- Noble court
:"For alternative meanings of the word "court", see:
Court (disambiguation)."A royal or noble court, as an instrument of governmentbroader than a court of justice, comprises an extended householdcentred on a patron whose rule may govern lawor be governed by it. A Royal Householdis the highest ranking example of this. A regentor viceroymay hold court during the minority or absence of a hereditary ruler, and even an elected head of statemay develop a court-like entourage of unofficial, personally-chosen advisors and "companions", a position first raised to semi-official status in the entourage of Alexander the Great, based on Persian conventions (Fox 1973).
The English and French word "companion" connotes a "sharer of the bread" at table, and indeed the court is an extension of the great individual's household; wherever members of the household and bureaucrats of the administration overlap in personnel, it is sensible to speak of a "court", whether in Achaemenid Persia,
Ming China, Norman Sicily, the Papacybefore 1870 (see Curia) or the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A group of individuals dependent on the patronage of a great man, classically in ancient Rome, forms part of the system of "clientage" that is discussed under vassal.
Individual rulers differed greatly in tastes and interests, as well as in political skills and in constitutional situations. Accordingly, some founded elaborate courts based on new
palaces, only to have their successors retreat to remote castles or to practical administrative centres. Personal retreats might arise far away from official court centres. Etiquetteand hierarchyflourish in highly-structured court settings and may leave conservative traces over generations.
After the collapse of the
Roman Empirein the West, a true court culture can be recognized in the entourage of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Greatand in the court of Charlemagne. In the Roman East, a brilliant court continued to surround the Byzantine emperors.
Western Europe, consolidation of power of local magnates and of kings in fixed administrative centres from the mid-13th century led to the creation of a distinct court culture that was the centre of intellectual and artistic patronage rivalling the abbots and bishops, in addition to its role as the apex of a rudimentary political bureaucracy that rivalled the courts of counts and dukes. The dynamics of hierarchy welded the court cultures together.
Local courts proliferated in the splintered polities of
medieval Europeand remained in early modern times in Germanyand in Italy. Such courts became known for intrigue and power politics; some also gained prominence as centres and collective patrons of artand culture. In medieval Spain(Castile), provincial courts were created. Minor noblemen and "burguesie" allied to create a system to oppose the monarchy on many policy issues. They were called "las Cortes de Castilla". These courts are the root of the current Spanish congressand senate.
As political executive functions generally moved to more democratic bases, noble courts have seen their function reduced once more to that of a noble household, concentrating on personal service to the household head, ceremonial and perhaps some residual politico-advisory functions. If
republican zeal has banished an area's erstwhile ruling nobility, courts may survive in exile.
Islamic worldroyal courts have played a major role in many of the dynasties which stretched from Spainto as far as India. All four major Caliphateshad sophisticated courts, this enabled Cordoba, Cairoand Baghdad(the seats of Umayyad, Fatamidsand Abbasids) to become the largest and most cultural cities of their time. Due to the court culture, many talented people from all walks of life, such as musicians, singers, poetsand scientistscame to these great cities to seek occupation under the patronage of elite bureaucrats, emirsand Sultans. The other Caliphatewas the Ottoman, which used its court to help stabilize an empire which spanned across three continentsand which was inhabited by a huge non-Islamic population. Everything from Algeriato the Balkansto Yemenwas controlled by the court in Istanbul.
Although you would expect the caliphates of a leading
Islamic worldto have courts, but so did many other regional empires such as the Mughalsof India and even their ancestors the Timuridsof Central Asia, the Shahs of Safavid Persiaand The Samanidsof Central Asia.
The royal courts in the
Islamic worldwere mostly run by rulers, but there were the exceptions of important elite families such as Barmakidsand Nizamswho established their own minor courts, enabling them to encourage arts and improve the empire even if the ruling king was useless. All Islamic courts had two things in common, which is that they helped to stabilise politics and society of the empires but they also harboured great bribery and manipulation.
Court officials or office-bearers (one type of
courtier) derived their positions and retained their titles from their original duties within the courtly household. With time such duties often became archaic, but titles survived involving the ghosts of arcane duties, generally dating back to the days when a noble household had practical and mundane concerns as well as high politics and culture. Such court appointments each have their own histories. They include:
* Fool =
Gentleman of the Bedchamber
* Grand master
* Great officers
Groom of the Stool
* Intendant of the civil list
* Keeper of the seal
* Maid of Honour
Master of the Horse
* Master of the hunt
* Knight -/
Former seats of courts
Because the German word "hof", meaning an enclosed
courtyard, can apply to a rural farmstead with outbuildings and walls forming the perimeter, it has also been used for the palatial seat where the court was held. Thus "hof" or "court" can become transferred to the building itself. For example, though the grand residence Hampton Courton the Thamesabove Londonhas been a palace, where Thomas Wolsey held court as Catholic cardinal (build after the Italian ideal for a cardinal's palace) till his fall and its confiscation by Henry VIII and where William and Mary held court, 1689–94—and though it is built round two main courts—the structure itself, however, is no longer the seat of a court in the sense of this article.
As an example, ambassadors to the
United Kingdomare still accredited to the Court of St. James's, and courtiers of the monarchy still have offices in St James' Palace, London. The present monarch, however, holds court at Buckingham Palace, where dignitaries are received.
Some former seats of power (see
* Castile, medieval Christian province in central current
Alhambrain Granada, seat of the last Muslim dynasty in current Spain
Forbidden City, imperial palace complex walled off from Beijing
Wawel Castle( Kraków) and Warsaw's Royal Castle ( Poland)
* Château de Versailles near Paris in
Sanssouciin Potsdamnear Berlin
* The Vatican in the
Urbino, seat of a duchy in the Marche
Aliénor de Poitierswho documented the etiquette of the Burgundian Court in the late fifteenth century.
* [http://www.courtstudies.org//index.php "The Society for Court Studies"] : sample articles and searchable bibliography
* [http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth214_folder/court_culture.html "Court culture: representations of intimacy"] : division between Hall and Chamber in late medieval noble and royal households
*Adamson, J. "The Princely Courts of Europe, 1500–1750". 1999.
*Birke, A., and R. Asch (eds.), "Courts, Patronage and the Nobility at the Beginning of the Modern Period, 1450–1650". 1991.
*Dickens, A.G. (ed.), "The Courts of Europe: Politics, Patronage and Royalty, 1400–1800." 1977. Emphasis on patronage.
*Elias, Norbert, "The Court Society" ("Die höfische Gesellschaft") 1983 (in German 1969). Sociology of the court.
*Duindam, J. "Myths of Power: Norbert Elias and the Early-Modern European Court" 1994. Critique of Elias.
*Fox, Robin Lane, "Alexander the Great." 1973. The "companions".
* [http://www.history.ox.ac.uk/currentunder/bibliographies/fhs-fs-court_culture.pdf Oxford University bibliography of Early Modern courts, structure and patronage, 2002]
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