- Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria
Archduke Maximilian Francis House House of Habsburg-Lorraine Father Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Maria Theresa of Austria Born 8 December 1756 Died 26 July 1801(aged 44)
Hetzendorf Palace, Vienna, Lower Austria, Holy Roman Empire
Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria (8 December 1756, Vienna – 26 July 1801) was an Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, the last child of the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. His siblings included two Holy Roman Emperors (Joseph II and Leopold II), as well as Queen Marie Antoinette of France and Queen Maria Carolina of Two Sicilies. He was the last Elector of Cologne and an early patron of Ludwig van Beethoven.
In 1784 he became Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, living in the archbishopric's seat at Bonn. He remained in that office until his death, meaning that he participated as Elector in the election of his brother Leopold II in 1790 and later that of his nephew Francis II in 1792.
Maximilian Francis succeeded to the title of Elector of Cologne and the related Bishopric of Münster and maintained his noble court in Bonn. A keen patron of music, Maximilian Francis maintained a court orchestra where Ludwig van Beethoven's father was a tenor in the court chapel and played an important role in the early career of Ludwig van Beethoven. The young Beethoven was an employee in his court's musical establishment, where his grandfather, also named Ludwig van Beethoven, had been Kapellmeister.
The court organist was Christian Gottlob Neefe, who became an early mentor and teacher to Ludwig van Beethoven. Recognising his young pupil's remarkable gift both as a performer and a composer, Neefe brought Beethoven into the court, convincing Maximilian Francis to appoint him as assistant organist. Maximilian Francis, too, recognised the extraordinary abilities of the young Beethoven. In 1787, he gave Beethoven leave to visit Vienna to study with Mozart, a visit cut short by the illness and death of Beethoven's mother. In 1792, Maximilian again agreed to let Beethoven depart for Vienna in order to pursue studies with Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri and others, where he continued to pay Beethoven's court salary. Maximilian Francis maintained an interest in Beethoven's progress, and several letters from Haydn to Maximilian detailing his student's progress remain extant. The Archduke anticipated that Beethoven would return to Bonn and continue working for him, but in fact Beethoven never returned, choosing to pursue his career in Vienna.
Maximilian Francis's political rule over the Archbishopric met with disaster in 1794, when his domains were overrun by the troops of Revolutionary France. During the Napoleonic Wars, Cologne and Bonn were both occupied by the French army, in October and November of 1794. As the French approached, Maximilian Francis left Bonn never to return and his territories on the left bank of the Rhine eventually passed to France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville (1801). The Archbishop's court was dissolved. Although Maximilian Francis still retained his territories on the right bank of the Rhine, including Münster and the Duchy of Westphalia, the Elector, plagued by corpulence and ill-health, took up residence in Vienna after the loss of his capital and remained there until his death at age 45 in 1801, at Hetzendorf Palace. The dismantling of the court made Beethoven's relocation to Vienna permanent, and his stipend was terminated.
Beethoven planned to dedicate his First Symphony to his former patron, but Maximilian Francis died before it was completed.
- "Who Died? The Funeral March in Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony" The Musical Quarterly Summer 2007. Accessed 2 October 2008.
TemplatesArchduke Maximilian Francis of AustriaHouse of Habsburg-LorraineBorn: 8 December 1756 in Vienna Died: 26 July 1801 in Hetzendorf
Catholic Church titles Regnal titles Preceded by
Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels
Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and Duke of Westphalia
Anton Victor of Austria
Prince-Bishop of Münster
Catholic Church titles Austrian archdukes 1st generation 2nd generationArchduke Cristopher · Maximilian I · Archduke John · Archduke Wolfgang 3rd generationPhilip I of Castile · Archduke Francis 4th generation 5th generation 6th generationCharles, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand · Rudolf V · Archduke Ernest · Matthias · Maximilian III · Albert VII · Archduke Wenzel · Archduke Frederick · Archduke Charles · Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand · Archduke Carlos Lorenzo* · Diego, Prince of Asturias* · Philip III of Spain* · Ferdinand III · Archduke Charles · Archduke Maximilian Ernest · Leopold V · Archduke Charles 7th generation 8th generationBalthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias* · Ferdinand IV of Hungary · Archduke Francisco Fernando* · Archduke Philip August · Archduke Maximilian Thomas · Leopold VI · Archduke Charles Joseph · Archduke Ferdinand Joseph Alois · Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand Thomas* · Charles II of Spain* 9th generation 10th generationArchduke Leopold Joseph · Archduke Leopold John 11th generation 12th generationEmperor Francis I** · Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Charles, Duke of Teschen** · Alexander Leopold, Palatine of Hungary** · Joseph, Palatine of Hungary** · Archduke Anton Victor** · Archduke John** · Archduke Rainier Joseph** · Archduke Louis** · Cardinal-Archduke Rudolf** · Archduke Josef Franz*** · Francis IV, Duke of Modena*** · Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph*** · Archduke Maximilian*** · Karl, Primate of Hungary*** 13th generationEmperor Ferdinand I · Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of Tuscany** · Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Archduke Joseph Franz · Archduke Franz Karl · Archduke Johann Nepomuk · Albert, Duke of Teschen · Stephen, Palatine of Hungary · Archduke Karl Ferdinand · Francis V, Duke of Modena*** · Archduke Frederick Ferdinand · Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor*** · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Leopold Ludwig · Archduke Ernest Karl · Archduke Alexander · Archduke Sigismund Leopold · Archduke Rainer Ferdinand · Archduke Wilhelm Franz · Archduke Heinrich Anton · Archduke Maximilian Karl · Archduke Joseph Karl 14th generationEmperor Franz Joseph I · Maximilian I of Mexico · Archduke Charles Louis · Archduke Ludwig Viktor · Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Archduke Karl Salvator** · Archduke Rainier** · Archduke Ludwig Salvator** · Archduke John Salvator** · Archduke Karl · Archduke Franz Joseph · Friedrich, Duke of Teschen · Archduke Charles Stephen · Archduke Eugen · Archduke Joseph August · Archduke Ladislaus 15th generationCrown Prince Rudolf · Archduke Franz Ferdinand*** · Archduke Otto Francis · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Leopold Ferdinand** · Archduke Joseph Ferdinand** · Archduke Peter Ferdinand** · Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand** · Archduke Robert Ferdinand** · Archduke Leopold Salvator** · Archduke Franz Salvator** · Archduke Albrecht Salvator** · Archduke Rainier Salvator** · Archduke Ferdinand Salvator** · Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen · Archduke Karl Albrecht · Archduke Leo Karl · Archduke Wilhelm · Archduke Joseph Francis · Archduke Ladislaus Joseph · Archduke Matthias 16th generationEmperor Charles I · Archduke Maximilian Eugen · Archduke Gottfried** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Rainier** · Archduke Leopold Maria** · Archduke Anton** · Archduke Franz Joseph** · Archduke Karl Pius** · Archduke Franz Karl** · Archduke Hubert Salvator** · Archduke Theodor Salvator** · Archduke Clemens Salvator** · Archduke Joseph Arpád · Archduke Itsván · Archduke Géza · Archduke Michael Koloman 17th generationCrown Prince Otto · Archduke Robert*** · Archduke Felix · Archduke Carl Ludwig · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Heinrich Maria · Archduke Leopold Franz** · Archduke Guntram** · Archduke Radbot** · Archduke Johann** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Stephan** · Archduke Dominic** · Archduke Friederich Salvator** · Archduke Andreas Salvator** · Archduke Markus** · Archduke Johann** · Archduke Michael** · Archduke Franz Salvator** · Archduke Karl Salvator** · Archduke Joseph Karl · Archduke Andreas Agustinus · Archduke Nicholas Franz · Archduke Johann Jacob · Archduke Edward Karl · Archduke Paul Rudolf 18th generationArchduke Karl · Archduke Georg · Archduke Lorenz*** · Archduke Gerhard*** · Archduke Martin*** · Archduke Karl Philipp · Archduke Raimund Joseph · Archduke Itsván · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Carl Christian · Archduke Karl Peter · Archduke Simeon · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Maximilian Heinrich · Archduke Philipp Joachim · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Konrad · Archduke Sigismund** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Guntram** · Archduke Leopold** · Archduke Alexander Salvator** · Archduke Thaddäus Salvator** · Archduke Casimir Salvator** · Archduke Matthias** · Archduke Johannes** · Archduke Bernhard** · Archduke Benedikt · Archduke Joseph Albrecht · Archduke Paul Leo · Archduke Friedrich Cyprian · Archduke Benedikt Alexander · Archduke Nicolás · Archduke Santiago · Archduke Paul Benedikt 19th generationArchduke Ferdinand Zvonimir · Archduke Karl Konstantin · Archduke Amedeo*** · Archduke Joachim*** · Archduke Bartholomaeus*** · Archduke Emmanuel*** · Archduke Luigi*** · Archduke Felix Carl · Archduke Andreas Franz · Archduke Paul Johannes · Archduke Carl Christian · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Thomas · Archduke Franz Ludwig · Archduke Michael · Archduke Joseph · Archduke Imre · Archduke Imre · Archduke Christoph · Archduke Alexander · Archduke Lorenz Carl · Archduke Wilhelm · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Ludwig · Archduke Philipp · Archduke Nicholas · Archduke Constantin · Archduke Jacob Maximilian · Archduke Leopold Amedeo** · Archduke Maximilian** · Archduke Leopold** · Archduke Constantin Salvator** · Archduke Paul Salvator***also an infante of Spain
**also a prince of Tuscany
***also a prince of Modena
2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th GenerationCosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany · Francesco Maria, Duke of Rovere 5th GenerationFerdinando, Grand Prince of Tuscany · Gian Gastone, Grand Duke of Tuscany , 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th GenerationGrand Prince Francis Leopold* · Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany* 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th GenerationPrince Gottfried* · Prince Georg* · Prince Rainier* · Prince Leopold Maria* · Prince Anton* · Prince Franz Joseph* · Prince Karl Pius* · Prince Franz Karl* · Prince Hubert Salvator* · Prince Theodor Salvator* · Prince Clemens Salvator* 13th GenerationPrince Leopold Franz* · Prince Guntram* · Prince Radbot* · Prince Johann* · Prince Georg* · Prince Stephan* · Prince Dominic* · Prince Friederich Salvator* · Prince Andreas Salvator* · Prince Markus* · Prince Johann* · Prince Michael* · Prince Franz Salvator* · Prince Karl Salvator* 14th GenerationPrince Sigismund* · Prince Georg* · Prince Guntram* · Prince Leopold* · Prince Alexander Salvator* · Prince Thaddäus Salvator* · Prince Casimir Salvator* · Prince Matthias* · Prince Johannes* · Prince Bernhard* · Prince Benedikt* 15th GenerationPrince Leopold Amedeo* · Prince Maximilian* · Prince Leopold* · Prince Constantin Salvator* · Prince Paul Salvator** also an archduke of Austria
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