- International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the
United Nations(UN) established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their alleged perpetrators. The tribunal is an ad-hoc court and is located in The Haguein the Netherlands.
It was originally proposed by German Foreign Minister
Klaus Kinkeland established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, which was passed on May 25, 1993. It has jurisdiction over four clusters of crime committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and crime against humanity. It can try only individuals, not organizations or governments. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. The last indictment was issued March 15, 2004. The Tribunal aims to complete all trials by the end of 2009 and all appeals by 2010. The ICTY should not be confused with the International Criminal Courtand the International Court of Justice; both tribunals are also based in The Hague, but have a permanent status and different jurisdictions.
The Tribunal employs around 1,200 staff. Its main organisational components are Chambers, Registry and the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP).
Chambers encompasses the
judges and their aides. The Tribunal operates three Trial Chambers and one Appeals Chamber. The President of the Tribunal is also the presiding Judge of the Appeals Chamber. Currently, this is Fausto Pocarof Italy(since 2005). His predecessors were Antonio Casseseof Italy(1993–1997), Gabrielle Kirk McDonaldof the United States(1997–1999), Claude Jordaof France(1999–2002), Theodor Meronof the United States (2002–2005).
The Registry is responsible for handling the administration of the Tribunal; activities include keeping court records, translating court documents, transporting and accommodating those who appear to testify, operating the Public Information Section, and such general duties as payroll administration, personnel management and procurement. It is also responsible for the Detention Unit for indictees being held during their trial and the Legal Aid program for indictees who cannot pay for their own defence. It is headed by the Registrar, currently
Hans Holthuisof the Netherlands(since 2001). His predecessors were Dorothée de Sampayo Garrido-Nijghof the Netherlands (1995–2000) and Theo van Bovenof the Netherlands (February 1994 to December 1994).
The Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) is responsible for investigating crimes, gathering evidence and prosecuting indictees. It is headed by the Prosecutor,
Serge Brammertz. Previous Prosecutors have been Ramón Escovar Salomof Venezuela(1993–1994), Richard Goldstoneof South Africa(1994–1996), Louise Arbourof Canada(1996–1999) and Carla Del Ponteof Switzerland(1999–2007), who until 2003, simultaneously served as the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwandawhere she led the OTP since 1999.
There are 16 permanent judges and 12
ad litemjudges who serve on the tribunal. They are elected to four-year terms by the UN General Assembly. They can be re-elected.
(As of March 2007):
List of judges provided on Organs of the Tribunal at: http://www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm
In 2004, the ICTY published a list of five successes which it claimed it had accomplished:
#"Spearheading the shift from impunity to accountability", pointing out that, until very recently, it was the only court judging crimes committed as part of the Yugoslav conflict, since prosecutors in the former Yugoslavia were, as a rule, reluctant to prosecute such crimes;
#"Establishing the facts", highlighting the extensive evidence-gathering and lengthy findings of fact that Tribunal judgments produced;
#"Bringing justice to thousands of victims and giving them a voice", pointing out the large number of witnesses that had been brought before the Tribunal;
#"The accomplishments in international law", describing the fleshing out of several international criminal law concepts which had not been ruled on since the Nuremberg Trials;
#"Strengthening the Rule of Law", referring to the Tribunal's role in promoting the use of international standards in war crimes prosecutions by former Yugoslav republics.
For more information see: [http://www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm ICTY at a glance]
Criticisms levelled against the court include:
* Two of the indictees are still not apprehended, which reflects badly on its image. Defenders point out that the Tribunal has no powers of
arrest, and is reliant on other agencies (notably national governments, EUFORand KFOR) to apprehend and extradite indictees.
* The Tribunal's power to issue secret indictments creates uncertainty among people who regard themselves as possible indictees, which places an unreasonable strain on their ability to proceed with their everyday lives, both in the short and long term.
* Critics have questioned whether the Tribunal exacerbates tensions rather than promotes reconciliation, as is claimed by Tribunal supporters. Polls show a generally negative reaction to the Tribunal among the Serb and Croat public. The majority of Croats and Serbs doubt the tribunal's integrity and question the tenability of its legal procedures (although the Serbian and Croatian opinions on the court are almost always exactly the opposite with regard to the cases that involve both parties). Kosovo Albanians and Bosnian Muslims, on the other hand, have expressed their high regard for the court and the trust in its impartiality though these feelings change when their own individuals stand accused of atrocities against opponents.
* Critics, even within the United Nations, have complained of the Tribunal's high cost. The two-year budget for the Tribunal for 2004 and 2005 was $271,854,600 (USD). The cost is borne by all U.N. members.
* Critics have also complained of the length of trials, with some extending for several years. Supporters of the Tribunal respond that many of the defendants are charged with multiple crimes against many victims, all of which must be proven beyond reasonable doubt, thus requiring long trials. Simultaneous translation also slows trials.
* It was established by the
UN Security Councilinstead of the UN General Assembly. Milošević's claim that the court has no legal authority rested on the distinction that, as a result, it had not been created on a broad international basis. It was established on the basis of the Chapter VII of the UN Charter; relevant portion of the charter reads "the Security Council can take measures to maintain or restore international peace and security"; it is disputed whether a tribunal could be considered a measure to maintain or restore international peace and security. The suggestion to utilize Chapter VII was initially made in a report from the Secretary-General to the Security Council. The legal criticism has been succinctly stated in a [http://i-p-o.org/yu-tribunal-memo1999.htm Memorandum] issued by Austrian Professor Hans Köchler, which was submitted to the President of the Security Council in 1999.
* Whilst sympathisers of the Tribunal hold that Serb control of the established command structure (and most of the
weaponry) of the Yugoslav People's Army(JNA) from the start of the various wars facilitated the commission of crimes on a wide and organised scale; and Serb command structure facilitated the identification of those with command responsibility for war crimes, critics (Serbian sympathisers) remain sceptical about the disproportionately large number (~3/4) of indictees being Serbsor Montenegrins(to the extent that a sizeable portion of the Bosnian Serb and Serbian political and military leaderships have been indicted), whereas there have been too few indictments resulting from crimes committed against Serbs (eg. many Croat indictees have been charged with crimes committed against Bosnian Muslims). As non-sympathisers (of the Serbs) in political circles and the media often loosely label the Serbs as having "lost" every conflict, critics respond that the "winning" side "must" have carried out widespread atrocities to have emerged triumphant.
* The Serbian (and Montenegrin) indictees are of higher rank than those of other nations and face with broader accusations. Although it was reported that had
Franjo Tuđmanand Alija Izetbegovićlived, that they too may have been indicted, the statements came disconcertingly late since their deaths (1999 and 2003 respectively) happened long after the last of their actions (1995). Critics believe that the posthemous accusations were a symbolic gesture so as to appear neutral when in actual fact the court had no intention of trying the individuals when they were alive; yet many Serbs had been appearing in the trial chambers during those years. In addition, whilst Slobodan Miloševićwas in power (until 2000), there was very little interest by the court to investigate any atrocities against Serbs.
* NATO spokesman
Jamie Sheasaid the following about the court::"NATO countries are those that have provided the finance to set up the Tribunal, we are amongst the majority financiers, and of course to build a second chamber so that prosecutions can be speeded up so let me assure that we and the Tribunal are all one on this, we want to see war criminals brought to justice and I am certain that when Justice Arbour goes to Kosovo and looks at the facts she will be indicting people of Yugoslav nationality and I don't anticipate any others at this stage.":The Tribunal has never prosecuted the citizens of any NATOcountries as a result of NATO's involvement in the Kosovo conflict.
* The ICTY budget is not entirely financed by the UN, but also by private entities; 14% being privately funded and the remainder being provided by the UN (2001). [ Catherine Samary; [http://mondediplo.com/2002/04/07hague] ] . This private co-financing might prove a problem concering the Tribunal's independence and impartiality.
Since the very first hearing (referral request in the Tadić case) on
8 November 1994, the Tribunal has indicted a total of 161 individuals, and has already completed proceedings with regard to 100 of them: five have been acquitted, 48 sentenced (seven are awaiting transfer, 24 have been transferred, 16 have served their term, and one died while serving his sentence), 11 have had their cases transferred to local courts. Another 36 cases have been terminated (either because indictments were withdrawn or because the accused died, before or after transfer to the Tribunal).
Proceedings are on-going with regard to 61 accused: 13 are at the appeals stage, two are awaiting judgement by a Trial Chamber, 26 are currently on trial, 14 are at pre-trial and six are still at large.
The figure of the accused at the appeals stage includes Sefer Halilović, Fatmir Limaj and Isak Musliu (who have been acquitted and released but against whom an appeal by the Office of the Prosecutor is running), as well as Amir Kubura and Naser Orić. These two accused have been sentenced and granted early release (Kubura) and release (Orić), but the OTP has appealed against the Trial Chamber's Judgements.
A further 19 individuals have also been the subject of contempt proceedings. [ [http://www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm UN Site] ]
The indictees ranged from common soldiers and to generals and police commanders all the way to Prime Ministers.
Slobodan Miloševićwas the first sitting head of state indicted for war crimes [ [http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh90.htm ASIL.org] ] . Other "high level" indictees included Milan Babić, President of the Republika Srpska Krajina; Ramush Haradinaj, former Prime Minister of Kosovo; Radovan Karadžić, former President of the Republika Srpska; Ratko Mladić, former Commander of the Bosnian Serb Armyand Ante Gotovina, former General of the Croatian Army.
Haradinaj's trial began at The Hague on
March 5 2007[ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030100536.html Washington Post/Associated Press, "Ex-Kosovo PM Pleads Innocent at Hague", March 1, 2007] ] and the closing brief was given on 23rd of January 2008. [ [http://iwpr.net/?p=tri&s=f&o=342239&apc_state=henhicr Closing Arguments in Haradinaj Trial] ] The final decision of the ICTY was expected in March 2008.
On 3rd of April 2008, ICTY issued a public notice of the Haradinaj verdict, in which he was acquitted of all charges. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7328148.stm Hague court acquits Kosovo ex-PM] from
On 31st of July 2008,
Radovan Karadzicappeared in front of the judges of the tribunal for the first time in 13 years.
Those defendants on trial and those who were denied a provisional release are detained at the United Nations Detention Unit on the premises of the Penitentiary Institution Haaglanden, location Scheveningen, located some 3 km by road from the courthouse. The indicted are housed in private cells which have a toilet, shower, radio, satellite TV and other comforts. They are allowed to phone family and friends daily and can have conjugal visits (Serb general Nebojsa Pavkovic became a father at the age of 59 as a result of one such visitFact|date=September 2008). There is also a library, a gym and various rooms used for religious observances. The inmates are even allowed to cook for themselves. All of the inmates mix freely and are not segregated on the basis of nationality. The prison is often called "the most humane prison on earth".
*Ackerman, J.E. and O'Sullivan, E.: "Practice and procedure of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: with selected materials for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda", The Hague, KLI, 2000.
*Aldrich, G.H.: "Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", American Journal of International Law, 1996, pp. 64-68.
*Bassiouni, M.C.: "The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal of the Former Yugoslavia", New York, Transnational Publications, 1996.
*Boelaert-Suominen, S.: "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) anno 1999: its place in the international legal system, mandate and most notable jurisprudence", Polish Yearbook of International Law, 2001, pp. 95-155.
*Boelaert-Suominen, S.: "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Conflict", International Review of the Red Cross, 2000, pp. 217-251.
*Cassese, Antonio: "The ICTY: A Living and Vital Reality”, Journal of International Criminal Justice Vol.2", 2004, No.2, pp. 585-597
*Cisse, C.: "The International Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda: some elements of comparison", Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, 1997, pp. 103-118.
*Clark, R.S. and SANN, M.: "A critical study of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", European Journal of International Law, 1997, pp. 198-200.
*Goldstone, R.J.: "Assessing the work of the United Nations war crimes tribunals", Stanford Journal of International Law, 1997, pp. 1-8.
*Ivković, S.K.: "Justice by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", Stanford Journal of International Law, 2001, pp. 255-346.
*Jones, J.W.R.D.: "The practice of the international criminal tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda", New York, Transnational, 2000.
*Kaszubinski, M.: "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", in: Bassiouni, M.C. (ed.), "Post-conflict justice", New York, Transnational, 2002, pp. 459-585.
*Kerr, R.: "International judicial intervention: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", International Relations, 2000, pp. 17-26.
*Kerr, R.: "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: an exercise in law, politics and diplomacy", Oxford, OUP, 2004.
*King, F. and La Rosa, A.: "Current Developments. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", B.T.I.R., 1997, pp. 533-555.
*Klip, A. and Sluiter, G.: "Annotated leading cases of international criminal tribunals; (Vol. III) The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 2000-2001", Schoten, Intersentia, 2003.
*Köchler, Hans: "Global Justice or Global Revenge? International Criminal Justice at the Crossroads", Vienna/New York, Springer, 2003, pp. 166-184.
*Kolb, R.: "The jurisprudence of the Yugoslav and Rwandan Criminal Tribunals on their jurisdiction and on international crimes", British Yearbook of International Law, 2001, pp. 259-315.
*Lamb, S.: "The powers of arrest of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", British Yearbook of International Law, 2000, pp. 165-244.
*Lescure, K.: "International justice for former Yugoslavia: the working of the International Criminal Tribunal of the Hague", The Hague, KLI, 1996.
*McDonald, G.K.: "Reflections on the contributions of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 2001, pp. 155-172.
*Mettraux, G.: "Crimes against humanity in the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda", Harvard International Law Journal, 2002, pp. 237-316.
*Morris, V. and Scharf, M.P.: "An insider's guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", African Yearbook of International Law, 1995, pp. 441-446.
*Murphy, S.D.: "Progress and jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", American Journal of International Law, 1999, pp. 57-96.
*Panovsky, D.: "Some war crimes are not better than others: the failure of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia to prosecute war crimes in Macedonia", Northwestern University Law Review, 2004, pp. 623-655.
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International Criminal Court
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Global Justice or Global Revenge?
Arrest and prosecution of Radovan Karadžić
* [http://www.un.org/icty/ Official website of ICTY]
International Progress Organization: [http://i-p-o.org/yu-tribunal.htm Monitoring of the ICTY]
* [http://hrw.org/reports/2004/ij/digest.pdf Topical digests of the case law of ICTR and ICTY, Human Rights Watch, 2004]
* [http://www.haguejusticeportal.net/ Hague Justice Portal] : Academic gateway to The Hague organisations concerning international peace, justice and security.
* [http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rapport_gb.pdf Why Journalists Should be Worried by the Rwanda Tribunal Precedents (deals also with ICTY) by Thierry Cruvellier for Reporters Without Borders]
* [http://www.sense-agency.com SENSE News Agency] , a special project based in ICTY
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