- List of national founders
The following list of national founders is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation. National founders are typically those who played an influential role in setting up the systems of governance, (i.e., political system form of government, and constitution), of the country.
The Founder of Independent Egypt Saad Zaghloul (1859-August 23, 1927), was a great politician who served in many ministries of the Egyptian government, and was imprisoned by the British in Malta, but returned to Egypt to complete the revolution in 1919. Zaghloul then was able to make the Sultan of Egypt (later King) Fuad I to convince the British for Egypt's independence with a friendly British-Egyptian relationship and in 1922, Egypt was proclaimed an independent Kingdom, Kingdom of Egypt and Saad Zaghloul as it's Prime Minister.
Omar Al-Mukhtar - Libyan national hero who resisted the Italian colonialism of Libya from 1911 until 1931 when he was hanged by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809–1876) was born a free man of Black American descent. In 1829 his family moved to Liberia. In 1839, Roberts became Liberia's lieutenant governor and afterwards, its governor (1841–1848). He is known as the father of Liberia and officially declared Liberia's independence in 1847.
The founding father of Namibia is Hosea Kutako, who freed Namibia from South African occupation.
Herbert Macaulay (1864–1946), Alvan Ikoku (1900–1971), Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904–1996), Chief Obafemi Awolowo (1909–1987), Sir Ahmadu Bello (1910–1966), Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912–1966), General Murtala Mohammed (1938–1976), Al-Haji Aminu Kano (1920–1983), Joseph Tarka (1932–1980) and Dennis Osadebay (1911–1994) are considered founding fathers of Nigeria. The troika of Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikiwe, and Ahmadu Bello negotiated Nigeria's independence from Britain, aided by such figures as Chieftess Funmilayo Ransome Kuti.
Freetown, Sierra Leone was founded in part by an African American slave called Thomas Peters in 1792 who convinced British abolitionists to help settle 1,192 Black Americans who fought for the British in return for freedom. Peters alongside other Black Americans David George and Moses Wilkinson were influential in the establishment of Freetown, but it was Peters who is remembered today as the true influential leader and founder of Sierra Leone. A street was named for Thomas Peters in Freetown by the Krio Mayor Winstanley Bankole Johnson.
The founding father of the modern Tunisia is Habib Bourguiba.
Ahmad Shah Abdali (1723–1773) unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. His mausoleum is in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where he is fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Father of Afghanistan).
Mammed Amin Rasulzade is the founding father of Azerbaijan. Mehemmed Emin Resulzade (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Əmin Axund Hacı Molla Ələkbər oğlu Rəsulzadə, Turkish: Mehmed Emin Resulzâde; 31 January 1884, Novkhana, near Baku — 6 March 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918–1920). His expression "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!" ("The flag once raised will never fall!") has become the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920–1975), is revered as the Father of the Nation in Bangladesh. A charismatic orator and popularly called "Bangabandhu" (friend of the Bengal), Mujib rose from student politics to become the leader of the Bengali nationalist movement in Pakistan. He declared Bangladesh's independence in March, 1971 after the Pakistan Army refused to accept results of democratic elections and launched a brutal military crackdown on the population of East Pakistan. Mujib was arrested and kept in solitary confinement in West Pakistan throughout the nine-month long Bangladesh Liberation War that followed. He was released in January, 1972 and returned to Bangladesh to lead the newly independent country.
Mujib's administration would prove to be inept in governing the country wrecked by war and famine. On 15 August, 1975, a group of junior army officers staged a military coup by assassinating Mujib along with most of his family members at his private residence in Dhaka.
In an opinion poll conducted by the BBC Bengali service in 2003, he was voted "The Greatest Bengali of All Time".
Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594–1651) fled Tibet and unified the fiefdoms of Bhutan. He established the dual system of shared power between secular and Buddhist leadership that continues as a tradition to the present.
Anawrahta is considered to be founding father of ancient Burmese Kingdom of Pagan. General Aung San is the founding father of modern Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although he did not live to see the country's independence, he is credited in forming the basic structure of the independence movement and government. Aung San started his political career in 1930 as the editor of Rangoon University's Newspaper – where he accused one of the British administrators of misconduct. In late 1940 he went to Japanese controlled Taiwan and Xiamen to receive military training, and he led the Burmese National Army, spearheading the Japanese invasion of Burma. Later, he switched sides to the Allies, and helped in the Burma Campaign. After the war, he was appointed to the government of a returning British Administration, and was able to negotiate Burma's independence. He helped organized the Panglong Agreement in February 1947, achieving independence for all Burmese territories. However, on Saturday, 19 July 1947, Aung San, along with his cabinet ministers, was assassinated at the secretariat building in Rangoon.
Sun Yat-sen is revered as the "Father of the Country" (國父) in China. However, following the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China was split up into two states, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Mao Zedong is commonly accredited with being the architect of the People's Republic of China.
Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) is often referred to as the founding father of India. He was one of the top leaders of the Indian National Congress which struggled for the liberation from British rule and engineer in unifying various South Asian districts into one unified state to be called India. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, India's First Deputy Prime Minister and Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), the first Prime Minister of India, are also considered as founding fathers. It also refers to Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956), the architect of the Indian constitution, also an educationist, prominent political figure and India's first law minister. Indian constitution provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for yong boy. The Constitution was adopted on 9 August 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
Although this usage is declining, when used in the plural, as the "Founding fathers" it usually refers to the members of the Constitutional Assembly's Draft Committee. Ironically the Drafting Committee also included women among its ranks.
Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta are the founding fathers of Indonesia. They both signed the Proclamation of Independence which then read by Soekarno, proclaiming the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands on 17 August 1945. A day later, they were elected respectively as the first President and Vice President of Indonesia. As the Netherlands did not recognize the independece, both of them were prominent figures and were seen as symbol of unity among Indonesian people to fight against Dutch during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to the Hague for a Round Table Conference which then led to the recognition of Indonesian independence by the Netherlands in 23 December 1949.
Cyrus the Great (600 BC – 530 BC) was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty an empire without precedent—a first world-empire of historical importance and perhaps the most wealthy and magnificent in history.
Hwanung (환웅;桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검; 檀君王儉) are legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea. The founding date is usually calculated as 3 October 2333 BC; 3 October is a South Korean national holiday known as Gaecheonjeol (개천절, 開天節, "Festival of the Opening of Heaven").
Tunku Abdul Rahman (8 February 1903 – 6 December 1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.
Chinggis Khagan (c.1162–1227), who by uniting the nomadic tribes founded the Mongol Empire, is generally regarded as the father of modern-day Mongolia. Although downcast during the communist-era, Genghis Khan's reputation surged after the democratic revolution in 1990. Modern Mongolia is often called "Genghis's Mongolia".
Pakistan's founding father is Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948), a Muslim Barrister, originally from the Indian National Congress and later the Muslim League, who fought for the rights of Muslim minority in the British India, is widely held to be the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah is referred to as Quaid-e-Azam or the "Great Leader".
Mr. Jinnah started his career as firmly a secular nationalist and later on was reluctantly converted to the cause of Muslim nationalism through the efforts of Aga Khan III, martyred Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan and Poet Philosopher Allama Iqbal all of whom are also revered to a certain extent as founding fathers. Aga Khan was also the founding president of the All India Muslim League. Choudhary Rahmat Ali coined the term Pakistan and is considered the father of the word "Pakistan". Muslim modernist and reformist Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the founder of Aligarh Educational Movement, is sometimes referred to as the father of the Two-Nation Theory, the basic principle on which Pakistan was founded.
Jose Rizal did not live long enough to see the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. or the subsequent defeat of the fledgling government by the United States, but he did play a prominent role in building a sense of national identity in the Philippines. A novelist and a critic, he wrote very influential books, so influential that he was exiled by the Spanish government to the southern Philippine island of Mindanao, and when he left exile, executed, on 30 December 1896. During the Philippine Commonwealth, which was still under the rule of the United States, he was declared the official National Hero of the Philippines and subsequent to Philippine Independence laws were passed requiring courses on Rizal in all secondary schools and colleges.
One of the earliest people considered "father of Europe" is Benedict of Nursia — a 6th century Italian saint and the most important architect of Western monasticism. The Benedictines, the followers of his rule, have also been called "Fathers of European civilization." Another 6th century monk was Columbanus, the Irish missionary who Robert Schuman considered a patron saint for all involved in the construction of a unified Europe. In 2008, Pope Benedict XVI said that "along with the Irishmen of his time", Columbanus "was aware of the cultural unity of Europe":"With his spiritual energy, with his faith, with his love for God and for his neighbor, he truly became one of the fathers of Europe: He shows us even today the roots from which our Europe can be reborn."
There are a number of men in modern times who have been considered founding fathers of European unity or, what is now, the European Union. These include Konrad Adenauer (1876–1967), Joseph Bech (1887–1975), Winston Churchill (1874–1965), Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi (1894–1972), Alcide De Gasperi (1881–1954), Jacques Delors (born 1925), Sicco Mansholt (1908–1995), Jean Monnet (1888–1979), Lorenzo Natali, Robert Schuman (1886–1963), Mário Soares (born 1924), Paul-Henri Spaak (1899–1972), Altiero Spinelli (1907–1986), and Pierre Werner (1913–2002).
George Kastrioti Skanderbeg was a prominent historical figure in the history of Albania and of the Albanian people. He is the national hero of the Albanians. Ismail Qemali Hero of Albania was a distinguished leader of the Albanian national movement, founder of the modern Albanian state and its first head of state and government.
Asparuh established the First Bulgarian Empire in 681. Modern day Bulgaria is a direct successor of this state.
Although the first known ruler of Bohemia was Bořivoj I, the real unifier of various Slavic tribes in Bohemia and creator of nation was Duke Boleslaus I. Emperor Charles IV is regarded "Father of the Homeland" in the Czech Republic, because during his time the kingdom of Bohemia experienced the greatest prosperity. Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850-1937) is widely revered as the Liberator President who played the chief role in the 1918 melding of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and Ruthenia into the Czechoslovak Republic, and who served as President of the Republic from 1918 to 1935.
Clovis I united all the frankish tribes in Gaul and gave them a common catholic religion.
Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898), the "Iron Chancellor", engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany. Modern, democratic Germany was decisively shaped by the "Fathers of the Basic Law" in the 1948 Constitutional Convention at Herrenchiemsee and by the first Federal Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer.
Rigas Feraios (1757–1798) was a Greek writer and revolutionary, an eminent figure of the Greek Enlightenment, remembered as a Greek national hero, the first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire and a forerunner of the Greek War of Independence.
According to Anonymus the fejedelem who made the Magyars settle into the Carpathian Basin in 896 A.D. was Árpád. His dynasty reigned over the Hungarian Kingdom from the ninth century until 1301. In Hungary Stephen I of Hungary is commonly regarded as the founder of the nation. He was Hungary's first king and united the Magyar people into the Kingdom of Hungary which grew out to be one of the largest monarchies in medieval Europe. Amongst others, Lajos Kossuth is supposed to be the Pater Patriae. He is known as the leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 against the Habsburg royalists, and therefore founder of the modern Hungarian Republic. Had the Hungarian Uprisings of 1956 succeeded, Imre Nagy and Malita Pál would have been noted as founding fathers of the socialist Republic of Hungary.
The Irish Free State was established after the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), in which Michael Collins and Éamon de Valera were key leaders. However, they became antagonists in the Irish Civil War (1922–23), in which Collins was killed and de Valera defeated. For decades, the inheritors of the opposing factions bypassed these sensitivities to honour the earlier mad leaders of the Easter Rising of 1916, in particular the seven signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic: Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Éamonn Ceannt, Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, and Joseph Mary Plunkett.
King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy was the main founding father of a united Italy - being called the "Father of the Fatherland" by the Italian people after he conquered the Italian Peninsula (he was already King of Piedmont-Sardinia).
The members of the Assemblea Costituente (the Constitutional Assembly of 1946–1947, which wrote the Constitution of the newborn Italian Republic) are considered as the "fathers" of the Italian Republic.
As well respected statesmen in Macedonia are considered Metodija Andonov - Čento (first president of SR Macedonia), Nikola Karev (president of Kruševo Republic) and Kiro Gligorov (first president of independent Macedonia). However, often, as "fathers" of the nation are considered Goce Delčev, Krste Misirkov, Gjorgjija Pulevski and Dimitrija Čupovski and other prominent authors and revolutionaries.
Prince William I of Orange (1533–1584) or William the Silent, is known as the father of the Netherlands. He led the Dutch in their Revolt against Spain for their independence. Today he is often called Vader des Vaderlands which in English means, Father of the Fatherland.
Mieszko I (b. ca. 920/45 – d. 25 May 992), the first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered as the de facto creator of the Polish state. He was a Duke of the Polans from about 960 until his death. Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Přemyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader and charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding an alliance with Bohemia first, and then with Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country of greatly expanded territory, with a well-established position in Europe. Mieszko I also appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document from about 1085, called "Dagome iudex", which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).
Henry of Burgundy (1066–1112), was appointed Count of Portugal as a reward for military services to Kingdom of León, and with the purpose of expanding the territory southwards. And, more importantly, his son, Count Afonso I of Portugal (1109–1185), a Templar Brother who took control of the county after Henry died and was recognized by the Holy See, in 1179, as the first King of Portugal, through the Manifestis Probatum bull.
Russia has passed through various stages of its history, thus its founding fathers might have various historic backgrounds, with common features like the idea of strong central power, the idea of spiritual mission of Russia, and the idea of the Motherland
- Prince Rurik - first prince of Rus, believed to be a Norse warlord invited to rule the Slavic peoples.
- Vladimir the Great or Vladimir the Saint, the baptizer of the Rus.
- Peter the Great – first Russian Emperor, great reformer of Russia in the Western (previously Dutch) style, creator of the modern Army and of the Navy, leader of Russia through the victorious war with Sweden, founder of Saint-Petersburg
Saint Marinus was the founder of the world's oldest surviving republic, San Marino, in 301. Tradition holds that he was a stonemason by trade who came from the island of Rab on the other side of the Adriatic Sea (modern Croatia), fleeing persecution for his Christian beliefs in the Diocletianic Persecution.
- the Unknown Archont in the 7th century.
France Bučar is a Slovenian politician, legal expert and author. Between 1990 and 1992, he served as the first chairman of the freely elected Slovenian Parliament. He was the one to formally declare the independence of Slovenia on 25 June 1991. He is considered as one of the founding fathers of Slovenian democracy and independence. He is also considered, together with Peter Jambrek, as the main author of the current Slovenian constitution. Jože Pučnik was president of DEMOS and one of the main persons at Slovenian fight for independence. Biggest Slovenian airport is named Letališče Jožeta Pučnika (Jože Pučnik airport). Lojze Peterle was first prime minister of Slovenia and Milan Kučan was the first president.
Both the anonymous Eidgenossen who drew up the Federal Charter of 1291, or the liberal statesmen who helped found the modern Swiss Confederation in 1848 can be considered the founding fathers of Switzerland. Among the latter, those who became the first members of the Swiss Federal Council were perhaps the most notable: Ulrich Ochsenbein, Jakob Stämpfli, Jonas Furrer, Martin J. Munzinger, Daniel-Henri Druey, Friedrich Frey-Herosé, Wilhelm Matthias Naeff and Stefano Franscini.
The Catholic Monarchs (15th century). Unification of Spain, both coming from the noble House of Trastámara.
Charles I of Spain (1500–1558). First monarch of the Spanish realms and emperor of the Spanish Empire.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky – (c. 1595 – 6 August 1657) was a hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate of Ukraine. He led an uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth magnates (1648–1654) which resulted in the creation of a Cossack state.
As the UK formed over many years, its founders did not live at the same time as each other. They include: Humphrey Wingfield, Speaker of the English House of Commons in 1535, at the time of England's union with Wales; John Smith and James Ogilvy, Speakers of the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, when the Acts of Union united Scotland and England; Henry Addington and John FitzGibbon, leaders of the British and Irish parliaments at the time of the Acts of Union 1801, uniting Great Britain and Ireland; and Prime Minister David Lloyd George, who signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, founding Northern Ireland.
Magnus Maximus (ca. 335 – 28 August 388). According to Welsh tradition, Magnus Maximus (Welsh: Macsen-Wledig) was a Roman General who was proclaimed Emperor of Rome by his soldiers in Britain in 383. As such, he was the first "Romano-Britain" ruler of Britain and Rome itself (although he was born in the Roman province of Hispania and was only stationed in Britain in 380.) His mytho-heroic founding of Wales is celebrated in the modern Welsh anthem Yma o Hyd by Dafydd Iwan. Other traditional "founding" heroes of Wales include Boudica, Owen Glendower, and Llywelyn the Last.
The name "Fathers of Confederation" is given to those who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864, and the London Conference of 1866, to establish the Canadian Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Queen Victoria, who supported and encouraged this process, is known as the Mother of Confederation. She was the first Monarch under the 1867 Constitution and personally chose Ottawa as Canada's capital city. The political leaders who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation."
Juan Pablo Duarte (1813–1876), Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (1817–1861) and Matías Ramón Mella (1816–1864) are considered the "Padres de la Patria" or Fathers of the Country. Duarte is featured on the $1 coin; Sanchez on the $5 coin and on the now discontinued $5 bill; Mella on the $10 coin and on the also discontinued $10 bill.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (20 May 1743 – 8 April 1803) and Jean-Jacques Dessalines (20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) were revolutionary and early political leaders of Haiti.
Within the large group known as "the Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, the Signers (who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776) and the Framers (who were delegates to the Federal Convention and took part in framing or drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States). Some historians have suggested a revised definition of the "Founding Fathers", including a significantly broader group of not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians or jurists or statesmen or soldiers or diplomats or ordinary citizens, took part in winning American independence and creating the United States of America. The eminent American historian Richard B. Morris, in his 1973 book Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, identified the following seven figures as the key founding fathers: Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.
Sir Henry Parkes (1815–1896) is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. Unfortunately, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition. Various other "founders" of Australia have also been unofficially recognised: Captain James Cook, the Englishman who claimed Australia; Captain Arthur Phillip, the first governor of New South Wales and founder of the first colony; and Sir Edmund Barton, the first Australian Prime Minister.
Papua New Guinea
Grand Chief Sir Michael Somare is viewed as the "Founding Father" of Papua New Guinea. The leading figure during the country's transition to independence from Australia, he was Papua New Guinea's first Prime Minister.
José de San Martín, Simón Bolívar, Antonio José de Sucre, Francisco de Paula Santander, Francisco de Miranda have been referred to as the founding fathers of the northern countries of South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia) and of Panama.
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1763–1838) is regarded as the "Patriarch of Independence" in Brazil. He was responsible to advise the so Prince Regent of Brazil, Pedro de Alcantara, about Portugal's intentions to downgrade Brazil to colonial status, after years the Portuguese American territory was already joint to the European metropolis as a united kingdom. This attitude convinced the Prince Regent to declare the independence of Brazil in 7 September 1822, becoming himself the new independent country's emperor, titled as Pedro I of Brazil (1798–1834).
Bernardo O'Higgins (1778–1842) and José Miguel Carrera (1785–1821) are usually considered the founding fathers of Chile. Other people referred as founding fathers of Chile include Camilo Henríquez and Manuel Rodríguez (1785–1818).
- ^ Joseph Roberts, Liberia's first President! The African American Registry
- ^ CIA Factbook on Afghanistan
- ^ Nancy Dupree Nancy Hatch Dupree – An Historical Guide to Afghanistan (Chapter 16:Kandahar)
- ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/story.php?nid=93650
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3623345.stm
- ^ Majority of Indians also consider Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (widely known as Iron Man Of India) as a founding father. He was solely responsible for putting together India as one nation-state after many Muslim and Hindu kings throughout the South Asian sub-continent didn't want to give up their powers and hand everything to the new government of the new nation, India.Gandhi & Nehru
- ^ Bhimrao Ambedkar
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Constitution
- ^ H. J. Van Mook (1949). "Indonesia". Royal Institute of International Affairs 25 (3): 274–285. JSTOR 3016666. ; Charles Bidien (5 December 1945). "Independence the Issue". Far Eastern Survey 14 (24): 345–348. doi:10.1525/as.1945.14.24.01p17062. JSTOR 3023219. ; Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and History. Yale University Press. pp. 325. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. ; Reid (1973), page 30
- ^ Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty)
- ^ J. Abbott p. 13.
- ^ Mustapha Kemal Ataturk: still worshipped after all these years
- ^ a b Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 5. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
- ^ "Remarks by President of Ireland, Mary McAleese at the Centre Culturel, Irlandais, Paris". Áras an Uachtaráin. 23 November 2005. http://www.president.ie/index.php?section=5&speech=199&lang=eng. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- ^ "Pope Calls Irish Monk a Father of Europe". Zenit. 11 July 2007. http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-22867. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- ^ Dumont, Patrick and Hirsh, Mario (2003). "Luxembourg". European Journal of Political Research 42 (7–8): 1021. doi:10.1111/j.0304-4130.2003.00129.x.
- ^ European Audio Visual Service – Founding Fathers
- ^ Founding Fathers: Europeans Behind the Union
- ^ V. Creation of the Italian Kingdom
- ^ Why did the Norwegian constitution of 1814 become a part of positive law in the nineteenth century?
- ^ Small Planet Named After Willem the Silent, Astronomie.nl (in Dutch)
- ^ Library and Archives Canada. Fathers of Confederation. Collections Canada: Canadian Confederation.
- ^ Canada History: Fathers of Confederation. Access History Web Company: The History Project.
- ^ es:República Dominicana#Independencia nacional
- ^ "Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla". fortunecity.es. http://www.fortunecity.es/sopa/gallinasygallos/850/hidalgo.html.
- ^ "Leona Vicario:la verdadera Madre de la Patria". milenio.com. http://www.milenio.com/node/435636.
- ^ "Guadalupe Victoria: forjador de la República". elsiglodedurango.com.mx. http://www.elsiglodedurango.com.mx/noticia/108925.guadalupe-victoria-forjador-de-la-republica.html.
- ^ "Juarez forjador de la nueva República". torreon.gob.mx. http://www.torreon.gob.mx/imdt/zaragoza/juarez.pdf.
- ^ R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
- ^ Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
- ^ Sir Henry Parkes (1815–1896)
- ^ "Biography on Fiji’s founding father released", Fiji Daily Post, 14 October 2009
- ^ "Fiji’s founding father, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, to be buried on home island today". Radio New Zealand International. 2 May 2004. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?id=9731&op=read. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- ^ Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, Encyclopedia Britannica
- ^ Timeline – Fiji, British Broadcasting Corporation
- ^ "Fiji founding father, Ratu Mara, dies", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 19 April 2004
- ^ "The Federated States of Micronesia Mourns the loss of one of its Founding Fathers: Chief Justice Andon Amaraich", Government of the F.S. Micronesia, 28 January 2010
- ^ "FSM chief justice dies in Hawaii". Radio New Zealand International. 28 January 2010. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=51632. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- ^ Speech in honour of Sir Michael Somare by President Gloria Arroyo of the Philippines
- ^ "Somare returns as PNG leader". Radio New Zealand International. 6 August 2002. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=1429. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- ^  "Prime Minister opens student admin building named after him", Divine Word University
- ^ "Step aside Chief!", Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, 14 September 2007
- ^ "Uncertain Times: Sailors, Beachcombers and Castaways as “Missionaries” and Cultural Mediators in Tonga (Polynesia)", Françoise Douaire-Marsaudon, in Margaret Jolly, Serge Tcherkézoff & Darrell Tryon (eds.) Oceanic Encounters: Exchange, Desire, Violence, July 2009, ISBN 978-1-921536-28-1
- ^ "Tonga: Two contemporary tendencies", Peter Lyon, The Pacific Review, vol.4, n°3, 1991
- ^ In the Steps of Generals José de San Martín and Bernardo O’Higgins
- ^ Statue of Venezuela's founding father unveiled in Tehran in presence of Chavez
- ^ Bentham Ban Lifted
- ^ Francisco de Miranda and Andrés Bello lectures at The Bolívar Hall
- ^ Pigna, Felipe (2010). Libertadores de América. Buenos Aires: Planeta. pp. 195–272/55–91. ISBN 978-950-49-2420-3.
- ^ Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, José
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List of national mottos — This page lists state and national mottos for the world s nations. The mottos for some states lacking general international recognition, extinct states, non sovereign nations and territories are listed, but their names are not bolded. A state… … Wikipedia
List of national poets — A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture. The national poet as culture hero is a long standing symbol, to be distinguished… … Wikipedia
List of people considered father or mother of a field — Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders mostly in Western socities in a field, listed … Wikipedia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Alameda County, California — Map of all coordinates from Google Map of all coordinates from Bing … Wikipedia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Brooke County, West Virginia — Location of Brooke County in West Virginia This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Brooke County, West Virginia. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of… … Wikipedia