A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. [ [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/paramilitary Wiktionary definition] ] The term uses the Greek prefix "para-" ("beside"), also seen in words such as "
The term "paramilitary" is subjective, depending on what is considered similar to a military force, and what status a force is considered to have. The nature of paramilitary forces therefore varies greatly according to the speaker and the context. For instance, in
Northern Ireland, paramilitary refers to any illegally armed group with a political purpose, but in Colombia, paramilitary refers specifically to illegally armed groups which are considered right-wing (for example AUC), while illegally armed groups considered left-wing, such as FARC, are referred to as guerrillas. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1738963.stm BBC News website: Colombian civil conflict] ]
Depending on context, paramilitaries can include:
* Auxiliary services of regular armed forces, such as the
United States Coast Guard Auxiliaryand the Civil Air Patrol, or the Canadian Rangers.
* Some National Intelligence Services units that are composed of civilian agents tasked with covert action in areas that are difficult or sometimes illegal for Military Forces to operate, such as the
Special Activities Divisionof the US Central Intelligence Agency.
Internal Security, Border Protection and Law Enforcement organizations that are not considered part of the regular Military but are similar in training, equipment and/or organization. Examples include the Internal Troopsof the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs(MVD), the Egyptian Central Security Forcesand India's Border Security Force. There is sometimes overlap between these and armed forces auxiliaries. They may be administratively separate from the military, especially in countries where the military is forbidden or restricted in law enforcement, or the unit's role may differ from the military's, or offer a special service. India's National Security Guardsis a special counter-terrorismparamilitary force and Pakistan's Northern Light Infantry(now a part of the army) was trained and conditioned to fight at altitudes of 20,000 feet and greater.
* These law enforcement agencies may include police forces organized along military or semi-military lines, sometimes called
gendarmeries, such as:
Royal Irish Constabulary,
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and
Hong Kong Police Force.
militia, irregular military, armed resistance movements and guerillaforces which consider themselves military but which governments may consider rebel or terrorist, for example Provisional IRA, Ulster Volunteer Force, and United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia(AUC).
* Private armies and
* Militarized preexisting government agencies, such as
SWATteams and Black Cats. [http://www.cato.org/pubs/wtpapers/balko_whitepaper_2006.pdf"Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America" by Radley Balko of the Cato Institute] ]
*Youth groups and movements that can be considered 'militarized' to various degrees, the
Hitler Youthmovement being perhaps the most notorious example. Modern examples include military cadet movements such as the British Army Cadet Force, Sea Cadets, Air Training Corpsand the Combined Cadet Force. Other nations also have such organisations such as the Australian Defence Force Cadets, the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corpsand India's National Cadet Corps.
Combined Cadet Force
Vlaamse Militanten Orde
Weimar paramilitary groups
Indian Paramilitary forces
SS, SA, and Blackshirts
Special Weapons and Tactics
Territorial Defense Forces (Yugoslavia)
* [http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/colombia/ Human Rights Watch, Colombia and Military-Paramilitary Links]
* [http://www.paramilitarynews.com/ Paramilitary News]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/index.html Global Security]
* [http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-groups.cfm List of Terrorist Groups]
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Look at other dictionaries:
paramilitary — ► ADJECTIVE ▪ organized on similar lines to a military force. ► NOUN (pl. paramilitaries) ▪ a member of a paramilitary organization … English terms dictionary
paramilitary — (adj.) 1935, from PARA (Cf. para ) + MILITARY (Cf. military) … Etymology dictionary
paramilitary — [par΄ə mil′ə ter΄ē] adj. [ PARA 1 + MILITARY] designating or of forces working along with, or in place of, a regular military organization, often as a semiofficial or secret auxiliary … English World dictionary
paramilitary — [[t]pæ̱rəmɪ̱lɪtri, AM teri[/t]] paramilitaries 1) ADJ: ADJ n A paramilitary organization is organized like an army and performs either civil or military functions in a country. Searches by the army and paramilitary forces have continued today...… … English dictionary
paramilitary — I UK [ˌpærəˈmɪlɪt(ə)rɪ] / US [ˌperəˈmɪˌlɪterɪ] adjective 1) organized and operating like an army an outlawed paramilitary group 2) providing support for an army or other military organization a paramilitary police force II UK [ˌpærəˈmɪlɪt(ə)rɪ] / … English dictionary
paramilitary — par|a|mil|i|ta|ry [ˌpærəˈmılıtəri US teri] adj [usually before noun] 1.) a paramilitary organization is an illegal group that is organized like an army ▪ extremist paramilitary groups 2.) relating to, or helping a military organization ▪ the… … Dictionary of contemporary English
paramilitary — adjective (usually before noun) 1 a paramilitary organization fights and kills people illegally in order to achieve political aims: extremist paramilitary groups 2 connected with or helping a military organization: Their police have paramilitary… … Longman dictionary of contemporary English
paramilitary — adjective Date: 1935 of, relating to, being, or characteristic of a force formed on a military pattern especially as a potential auxiliary military force < a paramilitary border patrol > < paramilitary training > • paramilitary noun … New Collegiate Dictionary
paramilitary — par|a|mil|i|tar|y1 [ ,perə mı,lıteri ] adjective 1. ) organized and operating like an army: an outlawed paramilitary group 2. ) providing support for an army or other military organization: a paramilitary police force par|a|mil|i|tar|y2 [ ,perə… … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
paramilitary — 1. noun /ˌpɛrəˈmɪlɪˌtɛri/ a) a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion, but which do not represent the formal forces of a sovereign power. b) a member of a paramilitary group 2. adjective /ˌpɛrəˈmɪlɪˌtɛri/ relating to a… … Wiktionary