991) cited by Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 78-79)] "Enchanted Island" was successful enough to provoke a parody, "The Mock Tempest", written by Thomas Duffett for the King's Companyin 1675. It opened with what appeared to be a tempest, but turned out to be a riot in a brothel. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 80)]
In the early eighteenth century, the Dryden/Davenant/Shadwell version dominated the stage. Ariel was (with two exceptions) played by a woman, and (invariably) by a graceful dancer and superb singer. Caliban was a comedian's role, played by actors "known for their awkward figures". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 82)] In 1756,
David Garrickstaged another operatic version, a "three-act extravaganza" with music by John Christopher Smith. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 83)]
"The Tempest" was one of the staples of the repertoire of Romantic Era theatres.
John Philip Kembleproduced an acting version which was closer to Shakespeare's original, but nevertheless retained Dorinda and Hippolito. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 83)] Kemble was much-mocked for his insistence on archaic pronunciation of Shakespeare's texts, including "aitches" for "aches". It was said that spectators "packed the pit, just to enjoy hissing Kemble's delivery of 'I'll rack thee with old cramps, / Fill all they bones with aches'." ["The Tempest" 1.2.370-371] [Moody (2002, 44)] The actor-managers of the Romantic Era established the fashion for opulence in sets and costumes which would dominate Shakespeare performances until the late nineteenth century: Kemble's Dorinda and Miranda, for example, were played "in white ornamented with spotted furs". [Moody (2203,47)]
18th-19th century performances
In 1757, a year after the debut of his operatic version,
David Garrickproduced a heavily-cut performance of Shakespeare's script at Drury Lane, and it was revived, profitably, throughout the century. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 83)] However, it was not until William Charles Macready's influential production in 1838, that Shakespeare's text established its primacy over the adapted and operatic versions which had been popular for most of the previous two centuries. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 89)] The performance was particularly admired for George Bennett's performance as Caliban, described as "maintaining in his mind, a stong resistance to that tyranny, which held him in the thraldom of slavery". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 89) citing Patrick MacDonnell, who saw the play and recorded his views in 1840.]
Victorian Eramarked the height of the movement which would later be described as "pictorial": based on lavish sets and visual spectacle, heavily cut texts (making room for lengthy scene-changes), and elaborate stage effects. [Schoch (2002, 58-74 especially 58-59)] In Charles Kean's 1857 production of "The Tempest", Ariel was several times seen to descend in a ball of fire. [Schoch (2002, 64)] The 140 scene hands supposedly employed on this production were described by the "Literary Gazette" as "unseen ... but alas never unheard". [Schoch (2002, 67)] Hans Christian Andersenalso saw this production and described Ariel as "isolated by the electric ray", referring to the effect of a carbon arc directed at the actress playing the role. [Schoch (2002, 68)] The next generation of producers, which included William Poeland Harley Granville-Barker, returned to a leaner and more text-based style. [Halliday (1964, 486-7)]
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it became Caliban, not Prospero, who was perceived as the star act of the Tempest, and was the role which the actor-managers chose for themselves. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 93)]
Frank Bensonresearched the role by viewing monkeys and baboons at the zoo: on stage, he hung upside-down from a tree and gibbered. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 93)]
20th-21st century performances
Continuing the late-nineteenth-century tradition, in 1904
Herbert Beerbohm Treewore fur and seaweed to play Caliban, with waist-length hair and apelike bearing, suggestive of a primitive part-animal part-human stage of evolution. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 93-95)] This "missing-link" portrayal of Caliban became the norm in productions until Roger Livesey, in 1934, was the first actor to play the role with black makeup. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 113)] In 1945 Canada Leeplayed the role at the Theatre Guildin New York, establishing a tradition of black actors taking the role, including Earle Hymanin 1960 and James Earl Jonesin 1962. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 113)] John Gielgudplayed Prospero numerous times, and called it his favorite role. [Gielgud (1991) ] Douglas Brode describes him as "universally heralded as... [the 20th] century's greatest stage Prospero". [Brode (2001,229)] His first appearance in the role was in 1930: he wore a turban, later confessing that he intended to look like Dante. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 113)] He played the role in three more stage productions, lastly at the Royal National Theatrein 1974.Fact|date=April 2008 Peter Brookdirected an experimental production at the Round House in 1968, in which the text was "almost wholly abandoned" in favour of mime. According to Margaret Croydon's review, Sycorax was "portrayed by an enormous woman able to expand her face and body to still larger proportions - a fantastic emblem of the grotesque ... [who] suddenly ... gives a horrendous yell, and Caliban, with black sweater over his head, emerges from between her legs: Evil is born." [Croydon (1969, 127) cited by Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 115)]
In spite of the existing tradition of a black actor playing Caliban opposite a white Prospero, colonial interpretations of the play did not find their way onto the stage until the 1970s. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 113-114)] Performances in England directed by
Jonathan Millerand by Clifford Williams explicitly portrayed Prospero as coloniser. Miller's production was described, by David Hirst, as depicting "the tragic and inevitable disintegration of a more primitive culture as the result of European invasion and colonisation." [Hirst (1984, 50) cited by Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 114)] [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 114)] Miller developed this approach in his 1988 production at the Old Vicin London, starring Max von Sydowas Prospero. This used a mixed cast made up of white actors as the humans and black actors playing the spirits and creatures of the island. According to Michael Billington, "von Sydow's Prospero became a white overlord manipulating a mutinous black Caliban and a collaborative Ariel keenly mimicking the gestures of the island's invaders. The colonial metaphor was pushed through to its logical conclusion so that finally Ariel gathered up the pieces of Prospero's abandoned staff and, watched by awe-struck tribesmen, fitted them back together to hold his wand of office aloft before an immobilized Caliban. "The Tempest" suddenly acquired a new political dimension unforeseen by Shakespeare." [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE2DA1239F932A35752C0A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all Billington, Michael, "New York Times", "STAGE VIEW; In Britain, a Proliferation of Prosperos", January 1, 1989] ]
Psychoanalytic interpretations have proved more difficult to depict on stage. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 114)]
Gerald Freedman's American Shakespeare Theatre production in 1981 and Ron Daniels' RSC production in 1982 both attempted to depict Ariel and Caliban as opposing aspects of Prospero's psyche. However neither was regarded as wholly successful: "Shakespeare Quarterly", reviewing Freedman's production, commented that "the allegorical meaning was not clear to an audience that had not been alerted to it in advance". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 114-115)]
In 1988, John Wood played Prospero for the RSC, emphasising the character's human complexity. The
Financial Timesreviewer described him as "a demented stage manager on a theatrical island suspended between smouldering rage at his usurpation and unbridled glee at his alternative ethereal power". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 116), citing the Financial Timesof 28 July 1988.] Sam Mendesdirected a 1993 RSC production in which Simon Russell Beale's Ariel was openly resentful of the control exercised by Alec McCowen's Prospero. Controversially, in the early performances of the run, Ariel spat at Prospero, once granted his freedom. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 116-117)] An entirely different effect was achieved by George C. Wolfein the outdoor New York Shakespeare Festivalproduction of 1995, where the casting of Aunjanue Ellisas Ariel opposite Patrick Stewart's Prospero charged the production with erotic tensions. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 121-123)] Late twentieth-century productions have gradually increased the focus placed on sexual (and sometimes homosexual) tensions between the characters, including Prospero/Miranda, Prospero/Ariel, Miranda/Caliban, Miranda/Ferdinand and even Caliban/Trinculo. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 123)]
"The Tempest" was performed at the
Globe Theatrein 2000 with Vanessa Redgraveas Prospero, playing the role as neither male nor female, but with "authority, humanity and humour... a watchful parent to both Miranda and Ariel." [Gay (2002, 171-172)] While the audience respected Prospero, Jasper Britton's Caliban "was their man" (in Peter Thomson's words), in spite of the fact that he spat fish at the groundlings, and singled some of them out for humiliating encounters. [Thomson (2002, 138)]
BBC Radio" has aired over 300 Shakespeare performances in its history, and "The Tempest" is the most popular of them, having been produced 21 times. [Greenhalgh (2007, 186). In a footnote, she indicates that these figures are correct at the end of 2005. The commercially available version stars Philip Madocas Prospero.]
20th-21st century adaptations
Percy MacKayepresented a community masque, "Caliban by the Yellow Sands", at the Lewisohn Stadiumin New York. Amidst a huge cast of dancers and masquers, the pageant centers on the rebellious nature of Caliban but ends with his plea for more knowledge ("I yearn to build, to be thine Artist / And 'stablish this thine Earth among the stars- / Beautiful!") followed by Shakespeare, as a character, reciting Prospero's "Our revels now are ended" speech. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 96-98)] ["The Tempest" 4.1.146-163, especially 4.1.148]
The most successful twentieth-century musical adaptation of "The Tempest" is
Michael Tippett's 1971 opera " The Knot Garden," in which the central character, the psychoanalyst Mangus, pretends to be Prospero and uses situations from Shakespeare's play in his therapy sessions. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 112)]
Japanese theatre styles have been applied to "The Tempest". In 1988 and again in 1992
Yukio Ninagawabrought his version of "The Tempest" to the UK. It was staged as a rehearsal of a Nohdrama, with a traditional Noh theatre at the back of the stage, but also using elements which were at odds with Noh conventions. [Dawson (2002, 179-180)] In 1992, Minoru Fujita presented a Bunraku(Japanese puppet) version in Osakaand at the Tokyo Globe. [Dawson (2002, 181)]
In 2006, a new musical version of "The Tempest", with book and lyrics using Shakespeare's original words, premiered at the
Cherry Lane Theatrein New York City. " The Tempest Musical" featured songs by Daniel Neiden and a book adapted from the original play by Ryan Knowlesand Daniel Neiden, based on a concept by Tony-award winner Thomas Meehan (writer).Fact|date=February 2008
:"See also Shakespeare on screen (The Tempest)."
"The Tempest" first appeared on the screen in 1905.
Charles Urbanfilmed the opening storm sequence of Herbert Beerbohm Tree's version at Her Majesty's Theatrefor a 2½-minute "flicker", on which individual frames were hand-tinted to give the impression of colour film, long before its invention. [Brode (2001, 222)] In 1908, Percy Stowe directed a "Tempest" running a little over ten minutes. Much of its action takes place on Prospero's island before the storm which opens Shakespeare's play. [Brode (2001, 222). The film itself is part of the British Film Institute's compilation "Silent Shakespeare".] At least two further silent versions, one of them by Edwin Thanhouser, are known to have existed, but have been lost. [Brode (2001, 222)] The plot was adapted for the Western " Yellow Sky", directed by William A. Wellman, in 1946. [Howard (2000, 296)]
science fictionfilm Forbidden Planetset the story on the planet Altair IV. Professor Morbius ( Walter Pidgeon) and his daughter Altaira ( Anne Francis) are the Prospero and Miranda figures. Ariel is represented by the helpful Robbie the Robot, but Caliban is represented by the dangerous and invisible "monster from the id": a projection of Morbius' psyche. [Howard (2000, 306-307); Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 111-112)]
In the opinion of Douglas Brode, there has only been one screen "performance" of "The Tempest" since the silent era: he describes all other versions as "variations". [Brode (2001, 222)] That one performance is the
Hallmark Hall of Fameversion from 1960, directed by George Schaefer, and starring Maurice Evans, Lee Remickand Roddy McDowall. [Brode (2001, 222-223)] Critic Virginia Vaughan praised it as "light as a soufflé, but ... substantial enough for the main course." [Virginia Vaughan, cited by Brode (2001, 223)] Contrary to Brode's opinion, two full-text performances have been screened, one for the " BBC Television Shakespeare" series, starring Michael Hordernas Prospero (UK, 1979) and another for the "Shakespeare Collection" (also known as the "Quantum Leap") series, starring Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.as Prospero (USA, 1983).Fact|date=December 2007
Derek Jarmanproduced a homoerotic "Tempest" which used Shakespeare's language, but was most notable for its deviations from Shakespeare. One scene shows a corpulent and naked Sycorax ( Claire Davenport) breastfeeding her adult son Caliban ( Jack Birkett). The film reaches its climax with Elisabeth Welchbelting out "Stormy Weather". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 118-119); Brode (2001, 224-226)] The central performances were Toyah Willcox' Miranda and Heathcote Williams' Prospero, a "dark brooding figure who takes pleasure in exploiting both his servants" [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 118)] Paul Mazursky's 1982 modern-language adaptation of The Tempest, with Philip (Prospero) as a disillusioned New York architect who retreats to a lonely Greek island with his daughter Miranda, dealt frankly with the sexual tensions of the characters' isolated existence. The Caliban character, the goatherd Kalibanos, asks Philip which of them is going to have sex with Miranda. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 118)] John Cassavetesplayed Philip, Raul Julia Kalibanos, and Molly RingwaldMiranda. Susan Sarandonplays the Ariel character, Philip's frequently-bored girlfriend Aretha. The film has been criticised as "overlong and rambling", but also praised for its good humour, especially in a sequence in which Kalibanos' and his goats dance to Kander and Ebb's "New York, New York". [Brode (2001,227-228)] John Gielgudhas written that playing Prospero in a film of "The Tempest" was his life's ambition. Over the years, he approached Alain Resnais, Ingmar Bergman, Akira Kurosawa, and Orson Wellesto direct. ["Sir John Gielgud: A Life in Letters", Arcade Publishing (2004) ] [Brode (2001, 228-229)] Eventually, the project was taken on by Peter Greenaway, who directed " Prospero's Books" (1991) featuring, in Laurie Rozakis' words, "an 87-year-old John Gielgud and an impressive amount of nudity". [Rozakis (1999, 275)] Prospero is reimagined as the author of "The Tempest", speaking the lines of the other characters, as well as his own. [Brode, 229] Although the film was acknowledged as innovative in its use of Quantel Paintboxto create visual tableaux, resulting in "unprecedented visual complexity", [Howard (2003, 612)] critical responses to the film were frequently negative: John Simon called it "contemptible and pretentious". [Forsyth (2000, 291); Brode (2001, 229-231) citing John Simon.]
Closer to the spirit of Shakespeare's original, in the view of critics such as Brode, is
Leon Garfield's abridgement of the play for S4C's 1992 "" series. The 29-minute production, directed by Stanislav Sokolovand featuring Timothy Westas the voice of Prospero, used stop-motion puppets to capture the fairy-tale quality of the play. [Brode (2001, 232) ] Disney's animated feature Pocahontas has been described as a "politically corrected" "Tempest". [Howard (2000, 309)] Another "offbeat variation" (in Brode's words) was produced for NBCin 1998: Jack Bender's "The Tempest" featured Peter Fondaas Gideon Prosper, a Southern slave-owner forced off his plantation by his brother shortly before the Civil War. A magician who has learned his art from one of his slaves, Prosper uses his magic to protect his teenage daughter and to assist the Union Army. [Brode (2001, 231-232)]
Stage and screen director
Julie Taymoris currently adapting the play for the big screen, due in 2009; her partner and collaborator, composer Elliot Goldenthal, will score the film as he has done with all her other works. Taymor has adapted Shakespeare before with 1999's "Titus". The cast will include Helen Mirrenas the gender-switched Prospera, Ben Whishawas Ariel, Djimon Hounsouas Caliban, Russell Brandas Trinculo and Jeremy Ironsas Alonso [ [http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=23388 Shakespeare Gets A Sex Change}] .
:"See also the sections on stage adaptations, above."
Two settings of songs from "The Tempest" have survived which may have been used in performances during Shakespeare's lifetime. These are "Full Fathom Five" and "Where The Bee Sucks There Suck I" from the 1659 "Cheerful Ayres or Ballads", in which they are attributed to Robert Johnson, the lutenist to James I. [Barton (1968, 183-185). This source includes these songs in manuscript form.] It has been common, throughout the history of the play, for the producers to commission contemporary settings of those two songs, and of "Come Unto These Yellow Sands". [Sanders (2007, 31)] "The Tempest" has proved more popular as a subject for composers than most of Shakespeare's plays. Scholar Julie Sanders ascribes this to the "perceived 'musicality' or lyricism" of the play. [Sanders (2007, 42)] Ballet sequences have often been used in performances the play, since Restoration times. [Sanders (2007, 60)]
Tchaikovskywrote an orchestral work, The Tempest, based on the play. Sibelius wrote incidental music for "The Tempest", for a lavish 1926 production at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen. (An epilogue was added for a 1927 performance in Helsinki. [cite web|last=Ylirotu|first=Jeremias|year=2005|title=Sibelius: Incidental Music for the Tempest, op. 109|url=http://www.sibelius.fi/english/musiikki/nayttamo_myrsky.htm|accessdate=2008-06-12] He represented individual characters through instrumentation choices: particularly admired was his use of harps and percussion to represent Prospero, said to capture the "resonant ambiguity of the character". [Sanders (2007, 36)] "The Tempest" also influenced music in the "folk and " hippie" traditions: for example, versions "Full Fathom Five" were recorded by Marianne Faithfullfor "Come My Way" in 1965 and by Pete Seegerfor "Dangerous Songs!?" in 1966. [Sanders (2007, 189)]
"Full Fathom Five" and "The Cloud-Capp'd Towers" are two of the "
Three Shakespeare Songs" set to music by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. He wrote the pieces for a cappella SATB choir in 1951 by for the British Federation of Music Festivals, and they remain a popular part of British choral repertoire today. [cite book|last=Kennedy|first=Michael |coauthors=Ralph Vaughan Williams|title=The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams|publisher=Oxford University Press|date=1992|pages=316-7|isbn=0198163304|accessdate=2008-09-13]
operatic or semi-operatic versions of "The Tempest" exist: in addition to the Dryden/Davenant and Garrick versions mentioned in "Adaptations" above, Frederic Reynoldsproduced an operatic version in 1821, with music by Sir Henry Bishop. [Sanders (2007, 99);Halliday (1964, 410&486).] Swiss composer Frank Martin produced "Der Sturm" in 1965; and American composer John Eaton, in 1985, produced a fusion of live jazzwith pre-recorded electronic music, with a libretto by Andrew Porter. [Sanders (2007, 99)] The soprano who sings the part of Ariel in Thomas Adès' 21st century opera is stretched at the lower end of the register, highlighting the androgynyof the role. [Sanders (2007, 99)]
In addition to the score for "
Prospero's Books", in which he set several of the songs, which have been repackaged as art songsunder the title "Ariel Songs", Michael Nymancomposed an opera setting titled " Noises, Sounds & Sweet Airs", which debuted as an opera-balletby Karine Saporta. The opera is unique in that the three vocalists, a soprano, contralto, and tenor, are voices rather than individual characters, with the tenor just as likely as the soprano to sing Miranda, or all three sing as one character.
From the mid-eighteenth century, Shakespeare's plays, including "The Tempest", began to appear as the subject of paintings. [Orgel (2007, 72)] In around 1735,
William Hogarthproduced his painting "A Scene from The Tempest", in the rococo style.Fact|date=February 2008 The painting is based upon Shakespeare's text, containing no representation of the stage, nor of the (Davenant-Dryden centred) stage tradition of the time. [Orgel (2007, 72-73)] Henry Fuseli, in a painting commissioned for the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery(1789) modelled his Prospero on Leonardo da Vinci. [Orgel (2007, 76); Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 83-85)] These two eighteenth century depictions of the play indicate that Prospero was regarded as its moral centre: viewers of Hogarth's and Fuseli's paintings would have accepted Prospero's wisdom and authority. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 83-84)] Millais's "Ferdinand Lured by Ariel" (1851) is the most important Pre-Raphaelite painting based on the play.Fact|date=February 2008 In the late nineteenth century, artists tended to depict Caliban as a Darwinian "missing-link", with fish-like or ape-like features [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 92)] , as evidenced in Noel Paton's "Caliban".Fact|date=February 2008
Charles Knight produced the "Pictorial Edition of the Works of Shakespeare" in eight volumes, from 1838-1843. The work attempted to translate the contents of the plays into pictorial form. This extended not just to the action, but also to images and metaphors: Gonzalo's line about "mountaineers dewlapped like bulls" is illustrated with a picture of a Swiss peasant with a
goitre. [Orgel (2007, 81)] In 1908, Edmund Dulacproduced an edition of "Shakespeare's Comedy of The Tempest" with a scholarly plot summary and commentary by Arthur Quiller-Couch, lavishly bound and illustrated with 40 watercolour illustrations. The illustrations highlight the fairy-tale quality of the play, avoiding its dark side. Of the 40, only 12 are direct depictions of the action of the play: the others are based on action before the play begins, or on images such as "full fathom five thy father lies" or "sounds and sweet airs that give delight and hurt not". [Orgel (2007, 85-88)]
Shelley was one of the earliest poets to be influenced by "The Tempest". His "With a Guitar, To Jane" identifies Ariel with 'the Poet', personified. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 87-88)] Following the publication of Darwin's ideas on
evolution, writers began to question mankind's place in the world and its relationship with God. One writer who explored these ideas was Robert Browning, whose poem " Caliban upon Setebos" (1864) sets Shakespeare's character pondering theological and philosophical questions. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 91). This source quotes Browning's entire poem, at 316-325.] The French philosopher Ernest Renanwrote a closet drama, "Caliban: Suite de La Tempête", in 1878. A sequel to "The Tempest", it features a female Ariel who follows Prospero back to Milan, and a Caliban who leads a coup against Propspero, after the success of which he actively imitates his former master's virtues. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 92)] W. H. Auden's poem " The Sea and the Mirror" takes the form of a reflection by each of the supporting characters of "The Tempest" on their experiences. The poem takes a Freudian viewpoint, seeing Caliban as Prospero's libido. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 110-111)] Caliban influenced numerous works of African literature in the 1970s, including pieces by Taban Lo Liyongin Uganda, Lemuel Johnson in Sierra Leone, Ngugi wa Thiong'oin Kenya, and David Wallace of Zambia's "Do You Love Me, Master?". [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 107)] A similar phenomenon occurred in late 20th-century Canada, where several writers produced works inspired by Miranda, including " The Diviners" by Margaret Laurence, "Prospero's Daughter" by Constance Beresford-Howe and "The Measure of Miranda" by Sarah Murphy. [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 109)] Other writers have feminised Ariel (as in Marina Warner's novel "Indigo") or Caliban (as in Suniti Namjoshi's sequence of poems "Snaphots of Caliban"). [Vaughan and Vaughan (1999, 109-110)]
Illegitimacy in fiction
The Mock Tempest"
Editions of "The Tempest"
*Barton, Anne, ed. 1968. "The Tempest" (New Penguin Shakespeare Series) New York: Penguin.
*Frye, Northrop, ed. 1970. "The Tempest". New York: Penguin.
*Orgel, Stephen, ed. 1987. "The Tempest". Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0192834142
*Vaughan, Virginia Mason and Alden T. Vaughan, eds. 1999. "The Tempest" (The Arden Shakespeare Third Series) London: Thomson. ISBN 0174435355
*Auberlen, Eckhart. 1991. "The Tempest and the concerns of the Restoration Court: A study of The Enchanted Island and the operatic Tempest" in "Restoration" 15(1991) 71-88.
* Brode, Douglas. 2001. "Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today". New York: Berkley Boulevard Books. ISBN 0425181766.
*Carey-Webb, Allen. 1993. "Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest" in "The English Journal" (Apr 1993) 82.4 30-35.
*Cartelli, Thomas. 1995. "After "The Tempest:" Shakespeare, Postcoloniality, and Michelle Cliff's New, New World Miranda." in "Contemporary Literature" (Apr 1995) 36.1 82-102.
*Coursen, Herbert. 2000. "The Tempest: A Guide to the Play" Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN 0313311919.
*Croyden, Margaret. 1969. "Peter Brook's Tempest" in "Drama Review" 13 (1968-9) 125-8.
*Dawson, Anthony B. 2002. "International Shakespeare" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 174-193).
*Dolan, Frances E. 1992. "The Subordinate('s) Plot: Petty Treason and the Forms of Domestic Rebellion." in "Shakespeare Quarterly" (Oct 1992) 43.3 317-340.
*Forsyth, Neil. 2000. "Shakespeare the Illusionist: Filming the Supernatural" in Jackson (2000, 274-294)
*Gay, Penny. 2002. "Women and Shakespearean Performance" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 155-173)
*Gielgud, John. 1991. "Acting Shakespeare" Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 1557833745
*Gilman, Ernest B. 1980. "All eyes": Prospero's Inverted Masque." in "Renaissance Quarterly" (July 1980) 33.2 214-230.
*de Grazia, Margreta and Stanley Wells, eds. 2001. "Conjectural Chronology of Shakespeare's Works" in "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521658810. xix-xx.
*Greenhalgh, Susanne. 2007. "Shakespeare Overheard" in Shaughnessy (2007, 175-198)
*Gurr, Andrew. 1989. "The Tempest's Tempest at Blackfriars" in "Shakespeare Survey" 41, Cambridge University Press, 1989. 91-102.
*Halliday, F. E. 1964. "A Shakespeare Companion 1564-1964." Baltimore, Penguin. ISBN 0715603094
*Hirst, David L. 1984. "The Tempest: Text and Performance". Houndmills, Hants. ISBN 9780333344651
*Howard, Tony. 2000. "Shakespeare's Cinematic Offshoots" in Jackson (2000, 295-313).
*Howard, Tony. 2003. "Shakespeare on Film and Video" in Wells and Orlin (2003, 607-619)
*Jackson, Russell ed. 2000. "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521639751
*Marsden, Jean I. 2002. "Improving Shakespeare: from the Restoration to Garrick" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 21-36).
*McCollum, John I. Jr. 1961. "The Restoration Stage." Houghton Mifflin Research Series, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Riverside Press. ASIN: B000FVW5YI.
*Moody, Jane. 2002. "Romantic Shakespeare" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 37-57).
*Muir, Kenneth. 1978. "The Sources of Shakespeare's Plays". New Haven: Yale University Press.
*Nixon, Rob. 1987. "Caribbean and African Appropriations of 'The Tempest'." in "Critical Inquiry" (Apr 1987) 13.3 557-578.
*Orgel, Stephen. 2007. "Shakespeare Illustrated" in Shaughnessy (2007, 67-92).
*Rozakis, Laurie. 1999. "The Complete Idiot's Guide to Shakespeare". New York: Alpha Books. ISBN 0028629051
*Sanders, Julie. 2007. "Shakespeare and Music: Afterlives and Borrowings". Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 978-07456-3297-1
*Schoch, Richard W. 2002. "Pictorial Shakespeare" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 58-75).
*Shaughnessy, Robert. 2007. "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521605809
*Tannenbaum, Samuel A. 1966. "The Forman Notes" chapter in "Shakespearean Scraps and Other Elizabethan Fragments"
*Tatspaugh, Patricia. 2003. "Performance History: Shakespeare on the stage 1660-2001" in Wells and Orlin (2003, 525-549)
*Thomson, Peter. 2002. "The Comic Actor and Shakespeare" in Wells & Stanton (2002, 137-154).
*Wells, Stanley and Sarah Stanton eds. 2002. "The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052179711X
*Wells, Stanley and Lena Cowen Orlin. 2003. "Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199245223
*Gerald Graff and James Phelan, "The Tempest: A Case Study in Critical Controversy, London, MacMillan, 2000
*Frances A. Yates, "Shakespeare's Last Plays: A New Approach", London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975
*Frances A. Yates, "The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age," London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-3222%28198021%2931%3A1%3C64%3ASTTTWM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z Shakespeare's The Tempest: The Wise Man as Hero]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-0994%28195101%2912%3A4%3C203%3ATTONOI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I The Theme of Natural Order in "The Tempest"]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-3222%28196324%2914%3A1%3C49%3AFADITT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J Form and Disorder in The Tempest]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0034-6551%28197602%292%3A27%3A105%3C1%3ATMOCAB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q The Magic of Charity: A Background to Prospero]
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23042/23042.txt The Tempest] - plain vanilla text from
* [http://tempest.publicliterature.org/ The Tempest] - scene indexed, online version of the play.
* [http://william-shakespeare.classic-literature.co.uk/the-tempest/ The Tempest] - HTML version of this title.
* [http://www.maximumedge.com/shakespeare/tempest.htm The Tempest] - Searchable, scene-indexed version of the play.
* [http://www.bartleby.com/81/1737.html Bermoothes] in E. Cobham Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1898).
* [http://webenglishteacher.com/tempest.html Lesson plans for The Tempest] at Web English Teacher
* [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/TR%20original.doc William Strachey's "True Reportory" original-spelling version] at Virtual Jamestown.
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