- Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria
Maximilian Francis von Habsburg-Lothringen (
8 December 1756at Hofburg Imperial Palace, Austria- 26 July 1801at Schloss Hetzendorf, Austria) was the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austriaand Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. His siblings included two Holy Roman Emperors (Joseph II and Leopold II), as well as Queen Marie Antoinetteof Franceand Queen Maria Carolina of Two Sicilies. He was the last Elector of Cologneand an early patron of Ludwig van Beethoven.
In 1780 he succeeded his uncle
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraineas Hochmeister(Grand Master) of the Teutonic Knights.
In 1784 he became Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, living in the archbishopric's seat at
Bonn. He remained in that office until his death, meaning that he participated as Elector in the election of his brother Leopold II in 1790.
conspiracy theories, such as the one promoted in " The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail", Maximilian Franz was alleged to be the twenty-second Grand Master of the Priory of Sion
Maximilian Franz succeeded to the title of Elector of Cologne and the related Archbishopric of
Münsterand maintained his noble courtin Bonn. A keen patron of music, Maximilian Franz maintained a court orchestra where Ludwig van Beethoven's father was a tenorin the court chapel and played an important role in the early career of Ludwig van Beethoven. The young Beethoven was an employee in his court's musical establishment, where his grandfather, also named Ludwig van Beethoven, had been Kapellmeister.
organistwas Christian Gottlob Neefe, who became an early mentor and teacher to Ludwig van Beethoven. Recognising his young pupil's remarkable gift both as a performer and a composer, Neefe brought Beethoven into the court, convincing Maximilian Franz to appoint him as assistant organist. Maximilian, too, recognised the extraordinary abilities of the young Beethoven. In 1787, he gave Beethoven leave to visit Viennato study with Mozart, a visit cut short by the illness and death of Beethoven's mother. In 1792, Maximilian again agreed to let Beethoven depart for Vienna in order to pursue studies with Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieriand others, where he continued to pay Beethoven's court salary. Maximilian Franz maintained an interest in Beethoven's progress, and several letters from Haydn to Maximilian detailing his student's progress remain extant. The Archduke anticipated that Beethoven would return to Bonn and continue working for him, but in fact Beethoven never returned, choosing to pursue his career in Vienna.
Maximilian Franz's political rule over the Archbishopric met with disaster in 1794, when his domains were overrun by the troops of Revolutionary France. During the
Napoleonic Wars, Cologneand Bonn were both occupied by the French army, in October and November of 1794. As the French approached, Maximilian left Bonn never to return and the territories eventually passed to France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville(1801). The Archbishop's court was dissolved, and the Archbishopric lost its independence forever, being ruled first by France, then Prussia; and ultimately becoming part of unified Germany.Fact|date=August 2007|Unification of Germany Plagued by corpulence and ill-health, Maximilian Franz took up residence in Vienna after the loss of his territories until his death at age 45 in 1801. He was the last Elector of Cologne, since his successor, Anthony, Archduke of Austria, was never able to assume the title. (In 1803, the electorate was secularized altogether.)The dismantling of the court made Beethoven's relocation to Vienna permanent, and his stipend was terminated.
Beethoven planned to dedicate his First Symphony to his former patron, but Maximilian Franz died before it was completed.
* [http://mq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/gdk010v1.pdf "Who Died? The Funeral March in Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony"] "
The Musical Quarterly" Summer 2007. Accessed 2 October 2008.
royal name=Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria
His Imperial and Royal Highness
offstyle=Your Imperial and Royal Highness
style=font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
1= 1. Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
3= 3. Maria Theresa of Austria
Queen of Hungary & Bohemia
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
5= 5. Princess Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
Queen Dowager of Poland-Lithuania
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
11= 11. Countess Palatine Elizabeth Charlotte of Simmern
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
14= 14. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine
17= 17. Princess Claude-Françoise of Lorraine
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
19= 19. Eleanor Gonzaga of Mantua
Louis XIII of France
Anne of Austria
Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel(or Hesse-Cassel)
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor(= 18)
Maria Anna of Spain
26= 26. Philip William, Elector Palatine
Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
29= 29. Duchess Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg
30= 30. Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen
31= 31. Duchess Christine Frederica of Württemburg
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria — Archduke Maximilian Francis House House of Habsburg Lorraine Father Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Maria Theresa of Austria … Wikipedia
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria — For the son of Charles I of Austria, see Archduke Carl Ludwig of Austria (1918–2007). Archduke Karl Ludwig Spouse Princess Margaretha of Saxony Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon Two Sicilies Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal … Wikipedia
Archduke Charles Louis of Austria — For the son of Charles I of Austria see Archduke Carl Ludwig of Austria (1918–2007) .Infobox Austrian Royalty name = Archduke Charles Louis date of birth = birth date|1833|7|30 place of birth = Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria date of death =… … Wikipedia
Archduke Otto Francis of Austria — Infobox Austriaemperorstyles royal name=Archduke Otto Franz of Austria dipstyle=His Imperial and Royal Highness offstyle=Your Imperial and Royal Highness altstyle=Sir|Otto Franz Joseph Karl Ludwig Maria, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria,… … Wikipedia
Archduke Anton Victor of Austria — Anton Victor (31 August 1779 ndash; 2 April 1835) was an Archduke of Austria and a Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.Anton Victor was the son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria Luisa of Spain. He was born in Florence and died in… … Wikipedia
Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria — Archduke Ludwig Viktor Joseph Anton of Austria (15 May, 1842 ndash; 18 January, 1919), was the youngest son born to Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria. His siblings included Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, Emperor… … Wikipedia
Archduke Leopold Ludwig of Austria — (German: Leopold Ludwig Maria Franz Julius Estorgius Gerhard Erzherzog von Ósterreich) (b. Milan6 June 1823 d. Hórnstein, 24 May 1898) was an Austrian general and admiral who served as Oberkommandant der Marine ( High Commander of the Navy ) from … Wikipedia
Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria — Teschen ( Karl Stephan Eugen Viktor Felix Maria von Österreich Teschen , later Karl Stephan Habsburg Lothringen , from 1919 – Karol Stefan Habsburg Lotaryński ; (5 September 1860 7 April 1933) was a member of the House of Habsburg and a Grand… … Wikipedia
Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria — Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus, Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (30 September 1783, Pisa – 16 January 1853, Bolzano) was a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He should not to be… … Wikipedia
Archduke Maximilian of Austria–Este — Maximilian of Austria Este. Archduke Maximilian Joseph of Austria Este (1782–1863), the fourth son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria Este and younger brother of Francis IV, Duke of Modena. He was grand master of the Teutonic Knights from 1835 to… … Wikipedia