- Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI Charles VI in the regalia of the Order of the Golden Fleece Holy Roman Emperor;
King of the Romans (King of Germany)
Reign 12 October 1711 – 20 October 1740 Coronation 22 December 1711, Frankfurt Predecessor Joseph I Successor Charles VII King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
Archduke of Austria
Reign 17 April 1711 – 20 October 1740 Coronation 22 May 1712, Pressburg
5 Semptember 1723, Prague
Predecessor Joseph I Successor Maria Theresa Spouse Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Issue Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress consort
Archduchess Maria Anna
Full name Karl Franz Joseph Wenceslau Balthasar Johann Anton Ignatius House House of Habsburg Father Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg Born 1 October 1685
Died 20 October 1740(aged 55)
Vienna, Favorite Palace
Burial Kapuzinergruft, Vienna Signature Religion Roman Catholicism
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (Charles II), Hungary and Croatia (Charles III), Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, born 1717, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, born 1718, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.
Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, due to his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval. They exacted harsh terms: England demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, France, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Venice, States of the Church, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Savoy-Sardinia, Bavaria, and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Spain, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years.
Archduke Charles (baptised: Carolus Franciscus Josephus Wenceslaus Balthasar Johannes Antonius Ignatius), the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate, was born on 1 October 1685. His tutor was Anton Florian, Prince of Liechtenstein.
Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any ostensible heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg. The ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Philip, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for almost 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland, Ireland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1706, and stayed there for five years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor; he returned to Vienna to assume the emperorship. Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, and the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain, however, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan, the Austrian Netherlands and the Kingdom of Sardinia -- all previously possessions of the Spanish—were delegated to Austria. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was extremely discontented at the loss of Spain, and as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, which, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings".
Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him. Their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy. She gave him two daughters that survived to adulthood, Maria Theresa and Maria Anna.
Elisabeth Christine's inability to produce male heirs irked Charles and eventually led to the promulgation of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a document which abolished male-only succession (hitherto effective in all the Habsburg realms) and declared his lands indivisible. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval. They exacted harsh terms: England demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, France, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Venice, States of the Church, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Savoy-Sardinia, Bavaria, and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Spain, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged.
For a moment, however, it seemed that the Pragmatic Sanction was gratuitous, when Elisabeth Christine gave birth to a baby boy in 1716. Unfortunately, he died soon after. A year later, Maria Theresa, his elder surviving child, was born. At her baptismal ceremony, contemporaries wrote that Charles, despite his best efforts, appeared upset at the child's sex. The next year saw the arrival of another girl, Maria Anna.
Charles waged a productive conflict against the Ottoman Empire from 1716 to 1718. Austria came out of it with sizeable gains in Serbia and Royal Hungary, extending its empire to the Danube. Another war, that of Quadruple Alliance, soon followed. It too ended in an Austrian victory; by the Treaty of The Hague, Charles swapped Sardinia, which went to the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus, for Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean, which was more difficult to defend from foreign aggression than Sardinia. The treaty also recognised Philip V of Spain's son, Don Carlos, as the heir to the Duchy of Parma and Grand Duchy of Tuscany; Charles had prior endorsed the succession of the incumbent Grand Duke's daughter, Anna Maria Luisa, Electress Palatine.
In 1722, Charles founded the Ostend Company to augment Austria's trade with the East Indies, West Indies and Africa. The charter was for a period of thirty years. The Austrian exchequer was to receive between 3 to 6 percent of its annual surplus. The company was unpopular with the British and the Dutch; and he was forced to dissolve the company in 1731, by means of the Treaty of Vienna, in exchange for Britain's recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction.
Peace in Europe was shattered by the War of the Polish Succession (1733–1738), which started as a dispute over the throne of the Poland between Augustus of Saxony, the previous King's elder son, and Stanisław Leszczyński. Austria supported the former, France the latter; thus, a war broke out. The Treaty of Vienna concluded it in 1738; the Austrian candidate ascended the throne, however, Charles was obliged to surrender the Kingdom of Naples to Don Carlos of Spain, in exchange for the minuscule Duchy of Parma.
The issue of his elder daughter's marriage was raised early in her childhood. She was first engaged to be married to Léopold Clément of Lorraine, who was supposed to come to Vienna and meet Maria Theresa in 1723. Instead, news reached Vienna that he had died of smallpox, which upset Maria Theresa. Léopold Clément's younger brother, Francis Stephen, was invited to Vienna, but Maria Theresa's father considered other possibilities (such as marrying her to the future Charles III of Spain) before announcing the engagement of the couple. France demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate Stanisław Leszczyński, the deposed King of Poland. Maria Theresa's father compelled Francis to renounce his rights to Lorraine and told him: "No renunciation, no archduchess". They married in February 1736, and Lorraine devolved to France in July 1737.
In 1737, the Emperor embarked on another Turkish War with Russia. Unlike the previous confrontation, it ended in a decisive Austrian defeat. The territorial advances made in the last Turkish War, under Prince Eugene of Savoy, in Bosnia, Serbia and Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia), were obliterated. Popular discontent at the costly war reigned in Vienna. As a result, Francis of Lorraine, Maria Theresa's consort, was daubed a French spy by the Viennese.
Death and legacy
At the time of his death, the Habsburg lands were saturated in debt; the exchequer contained a mere 100,000 florins; and desertion was rife in Austria's sporadic army, spread across the Empire in small, ineffective barracks. Contemporaries expected that Austrian-Hungary would wrench itself from the Habsburg yoke upon his death.
The Emperor died on 20 October 1740 at the Favorita Palace, Vienna. There is some evidence that Charles' death was caused by consuming a meal of death cap mushrooms. Charles' life opus, the Pragmatic Sanction, was ultimately in vain. Maria Theresa was forced to resort to arms to defend her inheritance from the coalition of Prussia, Bavaria, France, Spain, Saxony and Poland—all party to the sanction—who assaulted the Austrian frontier weeks after he died. The result: Maria Theresa lost the mineral-rich Duchy of Silesia to Prussia, and the Duchy of Parma to Spain.
Emperor Charles VI has been the main motif of many collectors' coins and medals. One of the most recent samples is high value collectors' coin the Austrian Göttweig Abbey commemorative coin, minted in 11 October 2006. His portrait can be seen in the foreground of the reverse of the coin.
Full titles of Charles as the emperor and ruler of Habsburg lands as well as a pretender to the Spanish throne went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Castile, Aragon, Leon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galitia, Lodomeria, Cumania, Bulgaria, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the islands of India and Mainland of the Ocean sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Milan, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxemburg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Calabria, Athens and Neopatria, Prince of Swabia, Catalonia, Asturia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, of Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Artois, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of Oristano, Count of Goceano, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molina, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen, etc.
- ^ Crankshaw, Edward, Maria Theresa, 1969, Longman publishers, Great Britain (pre-dates ISBN), 24.
- ^ Jones, Colin: "The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon", University of Columbia Press, Great Britain, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7, 89.
- ^ a b c d e f Crankshaw, 37.
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- ^ Fraser, 312.
- ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Charles VI (Holy Roman emperor)". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/107109/Charles-VI. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
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- ^ a b Crankshaw, 9.
- ^ Crankshaw, 10-11.
- ^ Crankshaw, 12.
- ^ Crankshaw, 24.
- ^ Jones, 89.
- ^ Mahan, J.Alexander: Maria Theresa of Austria, Crowell publishers, New York, 1932 (pre-dates ISBN), 6.
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- ^ Acton, Harold: The Last Medici, Macmillan, London, 1980, ISBN 0-333-29315-0, 256.
- ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Ostend Company". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/434249/Ostend-Company. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. "War of the Polish Succession (European history)". www.britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467508/War-of-the-Polish-Succession#ref=ref291264. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- ^ Mahan, 26.
- ^ Fraser, Antonia: Maria Antoinette: the Journey, Orion books, London, 2002, ISBN 978-0753813058, 7
- ^ Crankshaw, 26.
- ^ a b Crankshaw, 33.
- ^ Wasson RG. (1972). The death of Claudius, or mushrooms for murderers. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 23(3):101–128.
- ^ Browning, Reed: The War of the Austrian Succession, Palgrave Macmillan, 1995, ISBN 0312125615363, 362.
- Crankshaw, Edward: Maria Theresa, 1969, Longman publishers, Great Britain (pre-dates ISBN)
- Jones, Colin: The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, University of Columbia Press, Great Britain, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7
- Fraser, Antonia: Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of The Sun King, Orion books, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2293-7
- Mahan, J.Alexander: Maria Theresa of Austria, Crowell publishers, New York, 1932 (pre-dates ISBN)
- Kahn, Robert A.: A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918, University of California Press, California, 1992, ISBN 978-0520042063
- Acton, Harold: The Last Medici, Macmillan, London, 1980, ISBN 0-333-29315-0
- Browning, Reed: The War of the Austrian Succession, Palgrave Macmillan, 1995, ISBN 0312125615363
Titles and successionCharles VI, Holy Roman EmperorBorn: 1 October 1685 Died: 20 October 1740
Regnal titles Preceded by
Duke of Teschen
Holy Roman Emperor (elect);
King in Germany
King of Hungary and Bohemia;
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Guastalla,
Parma and Piacenza
Maximilian II Emanuel
Duke of Luxembourg
Count of Namur
Philip V of Spain
Duke of Brabant, Limburg,
Lothier, and Milan;
Count of Flanders and Hainaut
King of Sardinia
Victor Amadeus II
King of Naples
Charles VII & V
King of Sicily
Armorial of the Holy Roman Empire
Ferdinand IIISpouse(s)ChildrenFerdinand IV of Hungary • Mariana, Queen of Spain • Archduke Philip August • Archduke Maximilian Thomas • Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor • Archduke Charles Joseph • Archduchess Theresia Maria Josefa • Eleonora Maria Josefa, Queen of Poland; Duchess of Lorraine • Maria Anna Josepha, Electress Palatine • Archduke Ferdinand Josef Leopold ISpouse(s)ChildrenArchduke Ferdinand Wenze • Maria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria • Archduke Johann Leopold • Archduchess aria Anna Antonia • Archduchess Anna Maria Sophia • Archduchess Maria Josepha • Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor • Archduchess Christina • Archduchess Maria Elisabeth • Archduke Leopold Joseph • Maria Anna, Queen of Portugl • Archduchess Maria Theresia • Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor • Achduchess Maria Josepha • Archduchess Maria Magdalena • Archduchess Maria Margaretha Joseph ISpouse(s)Children Charles VISpouse(s)ChildrenArchduke Leopold Johann • Maria Theresa of Austria • Archduchess Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine • Archduchess Maria AmaliagrandhildrenArchduchess Maria Elisabeth • Archduchess Maria Anna, Abbess of Imperial and Royal Convent for Noble Ladies • Archduchess Maria Karolina • Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor • Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen • Archduchess Maria Elisabeth • Archduke Charles Joseph • Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma • Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor • Archduchess Maria Carolina Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela • Archduchess Maria Josepha • Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily • Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria-Este • Maria Antoinia, Queen of France • Archduke Maximilian Franz Holy Roman Emperors Carolingian Empire Holy Roman Empire
- Otto I
- Otto II
- Otto III
- Henry II
- Conrad II
- Henry III
- Henry IV
- Henry V
- Lothair II
- Frederick I
- Henry VI
- Otto IV
- Frederick II
- Henry VII
- Louis IV
- Charles IV
- Frederick III
- Maximilian I
- Charles V
- Ferdinand I
- Maximilian II
- Rudolph II
- Ferdinand II
- Ferdinand III
- Leopold I
- Joseph I
- Charles VI
- Charles VII
- Francis I
- Joseph II
- Leopold II
- Francis II
Monarchs of Bohemia Přemyslidc.870–1306Bořivoj I · Spytihněv I · Vratislaus I · Wenceslaus I · Boleslaus I · Boleslaus II · Boleslaus III · Vladivoj · Boleslaus III · Boleslaus the Brave1 · Jaromír · Ulrich · Jaromír · Ulrich · Bretislaus I · Spytihněv II · Vratislaus II · Conrad I · Bretislaus II · Bořivoj II · Svatopluk · Vladislaus I · Bořivoj II · Vladislaus I · Sobeslaus I · Vladislaus II · Frederick · Sobeslaus II · Bedřich · Conrad II · Wenceslaus II · Ottokar I · Bretislaus III · Vladislaus III · Ottokar I 2 · Wenceslaus I · Ottokar II · Wenceslaus II · Wenceslaus III Non-dynastic1306–1310Henry the Carinthian · Rudolph I · Henry the Carinthian Luxembourg1310–1437 Habsburg1437–1457 Non-dynastic1457–1471 Jagiellon1471–1526Vladislaus II · Louis Habsburg1526–1780 Habsburg-Lorraine1780–19181 Also duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty. 2 Hereditary kings since 1198. 3 Antiking. Monarchs of Germany Eastern Francia (843–918) Saxon Kingdom (919–62) Kingdom of Germany
in the Holy Roman Empire
(962–1806)Otto I • Otto II • Otto III • Henry II • Conrad II • Henry III • Henry IV • Henry V • Lothair III • Conrad III • Frederick I • Henry VI • Philip • Otto IV • Frederick II • Conrad IV • Rudolf I • Adolf • Albert I • Henry VII • Louis IV • Charles IV • Wenceslaus • Rupert • Sigismund • Albert II • Frederick III • Maximilian I • Charles V • Ferdinand I • Maximilian II • Rudolph II • Matthias • Ferdinand II • Ferdinand III • Leopold I • Joseph I • Charles VI • Charles VII • Francis I • Joseph II • Leopold II • Francis II
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)Napoleon I German Confederation (1815–1848) German Empire (1849)Frederick William IV (emperor-elect) German Confederation (1850–1866) North German Confederation (1867–1871) German Empire (1871–1918) Monarchs of Luxembourg Counts of Luxembourg (963–1354)Elder House of Luxembourg
(963–1136)House of Namur
(1136–1189)Henry IV (1136–1189)House of Hohenstaufen
(1196–1197)Otto (1196–1197)House of Namur
(1197–1247)House of Limburg
Dukes of Luxembourg (1354–1794)House of Limburg
(1354–1443)House of Valois-Burgundy
(1443–1482)House of Habsburg
(1482–1700)House of Bourbon
(1700–1712)Philip V (1700–1712)House of Wittelsbach
(1712–1713)Maximilian II (1712–1713)House of Habsburg
(1713–1780)Charles V (1713–1740) · Mary II (1740–1780)House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (since 1815)House of Orange-Nassau
(1815–1890)House of Nassau-Weilburg
Austrian archdukes 1st generation 2nd generationArchduke Cristopher · Maximilian I · Archduke John · Archduke Wolfgang 3rd generationPhilip I of Castile · Archduke Francis 4th generation 5th generation 6th generationCharles, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand · Rudolf V · Archduke Ernest · Matthias · Maximilian III · Albert VII · Archduke Wenzel · Archduke Frederick · Archduke Charles · Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand · Archduke Carlos Lorenzo* · Diego, Prince of Asturias* · Philip III of Spain* · Ferdinand III · Archduke Charles · Archduke Maximilian Ernest · Leopold V · Archduke Charles 7th generation 8th generationBalthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias* · Ferdinand IV of Hungary · Archduke Francisco Fernando* · Archduke Philip August · Archduke Maximilian Thomas · Leopold VI · Archduke Charles Joseph · Archduke Ferdinand Joseph Alois · Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias* · Archduke Ferdinand Thomas* · Charles II of Spain* 9th generation 10th generationArchduke Leopold Joseph · Archduke Leopold John 11th generation 12th generationEmperor Francis I** · Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Charles, Duke of Teschen** · Alexander Leopold, Palatine of Hungary** · Joseph, Palatine of Hungary** · Archduke Anton Victor** · Archduke John** · Archduke Rainier Joseph** · Archduke Louis** · Cardinal-Archduke Rudolf** · Archduke Josef Franz*** · Francis IV, Duke of Modena*** · Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph*** · Archduke Maximilian*** · Karl, Primate of Hungary*** 13th generationEmperor Ferdinand I · Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of Tuscany** · Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Archduke Joseph Franz · Archduke Franz Karl · Archduke Johann Nepomuk · Albert, Duke of Teschen · Stephen, Palatine of Hungary · Archduke Karl Ferdinand · Francis V, Duke of Modena*** · Archduke Frederick Ferdinand · Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor*** · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Leopold Ludwig · Archduke Ernest Karl · Archduke Alexander · Archduke Sigismund Leopold · Archduke Rainer Ferdinand · Archduke Wilhelm Franz · Archduke Heinrich Anton · Archduke Maximilian Karl · Archduke Joseph Karl 14th generationEmperor Franz Joseph I · Maximilian I of Mexico · Archduke Charles Louis · Archduke Ludwig Viktor · Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany** · Archduke Karl Salvator** · Archduke Rainier** · Archduke Ludwig Salvator** · Archduke John Salvator** · Archduke Karl · Archduke Franz Joseph · Friedrich, Duke of Teschen · Archduke Charles Stephen · Archduke Eugen · Archduke Joseph August · Archduke Ladislaus 15th generationCrown Prince Rudolf · Archduke Franz Ferdinand*** · Archduke Otto Francis · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Leopold Ferdinand** · Archduke Joseph Ferdinand** · Archduke Peter Ferdinand** · Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand** · Archduke Robert Ferdinand** · Archduke Leopold Salvator** · Archduke Franz Salvator** · Archduke Albrecht Salvator** · Archduke Rainier Salvator** · Archduke Ferdinand Salvator** · Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen · Archduke Karl Albrecht · Archduke Leo Karl · Archduke Wilhelm · Archduke Joseph Francis · Archduke Ladislaus Joseph · Archduke Matthias 16th generationEmperor Charles I · Archduke Maximilian Eugen · Archduke Gottfried** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Rainier** · Archduke Leopold Maria** · Archduke Anton** · Archduke Franz Joseph** · Archduke Karl Pius** · Archduke Franz Karl** · Archduke Hubert Salvator** · Archduke Theodor Salvator** · Archduke Clemens Salvator** · Archduke Joseph Arpád · Archduke Itsván · Archduke Géza · Archduke Michael Koloman 17th generationCrown Prince Otto · Archduke Robert*** · Archduke Felix · Archduke Carl Ludwig · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Heinrich Maria · Archduke Leopold Franz** · Archduke Guntram** · Archduke Radbot** · Archduke Johann** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Stephan** · Archduke Dominic** · Archduke Friederich Salvator** · Archduke Andreas Salvator** · Archduke Markus** · Archduke Johann** · Archduke Michael** · Archduke Franz Salvator** · Archduke Karl Salvator** · Archduke Joseph Karl · Archduke Andreas Agustinus · Archduke Nicholas Franz · Archduke Johann Jacob · Archduke Edward Karl · Archduke Paul Rudolf 18th generationArchduke Karl · Archduke Georg · Archduke Lorenz*** · Archduke Gerhard*** · Archduke Martin*** · Archduke Karl Philipp · Archduke Raimund Joseph · Archduke Itsván · Archduke Rudolf · Archduke Carl Christian · Archduke Karl Peter · Archduke Simeon · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Maximilian Heinrich · Archduke Philipp Joachim · Archduke Ferdinand Karl · Archduke Konrad · Archduke Sigismund** · Archduke Georg** · Archduke Guntram** · Archduke Leopold** · Archduke Alexander Salvator** · Archduke Thaddäus Salvator** · Archduke Casimir Salvator** · Archduke Matthias** · Archduke Johannes** · Archduke Bernhard** · Archduke Benedikt · Archduke Joseph Albrecht · Archduke Paul Leo · Archduke Friedrich Cyprian · Archduke Benedikt Alexander · Archduke Nicolás · Archduke Santiago · Archduke Paul Benedikt 19th generationArchduke Ferdinand Zvonimir · Archduke Karl Konstantin · Archduke Amedeo*** · Archduke Joachim*** · Archduke Bartholomaeus*** · Archduke Emmanuel*** · Archduke Luigi*** · Archduke Felix Carl · Archduke Andreas Franz · Archduke Paul Johannes · Archduke Carl Christian · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Thomas · Archduke Franz Ludwig · Archduke Michael · Archduke Joseph · Archduke Imre · Archduke Imre · Archduke Christoph · Archduke Alexander · Archduke Lorenz Carl · Archduke Wilhelm · Archduke Johannes · Archduke Ludwig · Archduke Philipp · Archduke Nicholas · Archduke Constantin · Archduke Jacob Maximilian · Archduke Leopold Amedeo** · Archduke Maximilian** · Archduke Leopold** · Archduke Constantin Salvator** · Archduke Paul Salvator***also an infante of Spain
**also a prince of Tuscany
***also a prince of ModenaPier Luigi (1545-1547) · Ottavio (1556-1586) · Alexander (1586–1592) · Ranuccio I (1592–1622) · Odoardo (1622–1646) · Ranuccio II (1646–1694) · Francesco (1694–1727) · Antonio (1727–1731) · Charles I (1731-1734) · Charles II (1735-1740) · Maria Theresa (1740–1748) · Philip (1748-1765) · Ferdinand (1765–1802) · Marie Louise (1814–1847) · Charles Louis (1847–1849) · Charles III (1849–1854) · Robert I* (1854–1907) · Henry* (1907-1939) · Joseph* (1939-1950) · Elias* (1950-1959) · Robert II* (1959-1974) · Xavier* (1974-1977) · Carlos Hugo* (1977-2010) · Carlos* (2010-)
- denotes titular Duke
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