- Civil war in Iraq
Civil war/sectarian violence in Iraq Part of Iraq War and Iraqi insurgency Date ~February 2006- ~May 2008 Location Iraq (mostly central, including Baghdad) Result Ongoing but mainly halted
- Subsequent depletion of Iraqi insurgency
- Improvements in public security
- Foreign terrorist operations
- Democratic Elections held
- Presence of American troops in advise and assist role until the end of 2011
- Presence of British troops in order to train Iraqi military until May 2011 
- Tens to hundreds of thousands of Iraqis killed
- ~4 million displaced
Commanders and leaders Abu Omar al-Baghdadi †
Strength Sunni Insurgents: 70,000 (2003-2007)
Foreign Mujahedeen: 1,300
Mahdi Army: 60,000(2003-2008)
Badr Organisation: 20,000
Soldiers of Heaven: 1,000
Iraqi Security Forces
618,000 (805,269 Army and 348,000 Police)
Awakening Council militias
Casualties and losses ~100,000 Sunnis killed by Shi'a militia and security forces ~150,000 Civilians killed by Sunni insurgents 4,718 Coalition forces killed
9,481 Iraqi Security Forces killed
N.B.: The factional situation is complex; Sunni- and Shi'ite-linked militias have also fought amongst each other, and have colluded with government forces. Some casualties also linked to the crime activities and not due to the war. See the full text for details.
Following the U.S.-launched 2003 invasion of Iraq, the situation deteriorated, and by 2007, the conflict between Iraqi Sunni and Shi'a factions was described by the National Intelligence Estimate as having elements of a civil war. In a January 10, 2007 address to the American people, President George W. Bush stated that "80% of Iraq's sectarian violence occurs within 30 miles (48 km) of the capital. This violence is splitting Baghdad into sectarian enclaves, and shaking the confidence of all Iraqis." Two polls of Americans conducted in 2006 found that between 65% to 85% believed Iraq was in a civil war; however, a similar poll of Iraqis conducted in 2007 found that 61% did not believe that they were in a civil war.
In October 2006, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Iraqi government estimated that more than 365,000 Iraqis had been displaced since the 2006 bombing of the al-Askari Mosque, bringing the total number of Iraqi refugees to more than 1.6 million. By 2008, the UNHCR raised the estimate of refugees to a total of about 4.7 million (~16% of the population). The number of refugees estimated abroad was 2 million (a number close to CIA projections) and the number of internally displaced people was 2.7 million. In 2007, Iraq's anti-corruption board reported that 35% of Iraqi children, or about five million children, were orphans. The Red Cross has also stated that Iraq's humanitarian situation remains among the most critical in the world, with millions of Iraqis forced to rely on insufficient and poor-quality water sources.
According to the Failed States Index, produced by Foreign Policy magazine and the Fund for Peace, Iraq was one of the world's top 5 unstable states from 2005 to 2008. A poll of top U.S. foreign policy experts conducted in 2007 showed that over the next 10 years, just 3% of experts believed the U.S. would be able to rebuild Iraq into a "beacon of democracy" and 58% of experts believed that Sunni-Shiite tensions would dramatically increase in the Middle East.
In June 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense reported that "the security, political and economic trends in Iraq continue to be positive; however, they remain fragile, reversible and uneven." In July 2008, the audit arm of the U.S. Congress recommended that the U.S. Government should "develop an updated strategy for Iraq that defines U.S. goals and objectives after July 2008 and addresses the long-term goal of achieving an Iraq that can govern, defend, and sustain itself". Steven Simon, a Senior Fellow for Middle Eastern Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, wrote in May 2008 that "the recent short-term gains" had "come at the expense of the long-term goal of a stable, unitary Iraq."
After Iraqi security forces took the lead in security operations on June 30, 2009, Iraq experienced a "dramatic reduction in war-related violence of all types ..., with civilian and military deaths down by 80 to 90 percent compared with the same period in 2008." 
As of late 2010 violence remains at far lower levels than during the worst of the bloodshed in 2006-2007. However hundreds are still killed every month by sectarian groups and insurgents attempting to exploit the perceived weakness of the Iraqi Government. There is much debate on whether or not the "Civil War" has ended as well as heated controversy on how to label the violence that is still a daily feature of life in Iraq.
- 1 Ethno-sectarian composition
- 2 Groups known and alleged to take part in the sectarian violence
- 3 Conflict and tactics
- 4 Timeline
- 5 Potential effects of the sectarian attacks
- 6 Growth in refugee flight
- 7 Use of "civil war" label
- 8 See also
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 Films
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The Sunni insurgency has used sectarian violence to capitalize on Sunni fears of the Shi'a majority and the Shi'a armed militias have shown a zeal for vigilante justice. However, there are other sectarian divisions of the population that lay in nearly a dozen distinct groups. These groups are subdivided into countless smaller factions.
The sectarian divisions can be divided into several main ideological or ethnic strands:
- Shias (Arabic speaking) : -60%: By themselves a majority of the population, but for centuries dominated by the Sunni Arab minority. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and establishment of democracy meant an end to the Sunni Arab domination, and seemingly the beginning of the Shia Arab domination of the state.
Sunnis (Arabic speaking) : - 15% : Dominated Iraqi politics and military since 1638 and the Treaty of Zohab that confirmed Ottoman Sunni domination of Iraq. The Coalition invasion of 2003 and the establishment of democracy, ended this centuries long dominance of power by the minority Sunni Arabs.
- Kurdish - 21% : De facto independent administration (mostly Sunnis, small Shi'ite, Yazidi, and other elements).
- Assyrian - 2% : This group has a minor role in the current situation (mostly Christians).
- Turkoman - 2% : This group has a minor role in the current situation (majority Sunni with large Shi'a minority), although Turkey is concerned about their overall treatment in Iraq.
- Muslim - 98% : This is the primary religion in Iraq and serves as one of the primary sectarian distinctions.
- Christian, Mandaeans and Yazidi ~ 2% : These groups have a minor role in the current situation.
The Arab-Sunni faction and the Arab-Shi'ite are the main two participants in the violence, but conflicts within a single group have occurred. Iran, it has been conjectured, would assist the Shiites. Sunni-Shiite violence in Iraq, with Iran helping the Shi'ite and Arab nations helping the Sunni, is a possibility.[verification needed] A senior American official has said that during a meeting between Vice President Dick Cheney and Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah in November 2006, the king said that if U.S. forces pulled out of Iraq, the Saudis would be forced to support the Sunni minority.
The Kurds are caught between the two religious groups, but as they are an ethnicity opposed to religious movement, they are often at odds with the Sunni Arabs that were settled in Iraqi Kurdistan by Saddam's Arabization policy. Kurds also sympathise with Shi'ites as Saddam's Sunni regime persecuted both communities. Blurring this cohesion, though, are division of social, economic, political and geographic identities.
Groups known and alleged to take part in the sectarian violence
A multitude of groups form the Iraqi Insurgency which arose in a piecemeal fashion as a reaction to local events and notably the realisation of the U.S. military’s inability to control Iraq. Since 2005 the insurgent forces have largely merged around several main factions, including the Islamic Army in Iraq and Ansar al-Sunna. Religious justification has been used to support the political actions of these groups as well as a marked adherence to Salafism which brands those against the jihad as non believers. This approach has played a role in the rise of sectarian violence. The U.S. military also believe that between 5-10% of insurgent forces are non-Iraqi Arabs.
Independent Shi'ite militias have identified themselves around sectarian ideology and possess various levels of influence and power. There is a strand of militia who were founded in exile and returned to Iraq only after the toppling of Saddam Hussein such as the Badr Organization. There are also militias created since the state collapse, the largest and most uniform of which is the Mahdi Army established by Moqtada al-Sadr and believed to have around 50,000 fighters. Although their participation in the religious terrorism is not universal, the individual members of these militias are known to take part in the attacks on the Sunni and other non-Shia civilians.
Conflict and tactics
Prior events Invasion Occupation Opinions Controversy Aftermath Timeline
Some analysts suspect that the aim of these attacks is to sow chaos and sectarian discord. The attacks on non-military and civilian targets began in earnest in August 2003. Iraqi casualties have increased since then.
Bomb and mortar attacks
The bomb attacks aimed at civilians usually target crowded places such as marketplaces and mosques in the Shi'ite cities and districts. The bombings, which are sometimes co-ordinated, often inflict extreme casualties.
For example, the 23 November 2006 Sadr City bombings killed at least 215 people and injured hundreds more in the Sadr City district of Baghdad, sparking reprisal attacks, or the 3 February 2007 Baghdad market bombing which killed at least 135 and injured more than 300, while the co-ordinated 2 March 2004 Iraq Ashura bombings (including car bombs, suicide bombers and mortar, grenade and rocket attacks) killed at least 178 people and injured at least 500.
Since August 2003, suicide car bombs have been increasingly used as weapons by Sunni militants, primarily al-Qaeda extremists. The car bombs, known in the military as vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (IEDs), have emerged as one of their most effective weapons, directed not only against civilian targets but also against the Iraqi police stations and recruiting centers.
Death squad-style killings in Iraq have taken place in a variety of ways. Kidnapping, followed by often extreme torture (such as drilling holes in peoples feet with drills ) and execution-style killings, sometimes public (in some cases, beheadings), have emerged as another tactic. In some cases, tapes of the execution are distributed for propaganda purposes. The bodies are usually dumped on a roadside or in other places, several at a time. There were also several relatively large-scale massacres, like the Hay al Jihad massacre in which some 40 Sunnis were killed in a response to the car bombing which killed a dozen of Shi'ites.
The death squads are often disgruntled Shi'ites, including members of the security forces, who kill Sunnis to avenge the consequences of the insurgency against the Shi'ite-dominated government. 
Attacks and occupations on places of worship
On February 22, 2006, the highly provocative explosion took place at the al-Askari Mosque in the Iraqi city of Samarra, one of the holiest sites in Shi'a Islam, believed to have been caused by a bomb planted by al-Qaeda in Iraq. Although no injuries occurred in the blast, the mosque was severely damaged and the bombing resulted in violence over the following days. Over 100 dead bodies with bullet holes were found on the next day, and at least 165 people are thought to have been killed. In the aftermath of this attack the U.S. military calculated that the average homicide rate in Baghdad tripled from 11 to 33 deaths per day.
Dozens of Iraqi mosques were since attacked or taken-over by the sectarian forces. For example, a Sunni ( Al Qaeda) mosque was burnt in the southern Iraqi town of Haswa on March 25, 2007, in the revenge for the destruction of a Shia mosque in the town the previous day. In several cases, Christian churches were also attacked by the extremists. Later, another al-Askari bombing took place in June 2007.
Some Iraqi service members have deserted the military or the police and others have refused to serve in hostile areas. For example, some members of one sect have refused to serve in neighborhoods dominated by other sects. The ethnic Kurdish soldiers from northern Iraq, who are mostly Sunnis but not Arabs, were also reported to be deserting the army to avoid the civil strife in Baghdad, a conflict they consider someone else's problem.
For more information on events in a specific year, see the associated timeline page.
Potential effects of the sectarian attacks
An article in The Washington Post, published on August 20, 2006, reported that a full-blown Iraq civil war might result in the death of hundreds of thousands of people and turn millions of people into refugees. The ethnic unrest could also spill over to the rest of the region, with "copycat secession attempts" in neighbouring countries, such as Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon, as these countries have similar ethnic diversity. Citing the history of Taliban and Rwandan Patriotic Front as examples, the report warned that refugee camps often become a sanctuary and recruiting ground for militias, thus spreading the conflict to a wider area. Civil war could lead to increased radicalism and terrorism: Hezbollah and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam were formed as a result of civil wars. Based on lessons learned from the Lebanese and Bosnian civil wars, the report predicted that if an all-out civil war were to break out in Iraq, the U.S.-led coalition would require 450,000 troops to quash it.
An article in The International Herald Tribune, published on November 26, 2006, paraphrased a report from a group of American professors at Stanford University that the insurgency in Iraq amounted to the classic definition of a civil war.
Growth in refugee flight
By 2008, the UNHCR raised the estimate of refugees to a total of about 4.7 million, with 2 million displaced internally and 2.7 million displaced externally. In April 2006 the Ministry of Displacement and Migration estimated that "nearly 70,000 displaced Iraqis, especially from the capital, are living in deteriorating conditions,” due to ongoing sectarian violence. Roughly 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. Refugees are mired in poverty as they are generally barred from working in their host countries. A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.
Use of "civil war" label
The use of the term "civil war" has been controversial, with a number of commentators preferring the term "civil conflict". A poll of over 5,000 Iraqi nationals found that 27% of polled Iraqi residents agreed that Iraq was in a civil war, while 61% thought Iraq was not. Two similar polls of Americans conducted in 2006 found that between 65% to 85% believed Iraq was in a civil war.
In the United States, the term has been politicized. Deputy leader of the United States Senate, Dick Durbin, referred to "this civil war in Iraq" in a criticism of George W. Bush's January 10, 2007, President's Address to the Nation.
An unclassified summary of the 90-page January 2007 National Intelligence Estimate, titled Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead, states the following regarding the use of the term "civil war":
- The Intelligence Community judges that the term “civil war” does not adequately capture the complexity of the conflict in Iraq, which includes extensive Shia-on-Shia violence, al-Qa’ida and Sunni insurgent attacks on Coalition forces, and widespread criminally motivated violence. Nonetheless, the term “civil war” accurately describes key elements of the Iraqi conflict, including the hardening of ethno-sectarian identities, a sea change in the character of the violence, ethno-sectarian mobilization, and population displacements.
Retired United States Army General Barry McCaffrey issued a report on March 26, 2007, after a trip and analysis of the situation in Iraq. The report labeled the current situation a "low-grade civil war." In page 3 of the report, he writes that:
- "Iraq is ripped by a low-grade civil war which has worsened to catastrophic levels with as many as 3000 citizens murdered per month. The population is in despair. Life in many of the urban areas is now desperate. A handful of foreign fighter (500+)--and a couple thousand Al Qaeda operatives incite open factional struggle through suicide bombings which target Shia holy places and innocent civilians...The police force is feared as a Shia militia in uniform which is responsible for thousands of extra-judicial killings."
- Casualties of the conflict in Iraq since 2003
- Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations
- Iraqi insurgency
- Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present
- 2 March 2004 Iraq Ashura bombings
- 23 November 2006 Sadr City bombings
- 22 January 2007 Baghdad bombings
- 3 February 2007 Baghdad market bombing
- Hay al Jihad massacre
- Iraq Study Group, The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward - A New Approach (2006)
- Nir Rosen, In the Belly of the Green Bird: The Triumph of the Martyrs in Iraq (2006)
- Iraq in Fragments, documentary (2006)
- ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=aslB2LAf_hWs
- ^ Iraq Government Vows to Disband Sunnis
- ^ Reuters: April Iraq's deadliest month since last August
- ^ http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L15886020.htm
- International Crisis Group: "Iraq’s Civil War, the Sadrists and the Surge". Released on February 7, 2008.
- The Costs of Containing Iran. Nasr, Vali and Takeyh, Ray (Jan/Feb 2008).
to preserve the territorial integrity of Iraq and prevent the civil war there from engulfing the Middle East.
- International Crisis Group: "Iraq after the Surge I: The New Sunni Landscape". Released on April 30, 2008.
- ^ Iraq Body Count Retrieved 18 September 2007.
- ^ 2006 Study of Iraq Mortality
- ^ "Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll: More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business.
- ^ The Brookings Institution Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq 1 October 2007
- ^ Pincus, Walter (November 17, 2006). "Violence in Iraq Called Increasingly Complex". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/16/AR2006111601509.html. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- ^ Ricks, Thomas E.. "Intensified Combat on Streets Likely". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/10/AR2007011002581_pf.html. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- ^ Page 2
- ^ "Using that self aggrandizing, self appointed title, al Hassan built up a force of a thousand men" The Hidden Imam's Dream - Sky News, January 30, 2007
- ^ "Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq". By T. Christian Miller. Los Angeles Times. July 4, 2007.
- ^ "Contractor deaths add up in Iraq". By Michelle Roberts. Deseret Morning News. Feb. 24, 2007.
- ^ Collins, C. (August 19, 2007) "U.S. says Iranians train Iraqi insurgents," McClatchy Newspapers
- ^ A Dark Side to Iraq 'Awakening' Groups
- ^ Shi'as Peril
- ^ Ten Fallacies about the Violence in Iraq
- ^ http://icasualties.org/Iraq/index.aspx
- ^ http://icasualties.org/Iraq/IraqiDeaths.aspx
- ^ "Elements of 'civil war' in Iraq". BBC News. 2007-02-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/middle_east/6324767.stm. Retrieved January 2, 2010. "A US intelligence assessment on Iraq says "civil war" accurately describes certain aspects of the conflict, including intense sectarian violence."
- ^ "President's Address to the Nation". The White House. 2007-01-10. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/20070110-7.html.
- ^ a b Poll: Nearly two-thirds of Americans say Iraq in civil war
- ^ a b 12/06 CBS: 85% of Americans now characterize the situation in Iraq as a Civil War
- ^ a b Colvin, Marie (2007-03-18). "Iraqis: life is getting better". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/iraq/article1530762.ece. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
- ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- ^ "CIA World Factbook: Iraq"
- ^ a b UNHCR - Iraq: Latest return survey shows few intending to go home soon. Published April 29, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- ^ 5 million Iraqi orphans, anti-corruption board reveals English translation of Aswat Al Iraq newspaper December 15, 2007
- ^ Iraq: No let-up in the humanitarian crisis
- "Failed States list 2005". Fund for Peace. http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=103&Itemid=325.
- "Failed States list 2006". Fund for Peace. http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=324.
- "Failed States list 2007". Fund for Peace. http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=229&Itemid=366.
- "Failed States list 2008". Fund for Peace. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4350&page=1.
- ^ U.S. foreign policy experts oppose surge
- ^ Foreign Policy: Terrorism Survey III (Final Results)
- ^ " US Department of Defense (June 2008): Measuring Security and Stability in Iraq
- ^ US Government Accountability Office (June 2008): Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq
- ^ Council on Foreign Relations: The Price of the Surge
- ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/13/world/middleeast/13iraq.html New York Times 10-12-2009
- ^ Buchanan, Patrick, "Is America’s war in Iraq winding up?". August 4, 2005
- ^ CNN "Official: Saudis to back Sunnis if U.S. leaves Iraq?".December 12. 2006
- ^ "US exit may lead to Iraqi civil war". November 19, 2003
- ^ a b c d Toby Dodge (2007). ‘The Causes of US Failure in Iraq’. Survival. Vol. 49, No. 1
- ^ International Crisis Group. ‘In Their Own Words: Reading the Iraqi Insurgency’. Middle East Report No. 50, 15th February 2006
- ^ Roel Meijer, ‘The Sunni Resistance and the Political Process’ in Markus Bouillion, David Malone and Ben Rowsell (eds). Preventing Another Generation of Conflict. USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers
- ^ John Hopkins School of Puclic Health: Iraqi Civilian Deaths Increase Dramatically After Invasion
- ^ Wall Street Journal: The Truth About Iraq's Casualty Count
- ^ AFP: Bomb attack kills more than 40 near Iraq Shiite shrine
- ^ CNN: Pair of bombs kills 53 in Baghdad, officials say
- ^ Al Jazeera English - News - Iraq Mosque Burnt In Revenge Attack
- ^ BBC Analysis: Iraq's Christians under attack
- ^ 
- ^ a b Former CIA Officer Says Iraq Can Be Stabilized By Trained Security Forces PBS
- ^ Kurdish Iraqi Soldiers Are Deserting to Avoid the Conflict in Baghdad
- ^ Daniel L. Byman, and Kenneth M. Pollack (2006-08-20). "A Domino Theory for the New Mideast: What Happens When Iraq Runneth Over". The Washington Post.
- ^ Edward Wong (2006-11-26). "Scholars agree Iraq meets definition of 'civil war'". The International Herald Tribune.
- ^ IRAQ: Sectarian violence continues to spur displacement
- ^ 40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation
- ^ Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis
- ^ Displaced Iraqis running out of cash, and prices are rising
- ^ Ann McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no refuge in America. Seattle Post-Intelligencer May 25, 2007
- ^ Susan Milligan, "Democrats say they will force lawmakers to vote on increase". July 11, 2006
- ^ President's Address to the Nation
- ^ "Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead (PDF)" (PDF). National Intelligence Estimate. January 2007. http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20070202_release.pdf.
- ^ http://www.defensetech.org/archives/Iraq%20After%20action.pdf
- Refugees Report "The Iraqi Displacement Crisis" March 2008.
- United States Dept. of Homeland Security Fact Sheet on admitting Iraqi refugees to the United States March 2008.
- Sami Ramadani interview "Iraq is not a civil war" Spring 2007.
- Taheri, Amir. "There is no Civil War in Iraq, Gulf News, December 6, 2006.
- Phillips, David L., "Federalism can prevent Iraq civil war", July 20, 2005.
- Hider, James, "Weekend of slaughter propels Iraq towards all-out civil war", July 18, 2005.
- Ramadani, Sami, "Occupation and Civil War", UK Guardian, July 8, 2005.
- Phelps, Timothy M., "Experts: Iraq Verges on Civil War". Newsday, 12 May 2005.
- Strobel, Warren P., and Jonathan S. Landay, "CIA Officers Warn of Iraq Civil War, Contradicting Bush's Optimism", Knight-Ridder, January 22, 2004.
- "US exit may lead to Iraqi civil war", November 19, 2003.
- Dunnigan, James, "The Coming Iraqi Civil War", April 4, 2003
War on Terror (according to USA, European Union and NATO) ParticipantsOperationalTargetsAl-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · Abu Sayyaf · Anwar al-Awlaki · Al-Shabaab · Hamas · Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami · Hezbollah · Hizbul Mujahideen · Islamic Courts Union · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Jemaah Islamiyah · Lashkar-e-Taiba · Mujahideen · Taliban · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan ConflictsOtherInsurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) · Insurgency in the Philippines · Iraq War · Iraqi insurgency · Kenyan incursion into Somalia (2011) · South Thailand insurgency · Terrorism in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · War in Somalia (2006–2009) · 2007 Lebanon conflict · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown See alsoAbu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse · Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act · Axis of evil · Black sites · Bush Doctrine · The Clash of Civilizations · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Criticism of the War on Terror · Death of Osama bin Laden · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Torture Memos · Extrajudicial prisoners · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act of 2006 · NSA electronic surveillance program · Pakistan's role · President's Surveillance Program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Targeted killing · Targeted Killing in International Law · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act Terrorism in Asia Sovereign
- Burma (Myanmar)
- People's Republic of China
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- North Korea
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
States with limited
- Northern Cyprus
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- South Ossetia
- Christmas Island
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Hong Kong
Armed Iraqi Groups in the Iraq War and the Civil war in Iraq Insurgents Now-defunct Baathist rebels and insurgents Military of Iraq and Police Militias and others
- Islamic Army in Iraq (Al-Jaish Al-Islami fil-Iraq)
- Sufi Naqshbandi Iraqis (Naqshabandiya Army)
- Iraqi Islamic Resistance Front (JAAMI Iraqi nationalists)
- Jaish al-Mujahideen
- Mujahideen Battalions of the Salafi Group of Iraq
- Islamic Salafist Boy Scout Battalions (Kataab Ashbal Al Islam Al Salafi)
- Mohammad's Army (aka Jeish Muhammad)
A guerrilla group opposed to the coalition forces, composed primarily of Sunnis believed to have Baathist ties.
- Islamic State of Iraq (till Nov '06, Mujahideen Shura Council)
Umbrella organization and de facto state
- Al Qaeda in Iraq
- Jeish al-Fatiheen (Conquering Army)
- Jund al-Sahaba (Soldiers of the Sahaba)
- Katbiyan Ansar Al-Tawhid wal Sunnah (Brigades of Monotheism and Religious Conservatism)
- Jeish al-Taiifa al-Mansoura (Army of the Victorious Sect)
- Monotheism Supporters Brigades
- Saray al-Jihad Group
- al-Ghuraba Brigades
- al-Ahwal Brigades
- Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad
A now-defunct militant organization led by al-Zarqawi preceding AQI.
- Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna (formerly Jaish Ansar al-Sunna)
- Ansar al-Islam
- Black Banner Organization (ar-Rayat as-Sawda)
- Asaeb Ahl el-Iraq (Factions of the People of Iraq)
- Wakefulness and Holy War
- Abu Theeb's group
- Jaish Abi Baker's group
- Fedayeen Saddam ("Saddam's Men of Sacrifice")
A paramilitary organization loyal to the former Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein.
- The Return (al-Awda)
composed of former Ba'ath Party officials, intelligence agents, former members of the Republican Guard, the Special Republican Guard and Fedayeen Saddam militia.
- General Command of the Armed Forces, Resistance and Liberation in Iraq
- Iraqi Popular Army
- New Return
- Patriotic Front
- Political Media Organ of the Ba‘ath Party (Jihaz al-Iilam al-Siasi lil hizb al-Baath)
- Popular Resistance for the Liberation of Iraq
- Al-Abud Network
- Iraqi Army
The Iraqi Army is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
- Iraqi Air Force
- Iraqi Police
The Iraqi Police are the organic civil police force of the Republic of Iraq. There are three main branches.
- Iraqi Police Service (IPS): Responsible for the day to day patrolling of cities around most crimes.
- National Police (NP): Paramilitary force for counterinsurgency, public disorder and counter terrorist tasks.
- Supporting Forces: Remaining police organizations, primarily the Department of Border Enforcement (DBE).
- Facilities Protection Service
A paramilitary force responsible for protecting government buildings and facilities.
- Mahdi Army (Jaish-i-Mahdi)(جيش المهدي)
The Mahdi Army is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003, disbanded in 2008.
- Abu Deraa's Mahdi Army faction
In the fall of 2006, Abu Deraa and his supporters formed their own militia.
- Badr Organisation (originally Badr Brigade/Bader Corps) (منظمة بدر)
The armed wing of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI).
- Sheibani Network
Smuggling network and Insurgent group, which both supplies other insurgents and attacks coalition and Iraqi forces.
- Soldiers of Heaven
an armed Iraqi Shi'a sect.
- Special Groups (Iraq) Iranian backed factions of the Mahdi Army which went on to become separate organisations which continued fighting after the Mahdi Army's disbanding.
- Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (League of the Righteous)
The largest Special Group, led by Qais al-Khazali and later Akram al-Kabi.
- Promised Day Brigades
The Special Group which was created as successor of the Mahdi Army and continued activities against US and coalition forces
- Kata'ib Hezbollah (Hezbollah Brigades)
The most notorious Special Group, it became completely independent from the Mahdi Army and other Special Groups.
- Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (League of the Righteous)
- Awakening groups
- 1920 Revolution Brigades
- Jaish al-Rashideen
- Islamic Front for the Iraqi Resistance (al-Jabha al-Islamiya lil-Moqawama al-Iraqiya - JAMI)
- Hamas of Iraq
- term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. The term is now officially used for the security forces of Iraq's Kurdistan Autonomous Region.
- Kurdistan Workers Party or PKK. A militant separatist organization whose goal is the creation of a separate Kurdish state in Turkey. Currently has bases in Iraqi Kurdistan's Qandil mountains.
- Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan or PJAK. A militant separatist organization whose goal is overthrowing the Islamic government of Iran. Currently taking refuge in the Qandil mountains.
- Qaraqosh Protection Committee, an Assyrian Christian self-defence force
- Malik Al-Tawus Troop, a Yezidi self-defence force in northern Iraq
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Iraqi Kurdish Civil War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Iraqi Kurdish Civil War partof= caption= date=May 1994 November 24 1997 place=Iraqi Kurdistan result=Washington Agreement, cease fire combatant1 = flagicon|Kurdistan Kurdish Democratic Party flagcountry|Iran… … Wikipedia
American Civil War — American Civil War … Wikipedia
Lithuanian Civil War (1431–1435) — Lithuanian Civil War … Wikipedia
Conclusion of the American Civil War — The McLean house where Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865. This is a timeline of the conclusion of the American Civil War which includes important battles, skirmishes, raids and other events of 1865. These led to additional Confederate… … Wikipedia
2011 Libyan civil war — For more details on this topic, see Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war. 2011 Libyan civil war Part of the Arab Spring … Wikipedia
North Yemen Civil War — Yemen Civil War and Yemeni Civil War redirect here. For other uses, see Yemen Civil War (disambiguation). North Yemen Civil War Part of the Cold War … Wikipedia
Opposition to the American Civil War — Popular opposition to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, was widespread. Although there had been many attempts at compromise prior to the outbreak of war, there were those who felt it could still be ended peacefully or did… … Wikipedia