bigotry, discrimination, prejudiceor hatredarising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions within a group, such as between different denominations of a religionor the factions of a political movement.
ideologicalunderpinnings of attitudes and behaviors labeled as sectarian are extraordinarily varied. Members of a religious or political group may feel that their own salvation, or success of their particular objectives, requires aggressively seeking converts from other groups; adherents of a given faction may believe that for the achievement of their own political or religious project their internal opponents must be purged. Sometimes a group feeling itself to be under economic or political pressure will attack members of another group thought to be responsible for its own decline. It may also more rigidly define the definition of "orthodox" belief within its particular group or organisation, and expel or excommunicate those who do not agree with this newfound clarified definition of political or religious 'orthodoxy.' In other cases, dissenters from this orthodoxy will secede from the orthodox organisation and proclaim themselves as practitioners of a reformed belief system, or holders of a perceived former orthodoxy. At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or exploited by demagogues.
A sectarian conflict usually refers to violent conflict along religious and political lines such as the conflicts between
Catholicsand Protestantsin Northern Ireland(although political beliefs, ethnicity and class-divisions all played major roles as well). It may also refer to general philosophical, political or armed conflict between different schools of thought such as that between Shiaand Sunni Muslims. Non-sectarians espouse that free association and tolerance of different beliefs are the cornerstone to successful peaceful human interaction. They espouse political and religious pluralism.
Sectarianism is present in all parts of the world. Wherever religious sectarians compete, religious sectarianism is found in varying forms and degrees. In some areas, religious sectarians (for example Protestant and Catholic
Christiansin the United States) now exist peacefully side-by-side for the most part. In others, some nominal Catholics and Protestants have been in fierce conflict – one recent example of this was in Northern Ireland, although the conflict was condemned by some Catholic and all Protestant leaders. Within Islam, there has been conflict at various periods between Sunnis and Shias; certain Sunni sects inspired by Wahhabismand other ideologies have declared Shias (and sometimes mainstream Sunnis) to be heretics and/or apostates [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7181042.stm] . Iraqand Pakistanare two notable contemporary examples.
:"See also: the Troubles,
Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland"
Since the 17th century, there has been sectarian conflict of varying intensity in
Ireland. This religious sectarianism is bound up with nationalism. This has been particularly intense in Northern Ireland since the Irish Free Statebecame independent in 1922. Irish emigrationhas taken this conflict to other lands, including Scotland(with some fans of football clubs such as Rangers and Celtic indulging in sectarian chants) (see: " Sectarianism in Glasgow"), Newfoundland, Canada's Maritime provinces, New York State, Ontario, Liverpool, and elsewhere. See also Know-Nothingsfor anti-Catholicsentiment in the United States.
In Catholic countries, Protestants have historically been persecuted as heretics. For example, the substantial Protestant population of
France(the Huguenots) was expelled from the kingdom in the 1680s following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In Spain, the Inquisition sought to root out not only Protestantismbut also crypto-Jewsand crypto-Muslims (" moriscos"); elsewhere the Papal Inquisition held similar goals.
In most places where Protestantism is the majority or 'official' religion, there have been examples of Catholics being persecuted. In countries where the
Reformationwas successful, this often lay in the perception that Catholics retained allegiance to a 'foreign' power ( the Papacy), causing them to be regarded with suspicion. Sometimes this mistrust manifested itself in Catholics being subjected to restrictions and discrimination, which itself led to further conflict. For example, before Catholic Emancipationin 1829, Catholics were forbidden from voting, becoming MP's or buying land in Ireland.
Today, bigotry and discrimination in employment are usually relegated a few places where extreme forms of religion are the norm, or in areas with a long history of sectarian violence and tension, such as Northern Ireland (especially in terms of employment; however, this is dying out in this jurisdiction, thanks to strictly-enforced legislation.
Reverse discriminationnow takes place in terms of employment quotas which are now applied). In places where more 'moderate' forms of Protestantism (such as Anglicanism/ Episcopalianism) prevail, the two traditions do not become polarized against each other, and usually co-exist peacefully. Especially in England, sectarianism is nowadays almost unheard of. However in Western Scotland(where Calvinismand Presbyterianismare the norm) sectarian divisions can still sometimes arise between Catholics and Protestants. Indeed, in the early years following the Scottish Reformationthere was actually internal sectarian tension between Church of ScotlandPresbyterians and ' High Church' Anglicans, whom they regarded as having retained too many attitudes and practices from the Catholic era.
The civil wars in the
Balkanswhich followed the breakup of Yugoslaviahave been heavily tinged with sectarianism. Croatsand Sloveneshave traditionally been Catholic, Serbsand Macedonians Eastern Orthodox, and Bosniaksand most AlbaniansMuslim. Religious affiliation served as a marker of group identity in this conflict, despite relatively low rates of religious practice and belief among these various groups after decades of communism.
Protestant Ascendancy and anti-Irishness as founding cultures of the nascent Australia
During the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Australia was a sectarian society divided between Catholics — predominantly but not exclusively of Irish background — on the one hand and Protestants of British heritage on the other [Rickard, Jonathon. "Australia: A Cultural History." London: Longman (1996), p. 88.] . The
British militaryauthorities who founded the penal colonyof New South Walesin 1788 brought anti-Catholic, Anglican Ascendancy sectarianism with them [Hughes, Robert. "The Fatal Shore." London: Harvill (1986), p. 352] : the settlement was perpetually on high alert in case of risings led by exiled Irish political prisoners [Ibid., p. 117] [Ibid., p. 194] — there were rebellions in Ireland in 1798 and 1803 and many involved had been transported to Australia [Ibid., p. 116-118] — in the context of war with republican France[Ibid., p. 181-185] . No Catholic chaplains were permitted in the colony for its first thirty years [Rickard. "Australia" (1996), p. 88.] .
Maltreatment of Irish prisoners
In 1804, Irish prisoners staged a successful but doomed uprising. Traditional Protestant British state-hatred of the "Catholic Irish" coalesced with contemporary fears of a pro-French republican fifth column [Ibid., p. 181] and the Irish convicts and settlers — most of whom spoke Irish as their community language until the 1850s [Keneally, Thomas. The Commonwealth of Thieves (2007), p. 380.] — represented a separate
ethnosto be kept under constant suspicion and both formal and informal surveillance [Ibid.] . Ironically, many of the Irish republicanconvicts who were prisoners after the 1798 rebellionwere, in fact, Protestants. Nonetheless, it is recorded that predominantly Catholic Irish-speaking prisoners were frequently singled out for physical maltreatment by the authorities [Ibid., p. 148] [Ibid., p. 181-184] [Ibid., p. 480] and sometimes murdered by English convicts for speaking Irish on the basis that it was a conspiratorial tongue [Ibid., p. 227.] .
Loyalism as state culture
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the immediate threat of an Irish convict seizure of the penal colony largely evaporated, though
anti-Irishand anti-Catholic suspicions did not, particularly given the massive Irish migration occurring as a consequence of the Great Irish Faminebetween 1845-1849. Irish involvement in the Eureka Stockadein 1854 and the transportation of Fenians(including their subsequent rescue) in the 1860s meant loyalism and Protestant ascendancy (including Orangeism[Knightley, Philip. "Australia: A Biography of a Nation." London: Vintage (2001), p. 57] ) remained pre-eminent values in the colony in the second half of the nineeteenth century, with most Protestant Australians of English and Scottish background strongly attached to British imperialismas their core identities [Ibid.] — at the time, British imperialism, loyalism and notions of innate Protestant and Anglo-Saxon supremacywere mutually reinforcing [Rickard. "Australia" (1996), p. 89-90] , though some Catholics in the Australian colonies attained positions of power by adopting vocally loyalist public postures [See, for example, the experience of Peter Lalor.] .
Position of Irish Catholics and Anglo-Scottish Protestants
However, because Irish Catholics were a greater proportion of the population in Australia than they had been in the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[Rickard., "America" (1996), p. 36] , they enjoyed an ostensibly more level playing field when it came to community relations. This was particularly noticeable in civic society, where the increasingly urban Irish Catholicpopulation played a disproportionate role in the labour movement(including the foundation of the Australian Labor Party) in direct opposition to the disproportionate role in business played by Anglicans and Presbyterians who were typically involved in conservativepolitics [ [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/relrpt/stories/s938041.htm The Religion Report: 3 September 2003 - Sectarianism Australian style ] ] . Sectarian antipathy between the two blocs characterised Australian society and politics in the 1920s and 1930s [ Rickard. "Australia" (1996), p. 147.] with Protestants using Freemasonryto express a solidarity based on social and political anti-Catholic attitudes [Ibid., p. 180.] [Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 96] . This developed into a strong and mythic tendency — sustained until the 1950s — for most Catholics to vote Labor and for most Anglicans, Presbyterians and Methodists to vote for their conservative opponents [Ibid.] .
Events in Ireland affect Australia
Towards the end of nineteenth century and in the first half of the twentieth century, growing unrest in Ireland — for example, the
Land War— constantly fed sectarian tensions between Catholics of Irish nationalistbackground and Protestants of British unionistbackground [Rickard. Australia: A Cultural History (1996), p. 119] . This divide became starkly and bitterly apparent during the First World War: Anglo-ScottishProtestants were reflexively enthusiastic supporters of the war and conscription, in line with the establishment culture of loyalism [Ibid.] ; conversely, Irish Catholics were reflexively critical of both [Coogan, Tim Pat. Wherever Green is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora. London: Arrow (2000)] [Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 80] . When the Australian governmenttried to introduce conscription it was defeated — on two occasions by referendum[Ibid., p. 81] ) — leading to a split in the ALP. Prominent Irish Catholic campaigners against the war and conscription such as Archbishop Daniel Mannix[Ibid., p. 80.] were widely denounced in public as traitors by Protestants [Ibid.] [Rickard. "Australia" (1996), p. 119] . The 1916 Easter Risingin Ireland heightened the anti-Irish and anti-Catholic atmosphere, even though most prominent Catholics — including Archbishop Mannix — condemned the Rising [See Daniel Mannix.] .
Empire loyalism resurgent
Irish War of Independenceworsened community relations in Australia even further [Ibid.] . Anglo-AustralianProtestants saw the First World War as a definitive loyalist experience in which Australia had contributed significantly to the honour and prestige of the British Empireand organised loyalist rallies to counter those calling for Irish self-government[Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 96-97.] ; with the same reasoning, they considered Irish Australian Catholics with Irish nationalist sympathies to be treacherous [Rickard. A Cultural History of Australia (1996), p. 119] — regardless of the fact that large numbers of Irish Australian Catholics had signed up, fought in the Australian contingents of the British army and been killed in Europe [Ibid.] . Anglo-Australian Protestant ex-serviceman formed loyalist paramilitaryorganisations [Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 100] in preparation for a final confrontation with Irish Australian Catholics in an atmosphere of severe sectarian and ethnic suspicion [Ibid., p. 97-98] [Rickard. "Australia" (1996), p. 119] . After the Anglo-Irish Treaty, partition of Irelandand Irish Civil War, sectarianism became less explicit but did not disappear [Ibid., p. 190] : Australian conservatives — primarily Protestant — were still strongly loyalist and antipathetic to the existence of the 'disloyal' Irish Free State[Coogan. Wherever Green Is Worn (2000)] .
econd World War
Nevertheless, with the entry of Australia into the
Second World Warthere was no repeat of the public anti-Catholic denunciations that had characterised society in 1914, even when in 1941 the British garrison at Singapore fell to the Japanese, leaving Australia largely undefended [Rickard. Australia: A Cultural History (1996)] . Large numbers of Catholics and Protestants alike joined up to fight with Australian formations during the war. Similarly, when Australian troops fought in the Korean Warand Viet Nam War, sectarianism did not pit Protestant against Catholic in supporting or opposing either conflict. The coronation of Queen Elizabeth in 1953 and her tour around Australia in 1954 did not attract sectarian comment [Macintyre. A Concise History of Australia (2000)] , either in terms of calls of 'disloyalty' from Anglo-Australian Protestants to Irish Australian Catholics, or in terms of calls of 'fawning' from vice versa. One commentator considers that anti-Catholic sectarianism in Australia expired in the 1950s when the predominantly Protestant conservative government of the time agreed to state aid for Catholic schools [ [http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/10/04/1096871814394.html New life for that old time sectarianism - Gerard Henderson - www.smh.com.au ] ] .
Nonetheless, the Australia of the 1950s was still an Australia in which notions of Catholicism and Protestantism, loyalism and disloyalism, were of everyday noteworthiness. Catholics were still associated with Irishness, and Protestants with Britishness [Rickard. Australia: A Cultural History (1996)] , though as Australia developed further away from Britain the division became less bitter. This was enabled in part by the mass migration in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s of large numbers of non-British and non-Irish settlers, primarily from
Italy, Greece, Malta, and Eastern Europe. Old enmities simply made less sense in this new cosmopolitan demographic environment [Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 336.] .
What is more, the entry of Britain into the
Common Marketin 1973 devalued the long-cherished Anglo-Australian Protestant value of loyalism [Ibid.] . Around the same time, republicanism in Australia, largely divested of its historical insinuations, became a real possibility with the election of — and subsequent dismissal of — the WhitlamLabor Government [Rickard. Australia: A Cultural History (1996)] [Macintyre. A Concise History of Australia (2000)] , which dismantled many of the old imperial symbolism that had hitherto characterised Australian public office [ Knightley. Australia: A Biograohy of a Nation (2000)] These reforms were continued during the 1980s and led, ultimately, to the Australia Actof 1986 which removed the power of the British Parliamentto legislate for Australia.
Echoes of sectarianism
Thus the old sectarian divide — or, indeed, the British-Irish divide — had largely metamorphosised into a debate around the extent to which Australia, an independent country, should retain symbolic manifestations of its historic links to Britain, though anti-Irish sentiment resurfaced in the 1970s and 1980s. Recognition, however, that sectarianism "as an everyday influence" was a thing of the past was most clearly seen in the Republic referendum campaign in 1999, where a number of commentators suggested that, broadly speaking,
monarchists were more likely to be Protestants of British background and republicans were more likely to be Catholics of Irish background [ [http://members.optushome.com.au/spainter/Referendum.html The republic referendum: a view from the left ] ] [Knightley. "Australia" (2001), p. 344] and that the republic debate itself risked resurrecting sectarian enmity between the two groups. [Ibid., p. 41.]
In contemporary Australia, sectarianism between Catholic and Protestant is extant but minimal and occasionally raises comment [ [http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=230170 PM cut Campbell to attack Rudd: Smith ] ] , though the issue intermittently reappears — for example, in discussion of sexual abuse being associated with certain denominations, or when politicians are said to follow their faith more than the public interest in deciding matters of public policy [ [http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2006/s1777444.htm AM - Abbott discusses religion in politics ] ] [ [http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/stories/s657663.htm Lateline - 23/8/2002: Friday Forum . Australian Broadcasting Corp ] ] . Furthermore, public sectarianism in Australia today is more likely to be manifested in terms of a Christian-Muslim divide than a Catholic-Protestant one, and at least one commentator has stated that sectarianism in contemporary Australia is best described in terms of
secularists versus religious [ [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/relrpt/stories/s938041.htm The Religion Report: 3 September 2003 - Sectarianism Australian style ] ] .
India and Sri Lanka
India, sectarianism is known as communalism, which refers particularly to conflict between the Hinduand Muslim communities. It can also refer to Hindu/ Sikhconflict and Hindu/Christian conflicts. While communalismusually implies economic communalism, in this sense it refers to the sectarians' "community." Violence in Sri Lankabetween the HinduTamil, and the Sinhalese and Muslim communities often has heavy sectarian overtones. In the 1980's for example, the Hindu LTTEgroup expelled all Muslims from areas under its control. The expulsion of Muslims was later used as a model for the expulsion of Kashmiri Hindus from Kashmir in 1990.
Pakistan, there has been a history of sectarian violence and unrest since the 1970s, although much of the violence may be attributed to non-theological clashes over tribal lands, rivalries, and class-disputes. Almost all relations between Shias and Sunnis are peaceful, and there exists a large degree of intermarriage between the two communities. Further, many prominent Shias play an important political role in the country - the late Benazir Bhutto is believed to have been Shia, for example. However, sporadic violence between the two communities is often initiated by extremists on both sides, particularly in South Punjab.
In the early years of sectarian conflict, extremist Sunnis clashed with Ahmadis, until they were declared non-Muslims in 1974 by ultraconservative judges on Pakistan's supreme court; who were handpicked by the Pakistani dictator, General Zia-ul-Haq. The judges were under strong pressure from both Sunnis and Shias to declare the Ahmadis as such. Under continuing rule of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, sectarianism in Pakistan, especially in
Karachiand South Punjab, became quite violent as the began his process of Islamizationbegan in the Pakistani judicial system. Social laws, which had been tolerant of the open-sale of alcohol, intermingling of the sexes, etc. were severely curtailed by Zia's laws, although hardliners in both the Shia and Sunni camps were largely in favor of his restrictions. The process eventually came upon issues in which Sunni and Shia viewpoints differed. In such instances Zia favored the Sunni interpretation of Islam over the Shia one, causing a rift between the two communities.
Because of massive Saudi assistance to Pakistan in the 1980's, Zia began to shift his favor away from local variants of Sunnism (which were largely tolerant of Shias) towards the far more more intolerant Saudi style of Sunnism known as
Wahhabism. Much of the violent sectarian conflict can be attributed to the introduction of Wahabbism, which is fundementally anti-Shia, and gained notoriety in mainstream Sunni Islam after the destruction of the Shia holy shrine of Imam Husseinin Karbala, Iraq, in 1800. Saudi funded arms soon flooded into the country as the Soviets invaded Afghanistan. While the arms were meant to be directed to Afghan fighters, many inevitably ended up in the hands of newly formed Wahhabi paramilitary groups. However, the Wahhabist paramilitary groups attacked not only Shias, but anyone who they felt was not a true Muslim, including Sufis, who have largely influenced the practice of Sunnism in Pakistan.
At the same time, the revolutionary government in
Iranbegan funding local Shia militants in order to combat Wahabbists. The groups would not only exact revenge against Sunnis, but would also attack Iranian dissidents in Pakistan (particularly in Karachi) who were critical of the Iranian regime. The Iranian-backed Shia militant groups, such as the Tehreek-e-Jaffriya, would often battle against Saudi-back Sunni groups. Thus, a proxy-war between Iran and Saudi Arabia raged in Pakistan, while the Americans and Soviets fought a proxy-war in neighboring Afghanistan.
pread of Sectarianism
During the 80's and early 90's, violence spread as Shia mourning processions during the period of
Ashurafrequently came under attack from Saudi-backed Wahabbi extremists. Despite the attacks from Wahabbi extremists, many mainstream Sunnis would visit the processions to show their own reverence for historical Shia figures. However according to Wahabbis, the local Sunnis were acting un-Islamic in their participation in Shia rituals, and were considered legitimate targets as such. In response, Iranian-backed Shia militant groups would often attack Wahabbi mosques, and events staged by Wahabbists. Also at the time, old rivalries took on a more sectarian nature in the areas around Gilgit, and Skarduas Saudi and Iranian paramilitary groups spread their influence.
ectarianism as a Class Conflict in Punjab
In South Punjab, sectarian violence is most deadly. However, violence is often rooted class-disputes, and not theological arguments. Most of the wealthy and powerful estate-owners in the region of Shia, while their tenants are poorer Sunnis. Sectarianism feeds off the class tension, which may explain why sectarianism is more prominent there then elsewhere in Punjab where Sunnis and Shias belong to similar economic classes.
ectarianism as a Triban Conflict in the Northwest Frontier
Tribal clashes between
Pashtuntribes in the Northwest Frontier Province have also taken on a sectarian nature, with the Shia Orakzai tribe often battling with their Sunni neighbors. These clashes are centered around the town of Bannu, and have often turned deadly. However, the conflict is rooted in centuries' old land disputes, and has only taken on a sectarian nature since the the fanatic Taliban regime came into power in nearby Afghanistanin the 1990's.
In the early part of the new millennium, the names of Shia doctors and lawyers were listed on anonymously paid-for newspaper ads; these were, in fact,
assassinationhit lists - those listed were systematically assassinated by extremist the Wahabbistgroup Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, as part of an effort to eradicate the nation of prominent Shias. A new wave sectarian violence erupted when a Sunni suicide bombingof a Shiamosque in Iraq in 2003 took place.
Waning of Violence
Since 2003, sectarianism in Pakistan has considerably waned, and only a few instances of sectarian violence have been reported. Of these, the majority stem from the tribal conflict in Bannu, while attacks in Karachi, Gilgit, and Punjab have almost entirely ceased. This may be largely attributable to a new Saudi hesitance in funding extremist groups in the wake of September 11th, as that coutry is often identified as the ideological birthplace and financial source of radical Sunni extremism
Finally, although sectarianism in the Pakistani context often refers to the conflict between the majority Sunni and minority Shia traditions, this definition is misleading because violence is usually perpetrated by extremists, or sectarianism simply masks older and non-theological rivalries. Further, the two sects are not homogenous, and have their own: subsects, local variants, and different schools of thought. Moreover, up to 20% of Pakistanis are Shia, and the number of attacks in proportion to the size of the community is quite low. Additionally, there are several Shia members of Parliament, and the late
Benazir Bhutto, along with her husband the current President of Pakistan, are reportedly Shia. [cite web
title = Sectarianism in Pakistan: A Destructive Way of Dealing with Difference
publisher = PSRU Publication
url = http://spaces.brad.ac.uk:8080/download/attachments/748/Brief2finalised1.pdf
accessdate = 2007-05-12 ]
Middle East and Asia
Iraq's Shia population was persecuted during the presidency of
Saddam Hussein, and certain elements of the Iraqi insurgencyhave made a point of targeting Shias in sectarian attacks. In turn, the Sunnis have complained of discrimination and human rights abuses by Iraq's Shia majority government, which is bolstered by the fact that Sunni detainees were allegedly discovered to have been tortured in a compound used by government forces on November 15 2005. [cite web
title = Iraqi Sunnis demand abuse inquiry
publisher = BBC News
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4441568.stm
accessdate = 2007-05-12 ] This sectarianism has fueled a giant level of emigration and internal displacement.
Some people advocate an independent nation for the Shias of Iraq. The idea that Iraq could be split into
Kurdistanin the north, Iraq in the center and Basrain the south. The thinking is that if each community is busy nation-building, they would not be attacking each other as they would be within a single country where the communities may be striving for political dominance at expense of other communities instead of working together. British India was split into Hindu-dominant India and Muslim-dominant Pakistan. After a two year trial, Malaysiawas split into Malay-dominant Malaysia and Chinese-dominant Singapore.
Lebanonwas caused because of the political sharing of power. The 1943 National Pact gave the Maronite Christians, the then majority, more power than the other groups. Although the Taif agreementended the civil war, power is still divided along sects.
ectarianism within Judaism
Sectarianism also exists between Orthodox and Reform Jews, with orthodox Jews often characterizing reform Jews as being non-religious, disobeying the
Torah, rarely attending shul and adopting semi-Christian styles of worship.Fact|date=June 2007 Reform Jews, on the other hand, often view the orthodox as being intolerant of them and of other religions, placing legalistic rules such as the observance of the Sabbath above ethical obligations, being cult-like and hostile to change.Fact|date=June 2007
In the political realm, to describe a group as 'sectarian' (or as practicising 'sectarianism'), is to accuse them of prioritizing differences and rivalries with politically close groups. An example might be a
communistgroup who are accused of devoting an excessive amount of time and energy to denouncing other communist groups rather than their common foes. However, separatist fundamentalistProtestant political parties have proliferated, and regularly denounce one another, in New Zealand, as can be seen from the entries on United Future New Zealandand Future New Zealand. Libertarianismseems to be similarly susceptible to fissiparous tendencies of its own.
Another great example is the
Stalinistdenouncing of Trotskyistmovements, and libertarian socialists.
Monty Pythonfilm " The Life of Brian" has a well-known joke in which various Judean groups, who to an outsider are indistinguishable, are more concerned with in-fightingthan with their nominal aim of opposing Roman rule. This is taken to be a parody of modern political groups.
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Sectarianism — Sec*ta ri*an*ism, n. The quality or character of a sectarian; devotion to the interests of a party; excess of partisan or denominational zeal; adherence to a separate church organization. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
sectarianism — index intolerance, schism Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
sectarianism — (n.) 1670s, disposition to petty sects in opposition to things established [Johnson]; see SECTARIAN (Cf. sectarian) + ISM (Cf. ism) … Etymology dictionary
sectarianism — [[t]sekte͟əriənɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Sectarianism is strong support for the religious or political group you belong to, and often involves conflict with other groups. There is a great deal of political rivalry and sectarianism within our movement … English dictionary
sectarianism — sectarian ► ADJECTIVE 1) concerning or deriving from a sect or sects. 2) carried out on the grounds of membership of a sect or other group: sectarian killings. ► NOUN ▪ a member or follower of a sect. DERIVATIVES sectarianism noun … English terms dictionary
sectarianism — noun a narrow minded adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination he condemned religious sectarianism • Syn: ↑denominationalism • Hypernyms: ↑narrow mindedness, ↑narrowness … Useful english dictionary
sectarianism — noun see sectarian I … New Collegiate Dictionary
sectarianism — /sek tair ee euh niz euhm/, n. sectarian spirit or tendencies; excessive devotion to a particular sect, esp. in religion. [1810 20; SECTARIAN + ISM] * * * … Universalium
sectarianism — noun Rigid adherence to a particular sect, party or denomination … Wiktionary
sectarianism — Synonyms and related words: clannishness, clanship, cliqueyness, cliquishness, cliquism, denominationalism, eclecticism, esprit de corps, ethnocentricity, exclusiveness, faction, factionalism, partiality, partisanism, partisanship, party spirit,… … Moby Thesaurus