Iraqi Republican Guard


Iraqi Republican Guard

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= Iraqi Republican Guard


caption=Republican Guard Forces Command insignia
dates=
country= Iraq
allegiance=
branch=
type=
role=
size=
command_structure=
garrison=
garrison_label=
nickname=
patron=
motto=
colors= Red berets
colors_label=
march=
mascot=
equipment= T-72 tanks, Lion of Babylon tank, AK-47 assualt rifles
equipment_label=
battles=
*Iran-Iraq War
*Gulf War
**Invasion of Kuwait
**Battle of Khafji
**Battle of 73 Easting
**Battle of Phase Line Bullet
**Battle of Wadi Al-Batin
*1991 uprisings in Iraq
*2003 Invasion of Iraq
**Battle of Baghdad (2003)
anniversaries=
decorations=
battle_honours=
disbanded=May 23, 2003
commander1=
commander1_label=
commander2=
commander2_label=
commander3=
commander3_label=
notable_commanders=Saddam HusseinRaad Majid al-Hamadani
Majeid Hussein Al-Dulaimi
identification_symbol=
identification_symbol_label=
identification_symbol_2=
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identification_symbol_3=
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identification_symbol_4=
identification_symbol_4_label=
aircraft_attack=
aircraft_bomber=
aircraft_electronic=
aircraft_fighter=
aircraft_helicopter=
aircraft_helicopter_attack=Mil Mi-24
aircraft_helicopter_cargo=
aircraft_helicopter_multirole=
aircraft_helicopter_observation=
aircraft_helicopter_transport=
aircraft_helicopter_utility=
aircraft_interceptor=
aircraft_patrol=
aircraft_recon=
aircraft_trainer=
aircraft

The Iraqi Republican Guard (Arabic: الحرس العراقي الجمهوري/al-Haris Al-Jamhuri) was a branch of the Iraqi military. Later expanded into the Republican Guard Corps and then the Republican Guard Forces Command. Formed in 1980, it was originally formed to be Saddam Hussein's bodyguard but was expanded into a large military force, rather like the Waffen-SS. It was disbanded during the Second Gulf War. Members were highly motivated volunteers rather than conscripts. They were given bonuses, new cars and subsidized housing. All had more and better training than the regular army; and all had the most modern equipment, including the Soviet T-72 tank with night vision capability.

The Republican Guard were the elite troops of the Iraqi army under Saddam, unlike the paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam and the ordinary Iraqi Army. They were easily recognizable because they had red berets instead of the ordinary black.

Iran-Iraq War

Created in 1980 as an all-volunteer Presidential Guard brigade from during the Iran-Iraq war, which participated in its final part, with the primary objective of maintaining stability of the regime and protection against internal and external enemies. Initially it was a body of limited number of components, but after the conflict Iran-Iraq was strengthened and new units were added which totaled five brigades by 1986.

By 1986 the war had exhausted Iraq with both Iran and Iraq suffering heavy casualties. Iran had by then captured Al Faw and generally pushed Iraqi forces back to the prewar borders. This Caused the Iraqi Ba'ath Party to convene the Ba'ath Extraordinary Congress of July 1986. During this Congress the Ba'ath party decided on a new strategy to overhaul the Iraqi military and deal with Iraq's military manpower storage. They then began a mass mobilization program which forced draft dodgers into the Iraqi Popular Army and then they closed all colleges and universities with no announcement of when they would reopen. This left thousands of university students available to be conscripted. They were then instructed to attend a military summer camp. At this time it was announced that the RG would now accept Sunni "volunteers" from all over Iraq. Although thousands volunteered many did not and they were returned to the military summer camps to be "persuaded" to reconsider their decisions.

With this massive influx of manpower the RG expanded to over 25 brigades which were led by loyal officers drawn from the Iraq military. This force then conducted the "Tawakalna ala Allah" operations which recaptured the Al Faw and initially stablized the front and then pushed the Iranians back.

Invasion of Kuwait

By 1 August 1990, there were eight RGFC divisions (two armored, one mechanized, one special forces and four infantry) between Basrah and the Kuwaiti border. With almost 140,000 troops, 1,500 tanks and infantry vehicles, plus artillery, and supply and support services.On 2 August 1990, the Republican Guard spearheaded Iraqi forces in the Invasion of Kuwait which lasted four days and were they outnumbered the Kuwaitis 26 to 1. They conducted the attack so quickly that much of Kuwait's military vehicles never left their motor pool. At 0200 hours, Iraq launched an invasion with four elite Iraqi Republican Guard divisions (1st Hammurabi Armoured Division, 2nd al-Medinah al-Munawera Armoured Division, 3rd Tawalkalna ala-Allah Mechanized Infantry Division and 6th Nebuchadnezzar Motorized Infantry Division) and Iraqi Army special forces units equivalent to a full division. The main thrust was conducted by the commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack Kuwait City, while the other divisions seized the airports and two airbases.

Afterwards the RG was withdrawn and redeployed into strategic reserve positions.

The Republican Guard Forces Command was divided into two Corps, an independent division, twenty special forces (commando) brigades, and one naval infantry brigade. The
* 1st RG Corps, deployed in southern Iraq and northern Kuwait, consisted of:
** two armored units, the Hammurabi and Madina Divisions;
** one mechanized infantry unit, the Tawakalna Division; and
** one motorized infantry unit the Al-Faw Division.
* 2d RG Corps deployed south of Baghdad consisted of
** two motorized infantry units the Nebuchadnezzar and the Adnan Divisions.
* The independent mechanized infantry unit was the Baghdad Division, stationed in and around the Iraqi capital. This RGFC mechanized division was stationed in Baghdad throughout the Gulf War.
* Independent As Saiqa Special Forces Division
** Marine Brigade deployed on Kuwait's nine islands, all of which with the exception of Failaka Island are uninhabited. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-82709/Bubiyan Bubiyan (island, Kuwait) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] The Brigade was headquartered on Bubiyan, with an area of 860 km² is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a 2,380 m long bridge. [ [http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0000613 Structurae [en: Bubiyan Bridge (1983)] ]

The First Gulf War

"See articles Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm"

The RG expanded further into the Republican Guard Forces Command and consisted of the following units during the Gulf War:Fact|date=August 2008
* 1st "Hammurabi" Armoured Division
* 2nd "al-Medinah al-Munawera" Armoured Division
* 3rd "Tawakalna ala-Allah" Mechanised Division
* 4th "Al Faw" Mechanised Division
* 5th "Bagdad" Mechanised Division - a square division with four brigades
* 6th "Nebuchadnezzar" Mechanised Division
* 7th "Adnan" Mechanised Division
* 8th "As Saiqa" Special Forces Division - contained a Marine Brigade, an parachute brigade, and a Special Forces Brigade.

The RG also included two Corps Headquarters, the Allah Akbar RG Operations Command", composed of infantry and armoured units. And the "Fat'h al-Mubayyin RG Operations Command," and numerous field support units, artillery, supply, etc., and many Commando units of company and battalion size. Between the invasion of Kuwait and the start of the war on January 17, 1991, four more RGFC internal security divisions were formed which remained behind in Iraq. Other sources report this development as 'in January 1991, the formation of five more Republican Guard divisions was announced -- all motorized infantry. The names of only three of them were identified: the Al-Abed, Al-Mustafa ('The Elect'), and Al-Nidala Divisions.' They may have conducted operations against Kurdish forces in the north.

During the First Gulf War, the U.S. VII Corps assembled in full strength and launched an armoured attack into Iraq early Sunday, February 24, just to the west of Kuwait, taking Iraqi forces by surprise. Simultaneously, the U.S. XVIII Airborne Corps launched a sweeping “left-hook” attack across the largely undefended desert of southern Iraq, led by the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized). Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the Republican Guard.

Both sides exchanged fire, but the Republican guard divisions, worn down by weeks of aerial bombardment, proved unable to withstand the Allied advance. Tank battles, including the Battle of Medina Ridge and the Battle of 73 Easting, flared as the Republican Guard attempted to retreat. The Allies won with minimal losses while inflicting heavy losses on the Iraqis.

Between the Iraq Wars

All the eight other division were involved in the fighting and the Tarrakalma Division was so battered that it was disbanded. The other formations led the suppression of the 1991 uprisings in northern and southern Iraq - the Kurdish insurgency in the north and the Shi'ite uprising in the east. During these times, there were numerous accusations of the use of poison gas, rape and torture.

Though it was reduced to a strength of seven or eight divisions, the RGFC was reconstituted with what resources were available, stripping equipment from Army heavy divisions.

Second Iraq War

"See article: Operation Iraqi Freedom"

It is subordinate to the "Special Security Apparatus of the State" and not the Ministry of Defence as is the regular Iraqi army. This split into two Corps, one for the defense and control of northern Iraq, called "Allah Akbar Operations Command", composed of infantry and armoured units. And the "Fat'h al-Mubayyin Operations Command" composed primarily of armored and mechanized units, which is located in the southern part of the country. In 2002, it was reported that the Republican Guard and the Fedayeen Saddam were both training in urban warfare and in guerrilla warfare. It is believed by some that some of the former Republican Guard forces loyal to Saddam Hussein are still fighting on the ground as guerrilla insurgents after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

The Republican Guard then consisted of between 50,000 and 60,000 men (although some sources indicate up to 80,000), all volunteers, and some 400 Soviet tanks T-72 and T-62 along with other mechanized vehicles. These forces are intentionally away from the capital to avert a possible rebellion against the regime. The members of this body of the army are better paid, equipped, armed and trained corps that regularly get facilities to buy houses and give them other privileges to ensure loyalty to the regime and by extension Saddam.

During the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, was the Republican Guard responsible for carrying out the invasion and occupation, made without opposition by the Kuwaiti army. Once the international coalition it was decided to participate in the conflict, five divisions were withdrawn from Kuwait to the Iraqi border to serve as reserve forces, being replaced by regular army troops. The Nebuchadnezzar divisions, Tawakalna, Adnan Al-Nida and were punished harshly during Operation Desert Storm and still between 70% of men and 50% of armoured escaped the siege of the coalition. In the second Gulf war, before U.S. troops had entered Baghdad and according to information Walid Rabbah, the CIA agents infiltrated through the initiative of volunteers "Human Shields" came into contact with members of the first and second ladder of command of the Republican Guard to ensure an influx of American troops in Baghdad without problems. In that pact, allegedly signed by Donald Rumsfeld, included transportation insurance for themselves and their families outside Iraq, large sums of money, the promise of official positions in Iraq post-invasion for those who had not committed war crimes, including U.S. residency and citizenship for some key leaders. Of course, the soldiers were unaware that their superiors had agreed the surrender of Baghdad and even less the Fedayeen, which were abandoned to their fate once the armed conflict officially ended. [More information on the case of the [http://www.countercurrents.org/iraq-rabah17403.htm surrender of Baghdad] text published by Walid Rabbah in English and in Spanish papers.]

Order of battle

*1st Republican Guard (Northern) Corps
**2nd "Al Medina" Armored Division
**5th "Baghdad" Mechanized Division; a square division of four brigades, was able to be split into two small half-divisions.
**7th "Adnan" Infantry Division

*2nd Republican Guard (Southern) Corps
**"Al Nida" Armored Division
**6th "Nebuchadnezzer" Mechanized Division
**1st "Hammurabi" Armored Division

*"As Saiqa" Special Forces Division - independent unit containing:
** A Special Forces brigade,
**Paratroop Brigade,
**Marine Brigade and
** numerous Commando units.

*Special Republican Guard
**1st Brigade (Security)
**2nd Brigade (Combat)
**3rd Brigade (Combat)
**4th Brigade (Armored)
**Air Defense Command (Two Regiments, Three Batteries)
**Tank Command (Two Regiments)

On April 2, 2003, U.S. Brigadier General Vincent Brooks stated that the Baghdad division of the Iraqi Republican Guard had been "destroyed". Iraq information minister Muhammed Saeed al-Sahaf responded that this was another American "lie". [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-04-02-baghdad-guard_x.htm USATODAY.com - U.S.: Baghdad division of Republican Guard destroyed] ] [ [http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/04/07/sprj.irq.sahaf/ CNN.com - Sahaf: U.S. troops will be burned] ]

The End

The RG was officially dissolved on May 23, 2003 per Order Number 2 of the Coalition Provisional Authority under Paul Bremer. [ [http://www.iraqcoalition.org/regulations/20030823_CPAORD_2_Dissolution_of_Entities_with_Annex_A.pdf Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2: Dissoulution of Entities] ]

The aftermath

It is believed that some if not many members of the RG joined several of the insurgent groups currently operating in Iraq such as the Return.

In popular culture

In the hit TV series "Lost", Sayid Jarrah, a main character, served in the Republican Guard during the Gulf War. During his service in the first Gulf War he was a soldier and a torture artist. Most of his background story revolves around the guilt he has felt towards people he's tortured in the past.

The video game series feature soldiers of the Iraqi Republican Guard as the main enemies.

The video game features the Iraqi Republican Guard as the main enemies in the first episode, Iraq.

Legendary Texas comedian Bill Hicks referred to the "Elite Republican Guard" in some of his routines. He mentioned the media downplaying our success in Iraq during the First Gulf War because "We still have not faced the Elite Republican Guard". He went on to say that after we bloaded Iraq, the media no longer used the term "Elite".

References

Further reading

*Watson, Bruce, Military Lessons of the Gulf War, Greenhill Books, London, 1993.(paperback)

*Jane's Intelligence Review: January 2002 (IAF/IAAC), February 1999(regional commands), January 1999 (SRG), September 1997 (Army/RG), February 1995, and March 1993

ee also

*Republican Guard
*List of protective service agencies
*Imperial Guard
*Royal Guard
*Swiss Guard
*Presidential Security Service
*United States Secret Service
*National guard
*Home guard

External links

* [http://www.rjlee.org/iraq2002-1.htm Key Components of the Iraqi Ground Forces]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/mar/25/military.iraq The Republican Guard: outgunned and outnumbered, but they never surrender]
* [http://www.cns.miis.edu/research/iraq/rguard.htm CNS article]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/rg.htm Global Security article]
* [http://www.fas.org/irp/world/iraq/rg/index.html FAS article]
* [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-27-republican-guard-cover_x.htm Republican Guard gets last chance against U.S. forces] (USA Today)


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