Osama bin Laden


Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
أسامة بن لادن

Osama bin Laden in 1997
Born March 10, 1957(1957-03-10)
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Died May 2, 2011(2011-05-02) (aged 54)
Abbottabad, Pakistan 34°10′9″N 73°14′33″E / 34.16917°N 73.2425°E / 34.16917; 73.2425
Cause of death Ballistic trauma
Years active 1979–2011
Successor Ayman Al-Zawahiri[1]
Religion Sunni Islam (Qutbism)[2][3]
Children
Military career
Allegiance Al-Qaeda
Years of service 1988–2011
Battles/wars

Soviet war in Afghanistan
War on Terror:

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden (play /ˈsɑːmə bɪn mˈhɑːmɨd bɪn əˈwɑːd bɪn ˈlɑːdən/; Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎, ʾUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʿAwaḍ bin Lādin; March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011a) was the founder of the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda, the jihadist organization responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets.[4][5][6] He was a member of the wealthy Saudi bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite.[7]

Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.[8][9][10] From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the War on Terror, with a US$25 million bounty by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[11]

After being placed on the FBI's Most Wanted list, bin Laden remained in hiding during three U.S. presidential administrations. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, by U.S. Navy SEALs and CIA operatives in a covert operation ordered by United States President Barack Obama. Shortly after his death, bin Laden's body was buried at sea.[12] Al-Qaeda acknowledged his death on May 6, 2011, vowing to retaliate.[13]

Contents

Early life and education

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,[14] a son of Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a billionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family,[15] and Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Hamida al-Attas (then called Alia Ghanem).[16] In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957.[17]

Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida soon after Osama bin Laden was born. Mohammed recommended Hamida to Mohammed al-Attas, an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, and they are still together.[18] The couple had four children, and bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.[16] The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama later inherited around $25–30 million.[19]

Bin Laden was raised as a devout Wahhabi Muslim.[20] From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School.[16][21] He studied economics and business administration[22] at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979,[23] or a degree in public administration in 1981.[24] One source described him as "hard working",[25] another said he left university during his third year without completing a college degree.[26] At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work.[27] Other interests included writing poetry;[28] reading, with the works of Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Charles de Gaulle said to be among his favorites; black stallions; and association football, in which he enjoyed playing at centre forward and followed the fortunes of Arsenal F.C.[29]

Personal life

In 1974, at the age of 17, bin Laden married Najwa Ghanem at Latakia, Syria;[30] they were divorced before September 11, 2001. Bin Laden's other known wives were Khadijah Sharif (married 1983, divorced 1990s), Khairiah Sabar (married 1985), Siham Sabar (married 1987), and Amal al-Sadah (married 2000). Some sources also list a sixth wife, name unknown, whose marriage to bin Laden was annulled soon after the ceremony.[31] Bin Laden fathered between 20 and 26 children with his wives.[32][33] Many of bin Laden's children fled to Iran following the September 11 attacks and as of 2010 Iranian authorities reportedly continue to control their movement.[34]

Bin Laden's father Mohammed died in 1967 in an airplane crash in Saudi Arabia when his American pilot misjudged a landing.[35] Bin Laden's eldest half-brother, Salem bin Laden, the subsequent head of the bin Laden family, was killed in 1988 near San Antonio, Texas, in the United States, when he accidentally flew a plane into power lines.[36]

The FBI described bin Laden as an adult as tall and thin, between 6 ft 4 in and 6 ft 6 in (193–198 cm) in height and weighing about 165 pounds (75 kg). Interviewer Lawrence Wright, on the other hand, described him as quite slender, but not particularly tall.[37] Bin Laden had an olive complexion and was left-handed, usually walking with a cane. He wore a plain white turban and he had stopped wearing the traditional Saudi male headdress.[38] Bin Laden was described as soft-spoken and mild-mannered in demeanor.[39]

Name

There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English;[40] bin Laden's name is most frequently rendered "Osama bin Laden". The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), as well as other U.S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin", both of which may be abbreviated as "UBL". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin". The decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions and articles uncapitalized in surnames; however, bin means "son of" and is not, strictly speaking, a preposition or article. The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation also used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years.

Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden; "Awad" refers to his grandfather, Awad bin Aboud bin Laden, a Kindite Hadhrami tribesman; "Laden" refers not to bin Laden's great-grandfather, who was named Aboud, but to a more distant ancestor.

The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner. According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani" (Arabic: القحطاني‎, āl-Qaḥṭānī), but bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden never officially registered the name.[41]

Osama bin Laden had also assumed the kunyah "Abū ʿAbdāllāh" ("father of Abdallah"). His admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir" (الأمير, al-Amīr), the "Sheik" (الشيخ, aš-Šayḫ), the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid" (شيخ المجاهد, al-Muǧāhid Šayḫ), "Hajj" (حج, Ḥaǧǧ), and the "Director".[42] The word ʾusāmah (أسامة) means "lion",[43] earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik".[44]

Beliefs and ideology

According to former CIA analyst Michael Scheuer, who led the CIA's hunt for Osama bin Laden, the al-Qaeda leader was motivated by a belief that U.S. foreign policy has oppressed, killed, or otherwise harmed Muslims in the Middle East,[45] condensed in the phrase "They hate us for what we do, not who we are."

Bin Laden also said only the restoration of Sharia law would "set things right" in the Muslim world, and that alternatives such as "pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy" must be opposed.[46] This belief, in conjunction with violent jihad, has sometimes been called Qutbism after being promoted by Sayyid Qutb.[47] Bin Laden believed that Afghanistan, under the rule of Mullah Omar's Taliban, was "the only Islamic country" in the Muslim world.[48] Bin Laden consistently dwelt on the need for violent jihad to right what he believed were injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states,[49] the need to eliminate the state of Israel, and the necessity of forcing the United States to withdraw from the Middle East. He also called on Americans to "reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling, and usury", in an October 2002 letter.[50]

Bin Laden's ideology included the idea that innocent civilians, including women and children, are legitimate targets of jihad.[51][52] Bin Laden was anti-Semitic, and delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next."[53] Shia Muslims have been listed along with "heretics, [...] America, and Israel" as the four principal "enemies of Islam" at ideology classes of bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization.[54]

Bin Laden opposed music on religious grounds,[55] and his attitude towards technology was mixed. He was interested in "earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants" on the one hand, but rejected "chilled water" on the other.[56]

His viewpoints and methods of achieving them had led to him being designated as a terrorist by scholars,[57][58] journalists from The New York Times,[59][60] the BBC,[61] and Qatari news station Al Jazeera,[62] analysts such as Peter Bergen,[63] Michael Scheuer,[64] Marc Sageman,[65] and Bruce Hoffman[66][67] and he was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.[68]

Bin Laden's overall strategy against much larger enemies such as the Soviet Union and United States was to lure them into a long war of attrition in Muslim countries, attracting large numbers of jihadists who would never surrender. He believed this would lead to economic collapse of the enemy nation. Al-Qaeda manuals clearly outline this strategy.

Militant activity

Mujahideen in Afghanistan

After leaving college in 1979, bin Laden went to Pakistan and joined Abdullah Azzam to take part in the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[69][70] During Operation Cyclone from 1979 to 1989, the United States provided financial aid and weapons to the mujahideen leaders[71] through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Bin Laden met and built relations with Hamid Gul, who was a three-star general in the Pakistani army and head of the ISI agency. Although the United States provided the money and weapons, the training of militant groups was entirely done by the Pakistani Armed Forces and the ISI.

By 1984, bin Laden and Azzam established Maktab al-Khidamat, which funneled money, arms and fighters from around the Arab world into Afghanistan. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden's inherited family fortune[72] paid for air tickets and accommodation, paid for paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihadi fighters. Bin Laden established camps inside Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan and used it to train volunteer fighters against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. It was during his time in Pakistan that he began wearing camouflage-print jackets and carrying a Russian-made assault rifle.

Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda

By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat. While Azzam acted as support for Afghan fighters, bin Laden wanted a more military role. One of the main points leading to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was Azzam's insistence that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming a separate fighting force.[73] Notes of a meeting of bin Laden and others on August 20, 1988, indicate al-Qaeda was a formal group by that time: "Basically an organized Islamic faction, its goal is to lift the word of God, to make his religion victorious." A list of requirements for membership itemized the following: listening ability, good manners, obedience, and making a pledge (bayat) to follow one's superiors.[74]

According to Wright, the group's real name was not used in public pronouncements because "its existence was still a closely held secret".[75] His research suggests that al-Qaeda was formed at an August 11, 1988, meeting between "several senior leaders" of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Abdullah Azzam, and bin Laden, where it was agreed to join bin Laden's money with the expertise of the Islamic Jihad organization and take up the jihadist cause elsewhere after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan.[76] Following the Soviet Union's withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989, Osama bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia in 1990 as a hero of jihad, who along with his Arab legion "had brought down the mighty superpower" of the Soviet Union.[77]

The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait under Saddam Hussein on August 2, 1990, put the Saudi kingdom and the House of Saud at risk, with Iraqi forces on the Saudi border and Saddam's appeal to pan-Arabism potentially inciting internal dissent. Bin Laden met with King Fahd, and Saudi Defense Minister Sultan, telling them not to depend on non-Muslim assistance from the United States and others, offering to help defend Saudi Arabia with his mujahideen. Bin Laden's offer was rebuffed, and after the Saudi monarchy invited the deployment of U.S. troops in Saudi territory,[78] Bin Laden publicly denounced Saudi Arabia's dependence on the U.S. military. Bin Laden believed the presence of foreign troops in the "land of the two mosques" (Mecca and Medina) profaned sacred soil. Bin Laden's criticism of the Saudi monarchy led that government to attempt to silence him.

Shortly after Saudi Arabia invited U.S. troops into Saudi Arabia, bin Laden turned his attention to attacks on the West. On November 8, 1990, the FBI raided the New Jersey home of El Sayyid Nosair, an associate of al-Qaeda operative Ali Mohamed, discovering copious evidence of terrorist plots, including plans to blow up New York City skyscrapers. This marked the earliest discovery of al-Qaeda terrorist plans outside of Muslim countries.[79] Nosair was eventually convicted in connection to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and later admitted guilt for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York on November 5, 1990.

Bin Laden continued to speak publicly against the Saudi government for harboring American troops, for which the Saudis banished him. He went to live in exile in Sudan, in 1992, in a deal brokered by Ali Mohamed.[80]

Sudan and return to Afghanistan

In Sudan, bin Laden established a new base for mujahideen operations in Khartoum. He bought a house on Al-Mashtal Street in the affluent Al-Riyadh quarter and a retreat at Soba on the Blue Nile.[81][82] During his time in the country he heavily invested in the infrastructure and in agriculture and businesses.[83] He continued his verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, and in response, on March 5, 1994, Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden's passport. His family was persuaded to cut off his $7 million a year stipend.[84] By now bin Laden was strongly associated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed, and the EIJ was expelled from Sudan.

As a result of his dealings in and advocacy of violent extremist jihad, Osama bin Laden lost his Saudi citizenship in 1994 and was disowned by his billionaire family.[85]

Sudan also began efforts to expel bin Laden. The 9/11 Commission Report states:

In late 1995, when Bin Laden was still in Sudan, the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) learned that Sudanese officials were discussing with the Saudi government the possibility of expelling Bin Laden. CIA paramilitary officer Billy Waugh tracked down Bin Ladin in the Sudan and prepared an operation to apprehend him, but was denied authorization.[86] U.S. Ambassador Timothy Carney encouraged the Sudanese to pursue this course. The Saudis, however, did not want Bin Laden, giving as their reason their revocation of his citizenship. Sudan's minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Laden over to the United States. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Laden. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment outstanding.[87]

The 9/11 Commission Report further states:

In February 1996, Sudanese officials began approaching officials from the United States and other governments, asking what actions of theirs might ease foreign pressure. In secret meetings with Saudi officials, Sudan offered to expel Bin Laden to Saudi Arabia and asked the Saudis to pardon him. U.S. officials became aware of these secret discussions, certainly by March. Saudi officials apparently wanted Bin Laden expelled from Sudan. They had already revoked his citizenship, however, and would not tolerate his presence in their country. Also Bin Laden may have no longer felt safe in Sudan, where he had already escaped at least one assassination attempt that he believed to have been the work of the Egyptian or Saudi regimes, or both.

In May 1996, under increasing pressure on Sudan, from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United States, bin Laden returned to Jalalabad, Afghanistan aboard a chartered flight, and there forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar.[88][89] When bin Laden left Sudan, he and his organization were significantly weakened, despite his ambitions and organizational skills.[90]

In August, 1996, bin Laden declared war against the United States. This fatwā was first published in Al Quds Al Arabi, a London-based newspaper. The fatwā is entitled "Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places."[91] Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Mecca and Medina, the two holiest places in Islam. The reference to occupation in the fatwā refers to U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of controlling air space in Iraq, known as Operation Southern Watch.

In Afghanistan, bin Laden and al-Qaeda raised money from "donors from the days of the Soviet jihad", and from the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to establish more training camps for Mujahideen fighters.[92]

Bin Laden effectively had hijacked Ariana Afghan Airlines, which ferried Islamic militants, arms, cash and opium through the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan as well as provided false identifications to members of bin Laden's terrorist network.[93] Viktor Bout helped to run the airline, maintaining planes and loading cargo. Michael Scheuer, head of the CIA's bin Laden unit, concluded that Ariana was being used as a "terrorist taxi service".[94]

Early attacks and aid for attacks

Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir with Osama bin Laden in 1997

It is believed that the first bombing attack involving bin Laden was the December 29, 1992, bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel in Aden in which two people were killed.[95]

It was after this bombing that al-Qaeda was reported to have developed its justification for the killing of innocent people. According to a fatwa issued by Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, the killing of someone standing near the enemy is justified because any innocent bystander will find their proper reward in death, going to Jannah (Paradise) if they were good Muslims and to Jahannam (hell) if they were bad or non-believers.[96] The fatwa was issued to al-Qaeda members but not the general public.

In the 1990s bin Laden's al-Qaeda assisted jihadis financially and sometimes militarily in Algeria, Egypt and Afghanistan. In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded but the war that followed killed 150,000–200,000 Algerians and ended with Islamist surrender to the government.

Bin Laden funded the Luxor massacre of November 17, 1997,[97][98][99] which killed 62 civilians, but outraged the Egyptian public. In mid-1997, the Northern Alliance threatened to overrun Jalalabad, causing bin Laden to abandon his Nazim Jihad compound and move his operations to Tarnak Farms in the south.[100]

Another successful attack was carried out in the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with the Taliban by sending several hundreds of Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban kill between five and six thousand Hazaras overrunning the city.[101]

In February 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders which declared the killing of North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip".[102][103] At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are "very easy targets". He told the attending journalists, "You will see the results of this in a very short time."[104]

In December 1998, the Director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorist Center reported to President Bill Clinton that al-Qaeda was preparing for attacks in the United States of America, including the training of personnel to hijack aircraft.[105]

Bin Laden and Al-Zawahiri organized an al-Qaeda congress on June 24, 1998.[106]

The 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings were a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The attacks were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to the attention of the United States public for the first time, and resulted in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation placing bin Laden on its Ten Most Wanted list.

At the end of 2000, Richard Clarke revealed that Islamic militants headed by bin Laden had planned a triple attack on January 3, 2000 which would have included bombings in Jordan of the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman and tourists at Mount Nebo and a site on the Jordan River, the sinking of the destroyer USS The Sullivans in Yemen, as well as an attack on a target within the United States. The plan was foiled by the arrest of the Jordanian terrorist cell, the sinking of the explosive-filled skiff intended to target the destroyer, and the arrest of Ahmed Ressam.[107]

Yugoslav Wars

A former U.S. State Department official in October 2001 described Bosnia and Herzegovina as a safe haven for terrorists, after it was asserted that militant elements of the former Sarajevo government were protecting extremists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden.[108] In 1997, Rzeczpospolita, one of the largest Polish daily newspapers, reported that intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR Brigade suspected that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries was located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992, hundreds of volunteers joined an "all-mujahedeen unit" called El Moujahed in an abandoned hillside factory, a compound with a hospital and prayer hall.

According to Middle East intelligence reports, bin Laden financed small convoys of recruits from the Arab world through his businesses in Sudan. Among them was Karim Said Atmani who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the United States of America.[109] He is a former roommate of Ahmed Ressam, the man arrested at the Canadian-U.S. border in mid-December 1999 with a car full of nitroglycerin and bomb-making materials.[110][111] He was convicted of colluding with Osama bin Laden by a French court.[112]

A Bosnian government search of passport and residency records, conducted at the urging of the United States, revealed other former mujahideen who were linked to the same Algerian group or to other groups of suspected terrorists, and had lived in the area 60 miles (97 km) north of Sarajevo, the capital, in the past few years. Khalil al-Deek, was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites; a second man with Bosnian citizenship, Hamid Aich, lived in Canada at the same time as Atmani and worked for a charity associated with Osama bin Laden. In its June 26, 1997, report on the bombing of the Al Khobar building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, The New York Times noted that those arrested confessed to serving with Bosnian Muslims forces. Further, the captured men also admitted to ties with Osama bin Laden.[113][114][115]

In 1999 it was revealed that bin Laden and his Tunisian assistant Mehrez Aodouni were granted citizenship and Bosnian passports in 1993 by the government in Sarajevo. This information was denied by the Bosnian government following the September 11 attacks, but it was later found that Aodouni was arrested in Turkey and that at that time he possessed the Bosnian passport. Following this revelation, a new explanation was given that bin Laden "did not personally collect his Bosnian passport" and that officials at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna, which issued the passport, could not have known who bin Laden was at the time.[113][114][115] The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje published in 2001 that three men, believed to be linked to bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. The three, one of whom was identified as Imad El Misri, were Egyptian nationals. The paper said that two of the suspects were holding Bosnian passports.[113]

In 1998 it was reported that bin Laden was operating his al-Qaeda network out of Albania. The Charleston Gazette quoted Fatos Klosi, the head of the Albanian intelligence service, as saying a network run by Saudi exile Osama bin Laden sent units to fight in the Serbian province of Kosovo. Confirmation of these activities came from Claude Kader, a French national who said he was a member of bin Laden's Albanian network.

By 1998 four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) were arrested in Albania and extradited to Egypt.[116]

During his trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia former Serbian President Slobodan Milošević presented FBI documents that verified bin Laden's al-Qaeda had a presence in the Balkans and aided the Kosovo Liberation Army, which was identified by the U.S. State Department as a terrorist organization shortly before the 1998 embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya. Milošević had argued that the United States aided the terrorists which culminated in its backing of the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War.[117]

September 11, 2001 attacks

"God knows it did not cross our minds to attack the Towers, but after the situation became unbearable—and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon—I thought about it. And the events that affected me directly were that of 1982 and the events that followed—when America allowed the Israelis to invade Lebanon, helped by the U.S. Sixth Fleet. As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me punish the unjust the same way: to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and to stop killing our children and women."

Osama bin Laden, 2004[118]

United Airlines Flight 175 crashes into the south tower

After his denial,[119][Full citation needed] Osama bin Laden finally claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States in 2004.[120][121][122] The attacks involved the hijacking of four commercial passenger aircraft,[123] the subsequent destruction of those planes and the World Trade Center in New York City, New York, severe damage to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia,[124] and the deaths of 2,974 people and the nineteen hijackers.[125] In response to the attacks, the United States launched a War on Terror to depose the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and capture al-Qaeda operatives, and several countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation to preclude future attacks. The CIA's Special Activities Division was given the lead in tracking down and killing or capturing bin Laden.[126]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that classified[127] evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the September 11 attacks is clear and irrefutable.[128] The UK Government reached a similar conclusion regarding al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11 attacks, although the government report notes that the evidence presented is not necessarily sufficient for a prosecutable case.[129]

Bin Laden initially denied involvement in the attacks. On September 16, 2001, bin Laden read a statement later broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel denying responsibility for the attack.[130]

In a videotape recovered by U.S. forces in November 2001 in Jalalabad, bin Laden was seen discussing the attack with Khaled al-Harbi in a way that indicates foreknowledge.[131] The tape was broadcast on various news networks on December 13, 2001. The merits of this translation have been disputed. Arabist Dr. Abdel El M. Husseini stated: "This translation is very problematic. At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic."[132]

2001 video of bin Laden

In the 2004 Osama bin Laden video, bin Laden abandoned his denials without retracting past statements. In it he stated he had personally directed the nineteen hijackers.[121][133] In the 18-minute tape, played on Al-Jazeera, four days before the American presidential election, bin Laden accused U.S. President George W. Bush of negligence on the hijacking of the planes on September 11.[121]

According to the tapes, bin Laden claimed he was inspired to destroy the World Trade Center after watching the destruction of towers in Lebanon by Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War.[134]

Through two other tapes aired by Al Jazeera in 2006, Osama bin Laden announced, "I am the one in charge of the nineteen brothers. [...] I was responsible for entrusting the nineteen brothers [...] with the raids" (May 23, 2006).[135] In the tapes he was seen with Ramzi bin al-Shibh, as well as two of the 9/11 hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they made preparations for the attacks (videotape broadcast September 7, 2006).[136]

Identified motivations of the September 11 attacks include the support of Israel by the United States, presence of the U.S. military in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. enforcement of sanctions against Iraq.

Criminal charges

Usama Bin Laden
FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives
Charges
  • Murder of U.S. Nationals Outside the United States
  • Conspiracy to Murder U.S. Nationals Outside the United States
  • Attack on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death
Reward $25 million
Alias
  • Usama Bin Muhammad Bin Ladin
  • Shaykh Usama Bin Ladin
  • the Prince
  • the Emir
  • Abu Abdallah
  • Mujahid Shaykh
  • Hajj
  • the Director
Description
Born 1957
Saudi Arabia
Died May 2, 2011(2011-05-02) (aged 54)
Abbottabad, Pakistan
Cause of death Ballistic trauma
Nationality Saudi Arabian
Gender Male
Height 6'4" to 6'6"
Weight Approximately 160 pounds
Occupation Unknown
Criminal Status
Added June 7, 1999
Number 456
Killed During Attempt to Capture

On March 16, 1998, Libya issued the first official Interpol arrest warrant against bin Laden and three other people. They were charged for killing Silvan Becker, agent of Germany’s domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, in the Terrorism Department, and his wife Vera in Libya on March 10, 1994.[68] [137] Bin Laden was still wanted by the Libyan government at the time of his death.[138][139] Osama bin Laden was first indicted by the United States on June 8, 1998, when a grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the November 14, 1995, truck bombing of a U.S.-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh.[140] Bin Laden was charged with "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al-Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic fighters worldwide.[140] Bin Laden denied involvement but praised the attack. On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death[141] for his alleged role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former al-Qaeda members and satellite phone records, from a phone purchased for him by al-Qaeda procurement agent Ziyad Khaleel in the United States.[142]

Bin Laden became the 456th person listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, when he was added to the list on June 7, 1999, following his indictment along with others for capital crimes in the 1998 embassy attacks. Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban of Afghanistan were met with failure prior to the bombing of Afghanistan in October 2001.[143] In 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in an attempt to force the Taliban to extradite him.

Years later, on October 10, 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the top 22 FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by the President of the United States George W. Bush, in direct response to the September 11 attacks, but which was again based on the indictment for the 1998 embassy attack. Bin Laden was among a group of thirteen fugitive terrorists wanted on that latter list for questioning about the 1998 embassy bombings. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists.

Despite the multiple indictments listed above and multiple requests, the Taliban refused to extradite Osama bin Laden. They did however offer to try him before an Islamic court if evidence of Osama bin Laden's involvement in the September 11 attacks was provided. It was not until eight days after the bombing of Afghanistan began in October 2001 that the Taliban finally did offer to turn over Osama bin Laden to a third-party country for trial in return for the United States ending the bombing. This offer was rejected by President Bush stating that this was no longer negotiable, with Bush responding "there's no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he's guilty."[144]

On June 15, 2011, federal prosecutors of the United States of America officially dropped all criminal charges against Osama Bin Laden following his death in May.[145]

Attempted capture by the United States

U.S. propaganda leaflet used in Afghanistan, with bin Laden second from the left

Clinton administration

Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the United States government since the presidency of Bill Clinton.[146] Shortly after the September 11 attacks it was revealed that President Clinton had signed a directive authorizing the CIA (and specifically their elite Special Activities Division) to apprehend bin Laden and bring him to the United States to stand trial after the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa; if taking bin Laden alive was deemed impossible, then deadly force was authorized.[147] On August 20, 1998, 66 cruise missiles launched by United States Navy ships in the Arabian Sea struck bin Laden's training camps near Khost in Afghanistan, narrowly missing him by a few hours.[148] In 1999 the CIA, together with Pakistani military intelligence, had prepared a team of approximately 60 Pakistani commandos to infiltrate Afghanistan to capture or kill bin Laden, but the plan was aborted by the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état;[148] in 2000, foreign operatives working on behalf of the CIA had fired a rocket-propelled grenade at a convoy of vehicles in which bin Laden was traveling through the mountains of Afghanistan, hitting one of the vehicles but not the one in which bin Laden was riding.[147]

In 2000, prior to the September 11 attacks, Paul Bremer characterized the Clinton administration as "correctly focused on bin Laden", while Robert Oakley criticized their "obsession with Osama".[107]

Bush administration

Immediately after the September 11 attacks, U.S. government officials named bin Laden and the al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death.[42][149] On July 13, 2007, this figure was doubled to $50 million.[150] The Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association offered an additional $2 million reward.[151]

According to The Washington Post, the U.S. government concluded that Osama bin Laden was present during the Battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan in late 2001, and according to civilian and military officials with first-hand knowledge, failure by the United States to commit enough U.S. ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the United States in the war against al-Qaeda. Intelligence officials have assembled what they believe to be decisive evidence, from contemporary and subsequent interrogations and intercepted communications, that bin Laden began the Battle of Tora Bora inside the cave complex along Afghanistan's mountainous eastern border.[152]

The Washington Post also reported that the CIA unit composed of their special operations paramilitary forces dedicated to capturing bin Laden was shut down in late 2005.[153] Bush had previously defended this scaling back of the effort several times, saying, "I don't know where bin Laden is. I have no idea and really don't care. It's not that important. It's not our priority."[154]

U.S. and Afghanistan forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between August 14–16, 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre-Ramadan meeting held by al-Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al-Qaeda and Taliban members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden or Ayman al-Zawahiri.[155]

Obama administration

On October 7, 2008, in the second presidential debate, on foreign policy, then-presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged, "We will kill bin Laden. We will crush al-Qaeda. That has to be our biggest national security priority."[156] Upon being elected, then President-elect Obama expressed his plans to "renew U.S. commitment to finding al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, according to his national security advisers" in an effort to ratchet up the hunt for the terrorist.[156] President Obama rejected the Bush administration's policy on bin Laden that "conflated all terror threats from al-Qaeda to Hamas to Hezbollah," replacing it with "with a covert, laserlike focus on al-Qaeda and its spawn."[157][158]

U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said in December 2009 that officials had had no reliable information on bin Laden's whereabouts for years. One week later, General Stanley McChrystal, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan said in December 2009 that al-Qaeda will not be defeated unless its leader, Osama bin Laden, is captured or killed. Testifying to the U.S. Congress, he said bin Laden had become an "iconic figure, whose survival emboldens al-Qaeda as a franchising organization across the world", and that Obama's deployment of 30,000 extra troops to Afghanistan meant that success would be possible. "I don't think that we can finally defeat al-Qaeda until he's captured or killed", McChrystal said of bin Laden. "Killing or capturing bin Laden would not spell the end of al-Qaeda, but the movement could not be eradicated while he remained at large."[159]

In April 2011, President Obama ordered a covert operation to kill or capture bin Laden. On May 1, 2011, the White House announced that U.S. Navy SEALs had carried it out, killing him in his Abbottabad, Pakistan compound.[160]

Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks

While referring to Osama bin Laden in a CNN film clip on September 17, 2001, then President George W. Bush stated, "I want justice. There is an old poster out west, as I recall, that said, 'Wanted dead or alive'.[161]Subsequently, bin Laden retreated further from public contact to avoid capture. Numerous speculative press reports were issued about his whereabouts or even death; some placed bin Laden in different locations during overlapping time periods. None were ever definitively proven. After military offensives in Afghanistan failed to uncover his whereabouts, Pakistan was regularly identified as his suspected hiding place. Some of the conflicting reports regarding bin Laden’s continued whereabouts and mistaken claims about his death follow:

  • In December 11, 2005, a letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicated that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan region of Pakistan at the time. In the letter, translated by the United States military's Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, "Atiyah" instructs Zarqawi to "send messengers from your end to Waziristan so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership [...] I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them..." Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are "weak" and "have many of their own problems." The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to The Washington Post.[162][163]
  • Al-Qaeda continued to release time-sensitive and professionally-verified videos demonstrating bin Laden's continued survival as recently as August 2007.[164]
  • In 2009, a research team led by Thomas W. Gillespie and John A. Agnew of UCLA used satellite-aided geographical analysis to pinpoint three compounds in Parachinar as bin Laden's likely hideouts. .[165]
  • In March 2009, the New York Daily News reported that the hunt for bin Laden had centered in the Chitral District of Pakistan, including the Kalam Valley. Author, Rohan Gunaratna, stated that captured al-Qaeda leaders had confirmed that bin Laden was hiding in Chitral.[166]
  • In the first week of December 2009, a Taliban detainee in Pakistan said he had information that bin Laden was in Afghanistan in 2009. The detainee reported that in January or February (2009) he met a trusted contact who had seen bin Laden in Afghanistan about 15 to 20 days earlier. However, on December 6, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated that the United States had had no reliable information on the whereabouts of bin Laden in years.[167] Pakistan's Prime Minister Gillani rejected claims that Osama bin Laden was hiding in Pakistan.[168]
  • On Dec. 9, 2009 BBC News reported that U.S. Army General Stanley A. McChrystal, who served as Commander of the U.S. forces in Afghanistan from June 15, 2009 until June 23, 2010 emphasized the continued importance of the capture or killing of bin Laden, thus indicating that the U.S. high command believed that bin Laden was still alive[169]
  • On February 2, 2010, Afghan president, Hamid Karzai arrived in Saudi Arabia for an official visit. The agenda included discussion of a possible Saudi role in Karzai’s plan to reintegrate Taliban militants. During the visit an anonymous official of the Saudi Foreign Ministry declared that the kingdom had no intention of getting involved in peacemaking in Afghanistan unless the Taliban severed ties with extremists and expelled Osama bin Laden.[170]
  • On June 7, 2010, the Kuwaiti newspaper, Al Siyassa reported that bin Laden was hiding out in the mountainous town of Savzevar, in north eastern Iran. [171] The Australian News,online edition published the claim on June 9.[172] On June 9, The Australian News, online edition repeated the claim.
  • On October 18, 2010, an unnamed NATO official suggested that bin Laden was "alive and well and living comfortably" in Pakistan, protected by elements of the country's intelligence services. A senior Pakistani official denied the allegations and said the accusations were designed to put pressure on the Pakistani government ahead of talks aimed at strengthening ties between Pakistan and the United States.[173]
  • On April 16, 2011, a leaked Al Jazeera report claimed that bin Laden had been captured by U.S. forces in Afghanistan.[174]

Whereabouts just prior to his death

In April 2011, various intelligence outlets were able to pinpoint bin Laden's suspected location near Abbottabad, Pakistan. It was originally believed that bin Laden was hiding near the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, but he was found 100 miles (160 km) away in a three-story mansion in Abbottabad at 34°10′9.51″N 73°14′32.78″E / 34.1693083°N 73.2424389°E / 34.1693083; 73.2424389.[175][176][177] Bin Laden's mansion was located 0.8 miles (1.3 km) southwest of the Pakistan Military Academy, the country's "West Point".[178][179][180][181] Google Earth maps show that the compound was not present in 2001, but was present on images taken in 2005.

Death

Website of the Federal Bureau of Investigation listing bin Laden as deceased on the Most Wanted List on May 3, 2011

Osama bin Laden was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1 a.m. local time[182][183] by a United States special forces military unit. The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was ordered by United States President Barack Obama and carried out in a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operation by a team of United States Navy SEALs from the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or informally by its former name, SEAL Team Six) of the Joint Special Operations Command, with support from CIA operatives on the ground.[184][185] The raid on bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan was launched from Afghanistan.[186] After the raid, U.S. forces took bin Laden's body to Afghanistan for identification, then buried it at sea within 24 hours of his death.[187]

Critics accused Pakistan's military and security establishment of protecting bin Laden.[188] For example, Mosharraf Zaidi, a leading Pakistani columnist, stated, "It seems deeply improbable that bin Laden could have been where he was killed without the knowledge of some parts of the Pakistani state."[189] Pakistan's president Asif Ali Zardari denied that his country's security forces sheltered bin Laden,[190][191] and called any supposed support for bin Laden by the Pakistani government "baseless speculation".

It was speculated that the issue might further strain U.S. ties with Pakistan.[192][193] Bin Laden was killed in what some suggest was his residence for five years.[194][195] It was an expensive compound located less than a mile from Pakistan's version of West Point,[196][197][198] probably built for him[199] and less than 100 kilometers' drive from the capital.

The Pakistani government's foreign office issued a statement that "categorically denies" any reports by the media that the country's leadership, "civil as well as military, had any prior knowledge of the U.S. operation against Osama bin Laden".[200][201]

Pakistan's United States envoy, ambassador Husain Haqqani, promises a "full inquiry" into how Pakistani intelligence services failed to find bin Laden in a fortified compound, just a few hours drive from Islamabad, and stated that "obviously bin Laden did have a support system; the issue is, was that support system within the government and the state of Pakistan or within the society of Pakistan?"[202]

See also


References

Footnotes
  1. ^ "Ayman al-Zawahiri appointed as al-Qaeda leader". BBC News. 16 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13788594. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  2. ^ Osama Bin Laden (2007) Suzanne J. Murdico
  3. ^ Armstrong, Karen (July 11, 2005). "The label of Catholic terror was never used about the IRA.". guardian.co.uk (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2005/jul/11/northernireland.july7. 
  4. ^ "In an intelligence driven operation, Osama Bin Ladin was killed in the surroundings of Abbottabad in the early hours of this morning.". http://www.mofa.gov.pk/Press_Releases/2011/May/PR_150.htm. Retrieved May 1, 2011. 
  5. ^ Baker, Peter; Cooper, Helene; Mazzetti, Mark (May 1, 2011). "Bin Laden Dead, US Officials Say". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html. 
  6. ^ Adam Brookes, "US forces kill Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan", May 1, 2011, BBC News. Accessed May 2, 2011.
  7. ^ Scheuer, Michael (February 7, 2008). "Yemen still close to al-Qaeda's heart". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/JB07Ak01.html. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  8. ^ "FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives". FBI.gov. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080103044553/http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/fugitives/laden.htm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  9. ^ Dan Eggen (August 28, 2006). "Bin Laden, Most Wanted For Embassy Bombings?". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/27/AR2006082700687.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Most wanted terrorists list released". CNN. October 10, 2001. http://articles.cnn.com/2001-10-10/us/inv.mostwanted.list_1_saif-al-adel-abdul-rahman-yasin-ahmed-khalfan-ghailani. Retrieved April 3, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Fbi — Usama Bin Laden". Fbi.gov. 1998-08-07. http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/usama-bin-laden. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  12. ^ "USS Carl Vinson: Osama Bin Laden's Burial at Sea". DaABC. USA. May 2, 2011. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/uss-carl-vinson-osama-bin-ladens-burial-sea/story?id=13510831. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  13. ^ Quigley, Rachel (May 6, 2011). "Your happiness will turn to sadness: Al Qaeda admits Bin Laden IS dead – but vows bloody revenge". Daily Mail (UK). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1384260/Al-Qaeda-confirm-Osama-Bin-Laden-death-vow-continue-US-terrorist-attacks.html. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Frontline: Hunting Bin Laden: Who is Bin Laden?: Chronology". PBS. Archived from the original on February 10, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060210192537/http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  15. ^ David Johnson. "Osama bin Laden infoplease". Infoplease. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080120224312/http://www.infoplease.com/spot/osamabinladen.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b c Steve Coll (December 12, 2005). "Letter From Jedda: Young Osama- How he learned radicalism, and may have seen America". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/12/12/051212fa_fact. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Osama bin Laden". GlobalSecurity.org. January 11, 2006. http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/osama_bin_laden.htm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  18. ^ "The Mysterious Death of Osama Bin Laden". August 3, 2011. http://votebits.com/tag/osama-bin-laden-histery/. 
  19. ^ The Economist, "Osama bin Laden", 7 May 2011, p. 93.
  20. ^ Beyer, Lisa (September 24, 2001). "The Most Wanted Man In The World". Time. http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010924/wosama.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  21. ^ Bergen 2006, pp. 52
  22. ^ Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden, Verso, 2005, p. xii.
  23. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Vol. 22. Gale Group, 2002. (link requires username/password)
  24. ^ "A Biography of Osama Bin Laden". PBS Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/bio.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  25. ^ Aziz Hug (January 19, 2006). "The Real Osama". The American Prospect. http://www.prospect.org/web/page.ww?section=root&name=ViewWeb&articleId=10855. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  26. ^ Gunaratna, Rohan (2003). Inside Al Qaeda (3rd ed.). Berkley Books. p. 22. ISBN 0231126921. 
  27. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 79
  28. ^ Michael Hirst (September 24, 2008). "Analysing Osama's jihadi poetry". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7630934.stm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Bodyguard had orders to kill chief if captured". TODAYonline. May 5, 2011. http://www.todayonline.com/World/EDC110505-0000060/Bodyguard-had-orders-to-kill-chief-if-captured. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  30. ^ Michael Slackman (November 13, 2001). "Osama Kin Wait and Worry". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2001/nov/13/news/mn-3564. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  31. ^ Brian Todd, Tim Lister (May 5, 2011). "Bin Laden's wives – and daughter who would 'kill enemies of Islam'". CNN Edition: International. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/05/osama.many.wives/. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Osama's Women". CNN. March 12, 2002. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0203/12/ltm.10.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  33. ^ Amy Zalman, PhD. "Profile: Osama bin Laden". About.com. http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/OsamabinLaden.htm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  34. ^ Osama bin Laden's family 'stranded' in Iran, son says. The Telegraph. July 19, 2010
  35. ^ "Interview with US Author Steve Coll: 'Osama bin Laden is Planning Something for the US Election'". Der Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,544921,00.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  36. ^ Best of the Web: Osama's Brother Died in San Antonio, Red Velvet Onion Rings|WOAI: San Antonio News
  37. ^ Wright 2006
  38. ^ "Most Wanted Terrorist – Usama Bin Laden". FBI. http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/terbinladen.htm. Retrieved June 8, 2006. 
  39. ^ "I met Osama Bin Laden". BBC News. March 26, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3570751.stm. Retrieved May 15, 2006. 
  40. ^ Whitaker, Brian. "Arabic words and the Roman alphabet". Al-Bab.com. http://www.al-bab.com/arab/language/roman1.htm. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  41. ^ bin Laden, Najwa; bin Laden, Omar; Sasson, Jean (2009). Growing up Bin Laden: Osama's Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-312-56016-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=RcBwm5b8VbAC. 
  42. ^ a b "Most Wanted Terrorist – Usama Bin Laden". FBI. Archived from the original on March 10, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060310055924/http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/terbinladen.htm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Meaning of Usama". English–Arabic Almaany Dictionary. 2011. http://www.almaany.com/home.php?language=english&lang_name=English&category=Names+Meanings&word=USAMA. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  44. ^ Warrick, Joby (September 8, 2007). "In a New Video, Bin Laden Predicts U.S. Failure in Iraq". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/07/AR2007090700279.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  45. ^ Scheuer, Michael (2004). Imperial Hubris. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's, Inc.. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9655139-4-4. "The focused and lethal threat posed to U.S. national security arises not from Muslims being offended by what America is, but rather from their plausible perception that the things they most love and value—God, Islam, their brethren, and Muslim lands—are being attacked by America." 
  46. ^ Messages, 2005, p. 218. "Resist the New Rome", audiotape delivered to al-Jazeera and broadcast by it on January 4, 2004.
  47. ^ Dale C. Eikmeier (Spring 2007). "Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism". Parameters. pp. 85–98. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/07spring/eikmeier.htm. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  48. ^ Messages, (2005), p. 143. from an interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London November 12, 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, Nov. 7)
  49. ^ Messages to the World, (2005), pp. xix–xx, editor Bruce Lawrence.
  50. ^ October 6, 2002. Appeared in Al-Qala'a website and then The Observer November 24, 2002.
  51. ^ Messages, (2005) p. 70. Al Jazeera interview, December 1998, following Kenya and Tanzania embassy attacks.
  52. ^ Messages, (2005), p. 119, October 21, 2001, interview with Taysir Alluni of Al Jazeera.
  53. ^ Messages, (2005), p. 190. from 53-minute audiotape that "was circulated on various websites" dated February 14, 2003. "Among a Band of Knights"
  54. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 303 "From interview with Ali Soufan – a Lebanese Sunni FBI agent"
  55. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 167
  56. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 172
  57. ^ Osama: The Making of a Terrorist John Randal I B Tauris & Co Ltd (October 4, 2005).
  58. ^ A Capitol Idea Donald E. Abelson p. 208.
  59. ^ Abby Goodnough (July 8, 2007). "Mysteries, Legal and Sartorial, at Padilla Trial". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/08/us/nationalspecial3/08padilla.html. Retrieved May 26, 2010. 
  60. ^ Michael R. Gordon (September 17, 2001). "After the attacks: the strategy; A New War And Its Scale". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/17/world/after-the-attacks-the-strategy-a-new-war-and-its-scale.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Is global terror threat falling?". BBC News. May 21, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7412036.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  62. ^ ""Osama bin Laden's operation" has "perpetrated the worst act of terrorism ever witnessed on U.S. soil.". Aljazeera. August 17, 2008. http://english.aljazeera.net/programmes/rizkhan/2008/08/20088161083773835.html. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  63. ^ Bergen 2006
  64. ^ Scheuer 2002
  65. ^ Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century Marc Sageman University of Pennsylvania Press January 3, 2008.
  66. ^ Bruce Hoffman (Spring 2004). "Redefining Counterterrorism: The Terrorist Leader as CEO". RAND Review. 
  67. ^ A Devil's Triangle: Terrorism, Weapons Of Mass Destruction, And Rogue States Peter Brookes Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
  68. ^ a b "Wanted: Bin Laden, Usama". Interpol. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20041211102312/http://www.interpol.int/public/data/wanted/notices/data/1998/32/1998_20232.asp. Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
  69. ^ "Who is Osama Bin Laden?". BBC News. September 18, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/155236.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  70. ^ "Photo: Zbigniew Brzezinski & Osama bin Laden". March 23, 2006. http://fufor.twoday.net/stories/2302873/. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  71. ^ "How the CIA created Osama bin Laden". Green Left Weekly. September 19, 2001. http://www.greenleft.org.au/2001/465/25199. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  72. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 145 "Lawrence Wright estimates his share of the Saudi Binladin Group circa fall 1989 as amounted to 27 million Saudi riyals – a little more than [US]$ 7 million."
  73. ^ Bergen 2006, pp. 74–88
  74. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 133–134.
  75. ^ Wright 2006, p. 260.
  76. ^ Asthana, N. C (January 1, 2009). Urban Terrorism : Myths And Realities. Pointer Publishers. p. 108. ISBN 9788171325986. http://books.google.com/?id=8EqWnqdsgZMC&pg=PA108&dq=August+11,+1988,+meeting+between+%22several+senior+leaders%22+of+Egyptian+Islamic+Jihad,+Abdullah+Azzam,+and+bin+Laden#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  77. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 146
  78. ^ Jehl, Douglas (December 27, 2001). "A Nation Challenged: Holy war lured Saudis as rulers looked Away". The New York Times: pp. A1, B4. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/27/world/a-nation-challenged-saudi-arabia-holy-war-lured-saudis-as-rulers-looked-away.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  79. ^ "USA v. Omar Ahmad Ali Abdel-Rahman et al: 93-CR-181-KTD". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080109221029/http://www.tkb.org/CaseHome.jsp?caseid=332. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  80. ^ Steve Emerson. "Abdullah Assam: The Man Before Osama Bin Laden". http://www.iacsp.com/itobli3.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  81. ^ Reeve, Simon (June 27, 2002). The new jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama Bin Laden and the future of terrorism. UPNE. p. 172. ISBN 9781555535094. http://books.google.com/books?id=VQjpziNmoE4C&pg=PA172. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  82. ^ Shay, Shaul; Liberman, Rachel (October 13, 2006). The Red Sea terror triangle: Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic terror. Transaction Publishers. p. 43. ISBN 9781412806206. http://books.google.com/books?id=v2ss0vor_DkC&pg=PA43. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  83. ^ Gallab, Abdullahi A. (2008). The first Islamist republic: development and disintegration of Islamism in the Sudan. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. p. 127. ISBN 9780754671626. http://books.google.com/books?id=s1XdRfAJwLIC&pg=PA127. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  84. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 195
  85. ^ The Cost Of Being Osama Bin Laden Retrieved March 15, 2011
  86. ^ Hunting the Jackal: A Special Forces and CIA Soldier's Fifty Years on the Frontlines of the War Against Terrorism, 2004.
  87. ^ "Responses to Al Qaeda's Initial Assaults" (PDF). 9/11 Commission. http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch4.pdf. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  88. ^ Megan K. Stack (December 6, 2001). "Fighters Hunt Former Ally". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/06/news/mn-12224. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  89. ^ "Profile: Mullah Mohamed Omar". BBC News. September 18, 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1550419.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  90. ^ "The Foundation of the New Terrorism" (PDF). 9/11 Commission. http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch2.pdf. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  91. ^ "Bin Laden's Fatwa". Pbs.org. 1998-08-20. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1996.html. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  92. ^ Wright 2006, pp. 250
  93. ^ Long Before Sept. 11, Bin Laden Aircraft Flew Under the Radar. Los Angeles Times. November 18, 2001.
  94. ^ Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible (2007), pp. 138–140
  95. ^ "Who is bin Laden?: Chronology". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  96. ^ testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et al.
  97. ^ Jailan Halawi, 'bin Laden behind Luxor Massacre?' Al-Ahram Weekly, May 20–26, 1999.
  98. ^ Plett, Barbara (May 13, 1999). "Bin Laden 'behind Luxor massacre'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/343207.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  99. ^ "Profile: Ayman al-Zawahiri". BBC News. September 27, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1560834.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  100. ^ Testimony of Abdurahman Khadr as a witness in the trial against Charkaoui, July 13, 2004.
  101. ^ Rashid, Taliban, p. 139.
  102. ^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (February 23, 1998). "World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: Initial "Fatwa" Statement" (in Arabic). al-Quds al-Arabi. http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/fatw2.htm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  103. ^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (February 23, 1998). "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders. World Islamic Front Statement". al-Quds al-Arabi. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/980223-fatwa.htm. Retrieved May 28, 2010.  English language version of the fatwa translated by the Federation of American Scientists of the original Arabic document published in the newspaper al-Quds al-Arabi (London, UK) on 1998-02-23, p. 3.
  104. ^ Van Atta, Dale (1998). "Carbombs & cameras: the need for responsible media coverage of terrorism". Harvard International Review (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard International Relations Council) 20 (4): 66. ISBN 9780895264855. ISSN 0739-1854. http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/709509-1.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  105. ^ "Bin Ladin Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft and Other Attacks". Director of Central Intelligence. December 4, 1998. http://www.foia.cia.gov/docs/DOC_0001110635/0001110635_0001.gif. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  106. ^ Russian Secret Services' Links With Al-Qaeda. Axis Globe. 18.07.2005.
  107. ^ a b Vernon Loeb (December 24, 2000). "Planned Jan. 2000 Attacks Failed or Were Thwarted; Plot Targeted U.S., Jordan, American Warship, Official Says". The Washington Post. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/65601030.html?dids=65601030:65601030&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Dec+24%2C+2000&author=Vernon+Loeb&pub=The+Washington+Post&edition=&startpage=A.02&desc=Planned+Jan.+2000+Attacks+Failed+or+Were+Thwarted%3B+Plot+Targeted+U.S.%2C+Jordan%2C+American+Warship%2C+Official+Says. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  (mirrored here; retrieved May 25, 2010.)
  108. ^ Craig Pyes, Josh Meyer and William C. Rempel (October 15, 2001). "Bosnia – base for terrorism". The Seattle Times. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20011015&slug=bosnia15. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  mirror
  109. ^ R. Jeffrey Smith (March 11, 2000). "A Bosnian Village's Terrorist Ties". The Washington Post. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/50933336.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Mar+11%2C+2000&author=R.+Jeffrey+Smith&pub=The+Washington+Post&edition=&startpage=A.01&desc=A+Bosnian+Village%27s+Terrorist+Ties%3B+Links+to+U.S.+Bomb+Plot+Arouse+Concern+About+Enclave+of+Islamic+Guerrillas. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  110. ^ Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Summary of the Security Intelligence Report concerning Hassan Almrei, February 22, 2008.
  111. ^ Baravalle, Giorgio (2004). Rethink: Cause and Consequences of September 11. de-MO. p. 584. ISBN 0970576862. 
  112. ^ Sherrie Gossett (August 17, 2005). "Jihadists find convenient base in Bosnia". Assyrian International News Agency. Archived from the original on December 17, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051217231929/http://www.aina.org/news/20050817121245.htm. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  113. ^ a b c "Bin Laden's Balkan Connections". http://www.balkanpeace.org/index.php?index=/content/analysis/a09.incl. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  114. ^ a b Bin Laden was granted Bosnian passport, Agence France Presse September 24, 1999.
  115. ^ a b Chris Hedges (September 23, 1996). "Outsiders Bring Islamic Fervor To the Balkans". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/23/world/outsiders-bring-islamic-fervor-to-the-balkans.html. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  116. ^ Jane Mayer, The Dark Side, Doubleday. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-385-52639-5 (0-385-52639-3).
  117. ^ Andrew Roche, Reuters, "Milosevic: U.S. was Ally of Al Qaeda in Kosovo". February 15, 2002.
  118. ^ "God knows it did not cross our minds to attack the towers". The Guardian (London). October 30, 2004. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/oct/30/alqaida.september11. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  119. ^ CIA translations of bin Laden messages and interviews at Wikinews, September 15, 2008
  120. ^ Eggen, Dan (August 28, 2006). "Bin Laden, Most Wanted For Embassy Bombings?". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/27/AR2006082700687.html. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  121. ^ a b c "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC News. October 29, 2004. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2004/10/29/binladen_message041029.html. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  122. ^ "Osama claims responsibility for 9/11". The Times of India. May 24, 2006. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20080701092211/http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1550477.cms. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  123. ^ United Airlines Flight 93, United Airlines Flight 175, American Airlines Flight 11, and American Airlines Flight 77.
  124. ^ Phil Hirschkorn (April 26, 2006). "9/11 jurors face complex life or death decisions". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2006/LAW/04/25/moussaoui.trial/. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  125. ^ "11 September 2001 Victims". September 11 Victims. August 22, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060822065313/http://www.september11victims.com/september11victims/STATISTIC.asp. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  126. ^ CIA Secret Program: PM Teams Targeting Al Qaeda, Greg Miller, Los Angeles Times, July 14, 2009, A1.
  127. ^ "President Freezes Terrorists' Assets". The White House. September 24, 2001. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010924-4.html. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  128. ^ Watson, Dale L., Executive Assistant Director, Counter terrorism/Counterintelligence Division, FBI (February 6, 2002). "FBI Testimony about 9/11 terrorists' motives". Federal Bureau of Investigation – (RepresentativePress). http://www.representativepress.org/FBITestimony.html. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  129. ^ "Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the United States, September 11, 2001". 10 Downing Street, Office of the Prime Minister of the UK. May 15, 2003. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/number10.gov.uk/archive/2003/05/september-11-attacks-culpability-document-3682. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  130. ^ "Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border". Associated Press. Fox News. September 16, 2001. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,34440,00.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  131. ^ "Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'". CNN. December 14, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/12/13/ret.bin.laden.videotape/. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  132. ^ "Bin-Laden-Video: Falschübersetzung als Beweismittel?". WDR, Das Erste, MONITOR Nr. 485 am. December 20, 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20021218105636/www.wdr.de/tv/monitor/beitraege.phtml?id=379. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  133. ^ "Al-Jazeera: Bin Laden tape obtained in Pakistan". MSNBC. October 30, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6363306/. Retrieved May 28, 2010. —"In the tape, bin Laden—wearing traditional white robes, a turban and a tan cloak—reads from papers at a lectern against a plain brown background. Speaking quietly in an even voice, he tells the American people that he ordered the September 11 attacks because 'we are a free people' who wanted to 'regain the freedom' of their nation."
  134. ^ "Excerpts: Bin Laden video". BBC News. October 29, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3966817.stm. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  135. ^ "Osama bin Laden tape transcript". MSNBC. May 23, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12939961/ns/us_news-security/. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  136. ^ "Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired". CBC News. September 7, 2006. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2006/09/07/al-qaeda-tape.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  137. ^ Flade, Florian (2011-05-02). "The Untold Story Of Gaddafi's Hunt For Osama Bin Laden". Die Welt/Worldcrunch. http://www.worldcrunch.com/untold-story-gaddafis-hunt-osama-bin-laden/2963. Retrieved 2011-09-03. 
  138. ^ Sammy Salama (September 2004). "Was Libyan WMD Disarmament a Significant Success for Nonproliferation?". NTI. http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_56a.html. Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  139. ^ Interpol Arrest Warrant File No. 1998/20232, Control No. A-268/5-1998. Brisard Jean-Charles, Dasquie Guillaume. "Forbidden Truth". (New York: Thunder Mouth Press, 2002), p. 156.
  140. ^ a b Frontline; The New York Times and Rain Media ([2001?]). "Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life". Hunting bin Laden: Who Is bin Laden?. WGBH Educational Foundation. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html. Retrieved July 25, 2006. 
  141. ^ "Indictment #S(9) 98 Cr. 1023" (PDF). United States District Court, Southern District of New York. http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/binladen/usbinladen1.pdf. 
  142. ^ "Embassy bombing defendant linked to bin Laden". CNN. February 14, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/LAW/02/14/embassy.bombing.02/index.html. 
  143. ^ William Reeve (November 21, 1998). "Osama bin Laden 'innocent'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/217947.stm. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  144. ^ "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over". The Guardian (London). October 14, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/oct/14/afghanistan.terrorism5. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  145. ^ Bray, Chad (June 17, 2011). "U.S. Formally Drops Charges Against bin Laden". Wall street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304453304576391563524482274.html. 
  146. ^ "Bill Clinton: I got closer to killing bin Laden". CNN. September 25, 2006. Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061005001828/http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/09/24/clinton.binladen/index.html. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  147. ^ a b "Report: Clinton Targeted Bin Laden", CBS News, September 16, 2001.
  148. ^ a b "CIA Trained Pakistanis to Nab Terrorist But Military Coup Put an End to 1999 Plot", The Washington Post, October 3, 2001.
  149. ^ "Five Years Ago Today – Usama bin Laden: Wanted for Murder". Federal Bureau of Investigation. November 5, 2003. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080109080055/http://www.fbi.gov/page2/nov03/laden110503.htm. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 
  150. ^ "Senate doubles Bin Laden reward". BBC News. July 13, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6898075.stm. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  151. ^ Katie Turner, Pam Benson, Peter Bergen, Elise Labott and Nic Robertson (September 24, 2006). "Officials, friends can't confirm Bin Laden death report". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/09/23/france.binladen/index.html. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  152. ^ Gellman, Barton; Ricks, Thomas E. (April 17, 2002). "U.S. Concludes Bin Laden Escaped at Tora Bora Fight". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A62618-2002Apr16. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  153. ^ "CIA Reportedly Disbands Bin Laden Unit". The Washington Post. Associated Press. July 4, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/04/AR2006070400375.html. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  154. ^ "Bush Quotes about Bin Laden". BuzzFlash. http://www.buzzflash.com/contributors/2002/11/13_Laden.html. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  155. ^ Justin Balding, Adam Ciralsky, Jim Miklaszewski and Robert Windrem (September 26, 2007). "Bin Laden may have just escaped U.S. forces". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21000298/. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  156. ^ a b Arena, Kelli (December 28, 2001). "Obama administration to ratchet up hunt for bin Laden". CNN. http://articles.cnn.com/2008-11-12/politics/binladen.hunt_1_tora-bora-bin-intelligence-officials?_s=PM:POLITICS. Retrieved November 15, 2008. 
  157. ^ Serwer, Adam (2011-02-07). "No, killing of Bin Laden does not represent `continuity’ with Bush - The Plum Line". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/plum-line/post/no-killing-of-bin-laden-does-not-represent-continuity-with-bush/2011/03/04/AFJbo3YG_blog.html. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  158. ^ Newlin, Eliza. "Obama’s War - Thursday, May 5, 2011". NationalJournal.com. http://www.nationaljournal.com/columns/vantage-point/obama-s-war-against-al-qaida-20110505. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  159. ^ "Gen McChrystal: Bin Laden is key to al-Qaeda defeat". BBC News. December 9, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8402138.stm. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  160. ^ "BBC News – Osama Bin Laden dead, US President Obama confirms". bbc.co.uk. May 2, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13256791. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  161. ^ "George W Bush wanted Osama Bin Laden dead or Alive!!". CNN News. September 17, 2001. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywIqvCojtsQ. 
  162. ^ Karen DeYoung (October 2, 2006). "Letter Gives Glimpse of Al-Qaeda's Leadership". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/01/AR2006100101083.html. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  163. ^ "Letter Exposes New Leader in Al-Qa`ida High Command (PDF)" (PDF). Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. September 25, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070808182757/http://www.ctc.usma.edu/harmony/CTC-AtiyahLetter.pdf. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  164. ^ "Experts warn of attack clues in Bin Laden video". September 6, 2007. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408035426/http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h_EKAnlECgMVCrglrdYA5IqvQ6hQ. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  Bin Laden video release authenticity discussed.
  165. ^ Gillespie, Thomas W. et al. (2009). "Finding Osama bin Laden: An Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery" (PDF). MIT International Review. http://web.mit.edu/mitir/2009/online/finding-bin-laden.pdf. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  166. ^ Meek, James Gordon, "Tighten The Net On Evil", Daily News, 2009-03-15, p. 27.
  167. ^ No Bin Laden information in years, says Gates. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  168. ^ Bin Laden not in Pakistan, PM says. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  169. ^ "Bin Laden Is Key to Al-Qaeda Defeat". BBC News. December 09 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8402138.stm. 
  170. ^ "Saudi Arabia Wants Taliban to Expel Bin Laden". Associated Press. Newsmax. February 2, 2010. http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/ML-Saudi-Afghan/2010/02/02/id/348703. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  171. ^ "Kuwaiti Daily 'Al-Siyassa': Bin Laden, Al-Zawahiri Guarded by Iranian Troops in Iranian Territory". Memrijttm.org. June 7, 2010. http://www.memrijttm.org/content/en/report.htm?report=4338&param=GJN. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  172. ^ "Bin Laden, aides 'hiding in Iran'". http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/breaking-news/bin-laden-aides-hiding-in-iran/story-fn3dxity-1225877288776. 
  173. ^ Crilly, Rob (October 18, 2010). "Osama bin Laden 'living comfortably in Pakistan'". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/pakistan/8070836/Osama-bin-Laden-living-comfortably-in-Pakistan.html. 
  174. ^ Qari, Sarah (April 16, 2011). "Al-Jazeera: LEAK: Osama Bin Laden Captured". The RMC News page. http://rmc2011.net/2011/04/16/al-jazeera-leak-osama-bin-laden-captured/. 
  175. ^ Zengerle, Patricia; Bull, Alister (May 2, 2011). "Bin Laden was found at luxurious Pakistan compound". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/02/us-binladen-compound-idUSTRE7411NX20110502. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  176. ^ Osama bin Laden death: Pakistan locals flock to see villain's lair Declan Walsh The Guardian May 5, 2011
  177. ^ "Map of Where Osama bin Laden Was Killed – Map". The New York Times. May 2, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/05/02/world/asia/abbottabad-map-of-where-osama-bin-laden-was-killed.html. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  178. ^ "BBC News – Osama Bin Laden killed: How it happened". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13257330. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  179. ^ "Osama bin Laden, the face of terror, killed in Pakistan". CNN. May 2, 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/01/bin.laden.obit/index.html. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  180. ^ "Spitzer: What role did Pakistan play in the killing of Osama bin Laden? – In the Arena". CNN. http://inthearena.blogs.cnn.com/2011/05/02/spitzer-what-role-did-pakistan-play-in-the-killing-of-osama-bin-laden/. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  181. ^ "President Obama Praises Troops Who Killed Osama bin Laden". ABC news. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/osama-bin-laden-death-prompts-celebrations-security-alerts/story?id=13507836. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  182. ^ Greg Miller (May 5, 2011). "CIA spied on bin Laden from safe house". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/cia-spied-on-bin-laden-from-safe-house/2011/05/05/AFXbG31F_story.html. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  183. ^ Cooper, Helene (May 1, 2011). "Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/01/bin-laden-dead-u-s-official-says/. Retrieved May 1, 2011. 
  184. ^ Philip Sherwell (May 7, 2011). "Osama bin Laden killed: Behind the scenes of the deadly raid". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/al-qaeda/8500431/Osama-bin-Laden-killed-Behind-the-scenes-of-the-deadly-raid.html. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  185. ^ Dilanian, Ken (May 2, 2011). "CIA led U.S. special forces mission against Osama bin Laden". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/la-pn-osama-bin-laden-cia-20110502,0,6466214.story. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  186. ^ C. Christine Fair (May 4, 2011). "The bin Laden aftermath: The U.S. shouldn't hold Pakistan's military against Pakistan's civilians". Foreign Policy. http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/05/04/the_bin_laden_aftermath_the_us_shouldnt_hold_pakistans_military_against_pakistans_c. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  187. ^ "Osama Bin Laden, al-Qaeda leader, dead – Barack Obama". BBC News. May 2, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-13256676. Retrieved May 2, 2011. 
  188. ^ Marisa Schultz. "Levin questions Pakistan's role". The Detroit News. http://detnews.com/article/20110503/NATION/105030368/Levin-questions-Pakistan's-role#ixzz1LGfVnAVd. 
  189. ^ "Osama bin Laden killed near Pakistan's West Point. Was he really hidden?". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-South-Central/2011/0502/Osama-bin-Laden-killed-near-Pakistan-s-West-Point.-Was-he-really-hidden. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  190. ^ Toosi, Nahal (September 11, 2001). "The Canadian Press: Pakistan's president dismisses suspicions that his country was sheltering bin Laden". Google. http://www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5ie6QSATOQYI1N-xQfy-6VPRGhm2w?docId=6739650. Retrieved May 3, 2011. [dead link]
  191. ^ Your name:. "Zardari defends Pakistan over bin Laden intel". Emirates 24/7. http://www.emirates247.com/news/world/zardari-defends-pakistan-over-bin-laden-intel-2011-05-03-1.388294. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  192. ^ "Pakistan admits it wasn't part of US operation to kill Osama bin Laden – DNA". Dnaindia.com. September 11, 2001. http://www.dnaindia.com/world/report_pakistan-admits-it-wasn-t-part-of-us-operation-to-kill-osama-bin-laden_1538828. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  193. ^ Perlez, Jane (September 11, 2001). "Nation & World, Bin Laden's death casts more suspicion on Pakistan, Seattle Times Newspaper". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2014941260_osamapakistan03.html. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  194. ^ Peter Walker and agencies (May 6, 2011). "Osama bin Laden lived in two rooms for five years, wife says | World news | guardian.co.uk". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/06/osama-bin-laden-lived-two-rooms. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  195. ^ Associated, The (April 2, 2008). "Report: Bin Laden hid in Pakistan compound for more than three years". Haaretz. Israel. http://www.haaretz.com/news/international/report-bin-laden-hid-in-pakistan-compound-for-over-three-years-before-capture-1.359578. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  196. ^ Sherwell, Philip. "Osama bin Laden killed: Behind the scenes of the deadly raid". London: Telegraph Media Group. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/al-qaeda/8500431/Osama-bin-Laden-killed-Behind-the-scenes-of-the-deadly-raid.html. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  197. ^ Rodriguez, Alex (2011-05-06). "Death of Osama bin Laden: Mystery shrouds the quiet man who built Bin Laden's compound - Page 2 - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/may/06/world/la-fg-osama-builder-20110506/2. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  198. ^ "Interesting Facts About Osama bin Laden's Compound – International Business Times". Au.ibtimes.com. http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/140534/20110503/interesting-facts-about-osama-bin-laden-s-compound.htm. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  199. ^ Westhead, Rick (April 1, 2011). "Questions about bin Laden embarrassing to Pakistan". Toronto Star (Toronto). http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/984289--questions-about-bin-laden-embarrassing-to-pakistan?bn=1. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  200. ^ Ross, Brian. "Osama Bin Laden Killed: U.S. Intelligence Probes Possible Pakistani Support System". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/osama-bin-laden-killed-us-probes-pakistan-support/story?id=13516775. Retrieved May 3, 2011. 
  201. ^ 'Osama raid took Pakistan Army by surprise', July 26, 2011, rediff.com
  202. ^ "Death of Bin Laden: Live report". Yahoo!. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110502/wl_afp/usattacksbinladenlivereport;_ylt=AtkVnLoCPtSNzXEm27D9w94Bxg8F;_ylu=X3oDMTMyNWRwdTlkBGFzc2V0A2FmcC8yMDExMDUwMi91c2F0dGFja3NiaW5sYWRlbmxpdmVyZXBvcnQEcG9zAzcEc2VjA3luX3BhZ2luYXRlX3N1bW1hcnlfbGlzdARzbGsDZGVhdGhvZmJpbmxh. [dead link]
Additional notes
  1. ^ The date according to Pakistan Standard Time (UTC+05:00).
Bibliography

Further reading

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Osama bin Laden — Bin Laden im Jahr 1997 Usāma ibn Muhammad ibn Awad ibn Lādin (* vermutlich zwischen März 1957 und Februar 1958 in Riad, Saudi Arabien; † 2. Mai 2011 in Abbottabad, Pakistan), allgemein als Osama bin Laden (arabisch ‏ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Osama bin Laden — أسامة بن لادن Osama bin Laden en 1997. Líder de Al Qaeda[1 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Osama bin Laden — (født 1957), saudi arabisk islamisk aktivist og formodet terrorist. Osama bin Laden er mistænkt for at stå bag terrorangrebet i USA den 11. september 2001 hvor 3.000 mennesker blev dræbt, samt en række af bombeangreb mod amerikanske ambassader i… …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Osama Bin Laden — Usāma ibn Muhammad ibn Awad ibn Lādin (* vermutlich 10. März 1957 in Riad, Saudi Arabien), kurz als Osama bin Laden (arabisch ‏أسامة بن لادن‎) bekannt, ist spirituelles Oberhaupt verschiedener dschihadistischer Gruppierungen wie beispielsweise al …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Osama Bin Laden — Oussama ben Laden Oussama ben Laden Naissance 10 mars 1957 (52 ans) Riyad …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Osama bin Laden — Oussama ben Laden Oussama ben Laden Naissance 10 mars 1957 (52 ans) Riyad …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Osama bin Laden — Usāma bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Lādin (10 de marzo de 1957–), más conocido en Occidente como Osama bin Laden (أسامة بن لادن), Usama bin Ladin u Osama ben Laden, es un multimillonario saudí y fundador de la red terrorista al Qaida responsable de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Osama bin Laden — noun Arab terrorist who established al Qaeda (born in 1957) • Syn: ↑bin Laden, ↑Usama bin Laden • Instance Hypernyms: ↑terrorist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Osama bin Laden — /əˌsamə bɪn ˈladn/ (say uh.sahmuh bin lahdn), /ˈleɪdn/ (say laydn) noun 1957–2011, militant Islamic activist, born in Saudi Arabia; organiser of terrorism; killed by US forces …   Australian English dictionary

  • Osama Bin Laden — n. (born 1957) Saudi billionaire living in Afghanistan (suspected of masterminding the terrorist bombings of two American embassies in Africa in 1998, and the crashing of hijacked planes into the Pentagon and the Twin Towers in the USA in 2001,… …   English contemporary dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.